A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. It is sprung and drawn by four horses. Used before steam-powered rail transport was available a stagecoach made long scheduled trips using stage stations or posts where the stagecoach's horses would be replaced by fresh horses; the business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging. Familiar images of the stagecoach are that of a Royal Mail coach passing through a turnpike gate, a Dickensian passenger coach covered in snow pulling up at a coaching inn, a highwayman demanding a coach to "stand and deliver"; the yard of ale drinking glass is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though it was used for drinking feats and special toasts. The stagecoach was a closed four-wheeled vehicle drawn by hard-going mules, it was used as a public conveyance on an established route to a regular schedule. Spent horses were replaced with fresh horses at posts, or relays.
A simplified and lightened form of stagecoach, known as a stage wagon, mud-coach, or mud-wagon, was used in the United States under difficult conditions. These were the vehicles. In addition to the stage driver or coachman who guided the vehicle, a shotgun messenger armed with a coach gun might travel as a guard beside him. A stagecoach traveled at an average speed of about 5 miles per hour, with the average daily mileage covered being around 60 to 70 miles.'Stage' referred to the distance between stage stations on a route but through metonymy it came to be applied to the stagecoach. The first crude depiction of a coach was in an English manuscript from the 13th century; the first recorded stagecoach route ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the island. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool.
The stagecoach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took ten days to make the journey during the summer months. Stagecoaches became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were performed at coaching inns such as Southwark. By the end of the 17th century stagecoach routes ran down the three main roads in England; the London-York route was advertised in 1698: Whoever is desirous of going between London and York or York and London, Let them Repair to the Black Swan in Holboorn, or the Black Swan in Coney Street, where they will be conveyed in a Stage Coach, which starts every Thursday at Five in the morning. The novelty of this method of transport excited much controversy at the time. One pamphleteer denounced the stagecoach as a "great evil mischievous to trade and destructive to the public health." Another writer, argued that: Besides the excellent arrangement of conveying men and letters on horseback, there is of late such an admirable commodiousness, both for men and women, to travel from London to the principal towns in the country, that the like hath not been known in the world, and, by stage-coaches, wherein any one may be transported to any place, sheltered from foul weather and foul ways.
The speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey - from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach", it was advertised with the following announcement - "However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour.
More dramatic improvements were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office. The postal delivery service in Britain had existed in the same form for about 150 years—from its introduction in 1635, mounted carriers had ridden between "posts" where the postmaster would remove the letters for the local area before handing the remaining letters and any additions to the next rider; the riders were frequent targets for robbers, the system was inefficient. Palmer made much use of the "flying" stagecoach services between cities in the course of his business, noted that it seemed far more efficient than the system of mail delivery in operation, his travel from Bath to London took a single day to the mail's three days. It occurred to him that this stagecoach service could be developed into a national mail delivery service, so in 1782 he suggested to the Post Office in London that they take up the idea, he met resistance from officials who believed that th
U.S. Route 6 in Nevada
U. S. Route 6 is a transcontinental highway in the United States, stretching from Bishop, California, in the west to Provincetown, Massachusetts, on the east coast; the Nevada portion crosses the center of the state, serving the cities of Tonopah and Ely, en route to Utah and points further east. Like US 50, to the north, large desolate areas are traversed by the route, with few or no signs of civilization, the highway crosses several large desert valleys separated by numerous mountain ranges towering over the valley floors, in what is known as the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin. US 6 has a diverse route through the state, traversing desert, desert mountain ranges and valleys, ghost towns, Great Basin National Park; the entire highway in Nevada is designated as part of the Grand Army of the Republic Highway. Although not known as The Loneliest Road in America with US 50 to the north, US 6 can be considered as deserving of that title, due to it serving desolate areas; the route was routed over existing state highways when it was extended into Nevada in 1937.
The route has remained unchanged, except where it was realigned to enter Utah north of Baker instead of passing through the town. From the California border, US 6 heads northeast through semidesert Queen Valley with Boundary Peak, Nevada's highest summit, Montgomery Peak in California on the right; these twin peaks are the northernmost high summits of the White Mountains, both over 13,000 ft. The highway climbs into the Pinyon-Juniper zone and crosses Montgomery Pass 7,167 ft. From the pass, US 6 descends into barren shadscale desert, passing Columbus Salt Marsh on the left merging with US 95 from Coaldale Junction to Tonopah. Nevada Test and Training Range begins about 15 mi southeast of Tonopah. Just east of Tonopah, US 6 continues east across a series of desert mountain ranges and valleys, including the Monitor Range. At Warm Springs, State Route 375 known as the "Extraterrestrial Highway", departs to the southeast and US 6 assumes a northeasterly alignment across the Reveille, Pancake and White Pine Ranges.
Rainfall increases eastward, so valleys become less barren and peaks over 11,500 ft add scenic interest. Ely is the largest town on Route 6 in Nevada. US 50 joins Route 6 at Ely. East of Ely, Routes 6/50 cross the Schell Creek Range, known for verdant forests and meadows, for a large deer and elk population; the highway descends to Spring Valley crosses the Snake Range at Sacramento Pass, north of Nevada's second-highest mountain, Wheeler Peak, where a branch road accesses Great Basin National Park. Beyond the pass, US 6 passes just north of Baker, a Mormon farming community, reaches the Utah state line. There are no services anywhere between Ely. Although US 50 has the nickname "The Loneliest Road in America", US 6 has a solid case for the title. In addition, there is not much traffic for US 6, as it ends 38 miles south of the California/Nevada border in the small town of Bishop, CA at US 395; the most traveled portion of US 6 is the portion, concurrent with US 95, as the latter route connects Las Vegas and Reno, the two largest metropolitan areas in Nevada.
US 6 was one of the original U. S. highways in the 1925 Bureau of Public Roads plan. It was commissioned in 1926, but was not extended west into Nevada until 1937; the alignment of US 6 in Nevada has remained unchanged since then. US 6 was routed over existing state highways in Nevada. Between the California state line west of Montgomery Pass to Basalt, the highway was concurrently routed with State Route 10. From Basalt to Coaldale, the highway was concurrently routed with State Route 15. From Coaldale to Tonopah, the highway was concurrently routed with State Route 3. From Tonopah to Ely, the highway was concurrently routed with State Route 4. From Ely to present-day Major's Place, the highway was concurrently routed with US 93 and State Route 7. From Major's Place to the Utah state line southeast of Baker, the highway was concurrently routed with State Route 14. All of the concurrent state routes were removed from US 6 by 1939 except for SR 3 between Coaldale and Tonopah. US 6 was realigned to enter Utah north of Baker instead of passing through the town.
In 1940, SR 3 was replaced by US 95 between Tonopah. In 1954, US 50 was realigned between Ely and the Utah border and was concurrently routed over US 6. Note: Mileposts in Nevada reset at county lines. Nevada portal U. S. Roads portal Official Road Map of the State of Nevada. State of Nevada – Department of Highways. 1937. Official Road Map of the State of Nevada. State of Nevada – Department of Highways. 1939. Official Road Map of the State of Nevada. State Highway Department. 1940. Official Highway Map of Nevada. Nevada Department of Highways. 1954. Media related to U. S. Route 6 in Nevada at Wikimedia Commons AARoads: U. S. Highway 6 – Nevada
Scotty's Junction, Nevada
Scotty's Junction is an unincorporated community in the Sarcobatus Flat of Nye County, Nevada where State Route 267 meets with U. S. Route 95 at an elevation of 4,062 feet, it was named after Walter E. Scott. Nevada Public Radio maintains translator station K201BF in the area, retransmitting KNPR in Las Vegas on 88.1 FM. Scotty's Junction was a stop on the Bullfrog Goldfield Railroad at Sarcobatus Flat/Tolicha for the Bonnie Claire Mines and the town of Bonnie Claire; the BGR was a short-lived railroad and it along with the Las Vegas and Tonopah Railroad were acquired by the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad and combined for the shortest route. Supplies to build Scotty's Castle were trucked from the Bonnie Claire Depot to the castle site. In fact, the last delivery this train would make would be construction supplies for Scotty's Castle, the tracks torn up and scrapped after this last delivery and the ties taken to the castle to be used for firewood; the Timbisha Shoshone Homeland Act of 2000 provides for transfer to the Timbisha tribe of 2800 acres of land and an annual 375.5 acre feet of ground water around Scotty's Junction.
Nevada Seismological Laboratory press release Query the FCC's FM station database for K201BF
Belmont is a ghost town in Nye County, United States along former State Route 82. The town is a historic district listed in the National Register of Historic Places, it is Nevada Historical Marker number 138. Belmont was established following a silver strike in 1865. Other minerals, such as copper lead and antimony, were mined in addition to the silver; the boom brought settlers in and the town of Belmont grew. In 1867, Belmont became the county seat of Nye County; the town boasted four stores, two saloons, five restaurants, livery stable, post office, assay office, school, telegraph office, two newspapers, a blacksmith shop. As the price of metals fluctuated, so did the fortunes of the town. By 1887, several of the mines closed. In 1905, the county seat of Nye County was relocated from Belmont to Tonopah; the mine dumps were reworked in the early part of the 20th centuryDuring the 1870s it was known as a major mining boomtown producing silver, was rumored to have a population of 15,000. However, the total population for the whole county did not top 9,000 people until 1980 so the rumored population total is unlikely.
Like many towns which are now ghost towns, this one lasted for only a short time. Some of the buildings are still standing, including the courthouse, the Cosmopolitan Saloon, the Monitor-Belmont Mill, the combination mill; the old Combination Mine and Mill office and Belmont Courier Newspaper office and associated buildings are under restoration and preservation, known as the Philadelphia House, a reference to the name of the lodging house in the 1880s, the Philadelphia mining district. This building complex was a business for about 15 years known as the Belmont Inn and Saloon, the Monitor Inn. Restoration volunteers are being solicited. To the south of the site there is the Belmont Courthouse now belonging to Nye County and cared for by the "Friends of the Belmont Courthouse"; the transfer from the Belmont Courthouse State Historical Park to Nye County took place in 2012. Media related to Belmont, Nevada at Wikimedia Commons 10 July 2008 Time.com article mentioning the town
Beatty is an unincorporated town along the Amargosa River in Nye County in the U. S. state of Nevada. U. S. Route 95 runs through the town, which lies between Tonopah, about 90 miles to the north, Las Vegas, about 120 miles to the southeast. State Route 374 connects Beatty to Death Valley National Park, about 8 miles to the west. Before the arrival of non-indigenous people in the 19th century, the region was home to groups of Western Shoshone. Established in 1905, the community was named after Montillus Murray "Old Man" Beatty, who settled on a ranch in the Oasis Valley in 1896 and became Beatty's first postmaster. With the arrival of the Las Vegas and Tonopah Railroad in 1905, the town became a railway center for the Bullfrog Mining District, including mining towns such as nearby Rhyolite. Starting in the 1940s, Nellis Air Force Base and other federal installations contributed to the town's economy as did tourism related to Death Valley National Park and the rise of Las Vegas as an entertainment center.
Beatty is home to the Beatty Museum and Historical Society and to businesses catering to tourist travel. The ghost town of Rhyolite and the Goldwell Open Air Museum, are both about 4 miles to the west, Yucca Mountain and the Nevada Test Site are about 18 miles to the east. Before the arrival of non-indigenous explorers and settlers, Western Shoshone in the Beatty area hunted game and gathered wild plants in the region, it is estimated that the 19th-century population density of the Indians near Beatty was one person per 44 square miles. By the middle of the century, European diseases had reduced the Indian population, incursions by newcomers had disrupted the native traditions. In about 1875, the Shoshone had six camps, with a total population of 29, along the Amargosa River near Beatty; some of the survivors and their descendants continued to live in or near Beatty, while others moved to reservations at Walker Lake, Reese River, Duckwater, or elsewhere. Beatty is named after "Old Man" Montillus Murray Beatty, a Civil War veteran and miner who bought a ranch along the Amargosa River just north of the future community and became its first postmaster in 1905.
The community was laid out in 1904 or 1905 after Ernest Alexander "Bob" Montgomery, owner of the Montgomery Shoshone Mine near Rhyolite, decided to build the Montgomery Hotel in Beatty. Montgomery was drawn to the area, known as the Bullfrog Mining District, because of a gold rush that began in 1904 in the Bullfrog Hills west of Beatty. During Beatty's first year, wagons pulled by teams of horses or mules hauled freight between the Bullfrog district and the nearest railroad, in Las Vegas, by the middle of 1905, about 1,500 horses were engaged in this business. In October 1906, the Las Vegas and Tonopah Railroad began regular service to Beatty; the LV&T ceased operations in 1918, the BG in 1928, the T&T in 1940. Until the railroads abandoned their lines, Beatty served as the railhead for many mines in the area, including a fluorspar mine on Bare Mountain, to the east. Beatty's first newspaper was the Beatty Bullfrog Miner, which began publishing in 1905 and went out of business in 1909; the Rhyolite Herald was the region's most important paper, starting in 1905 and reaching a circulation of 10,000 by 1909.
It ceased publication in 1912, the Beatty area had no newspaper from until 1947. The Beatty Bulletin, a supplement to the Goldfield News, was published from through 1956. Beatty's population grew in the first half of the 20th century, rising from 169 in 1929 to 485 in 1950; the first reliable electric company in the community, Amargosa Power Company, began supplying electricity in about 1940. Phone service arrived during World War II, the town installed a community-wide sewer system in the 1970s; when a new mine opened west of Beatty in 1988, the population surged from about 1,000 to between 1,500 and 2,000 by the end of 1990. Since the mine's closing in 1998, the population has fallen again to near its former level. Beatty lies along U. S. Route 95 between Tonopah, about 90 miles to the north, Las Vegas, about 120 miles to the southeast. State Route 374 connects Beatty to Death Valley National Park, about 8 miles to the west. Yucca Mountain and the Nevada Test Site are about 18 miles to the east.
The most densely populated part of the census-designated place of Beatty is at 36°54′34″N 116°45′16″W, although the CDP extends well beyond this urban center. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 175.6 square miles, all land. The most populated area lies at 3,307 feet above sea level between Beatty Mountain and Bare Mountain to the east and the Bullfrog Hills to the west; the Amargosa River, an intermittent river that ends in Death Valley, flows on the surface through part of the CDP but has not been counted as water in the Census Bureau statistics. Nevada's main climatic features are bright sunshine, low annual precipitation, heavy snowfall in the higher mountains, dry air, large daily temperature ranges. Strong surface heating occurs by day and rapid cooling by night, even the hottest days have cool nights; the average percentage of possible sunshine in southern Nevada is more than 80 percent. Sunshine and low humidity in this region account for an average evaporation, as measured in evaporation pans, of more than 100 inches of water a year.
Manhattan is an unincorporated town in Nye County, located at the end of Nevada State Route 377, about 50 miles north of Tonopah, the county seat. It was founded in 1867 as part of the silver mining boom. George Wheeler found the district abandoned in 1871. In 1905, as part of the gold boom, "4,000 people flood into the region"; the Nye and Ormsby County Bank, the only stone structure to be built in the town, was erected in 1906, but a decline followed the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1907 depression. The bank was forced to close. However, another boom in 1909 resulted in mining continuing into the late 1940s. Major mining operations opened and operated through the 1970s to the 1990s, but production has scaled back significantly; the Big Smoky Valley is similar to many of the desert valleys in Nevada, characterized by flanking mountain ranges running north to south. Big Smoky Valley is bounded to the south by Lone Mountain, the east and west by the Toquima and the Toiyabe ranges, respectively.
The valley floor consists of alluvial fans composed of small poorly sorted gravels. Meta-sedimentary and granitic wastes predominate the Manhattan and Kingston fans while quartz sands derived from granites, predominate in the axial part of the valley between Charnock Springs and Round Mountain and most of the steep slope adjacent to Lone Mountain. Grit derived from Tertiary lavas supplied by the southern part of the Toiyabe and Shoshone ranges is abundant and distributed. Limestone, slate and quartzite totaling several thousand feet in thickness and ranging in age from lower Cambrian to Carboniferous are the oldest rocks found in this region. Although they have a wide range in age, no unconformity has been found between two successive formations. Since their deposition they have been extensively deformed, intruded by lavas, covered by igneous bodies and sedimentary deposits, they covered the entire region, but at present they are found over extensive areas only in the Toiyabe, Silver Peak, Lone Mountain ranges.
Igneous rocks in the Big Smoky Valley are predominantly pre-Quaternary. Eruptive formations, consisting of rhyolite and minor amounts of basalt and rocks of intermediate composition with associated tuffs and breccias, are exposed over extensive areas in all of the ranges bordering the valley, they differ in age but were formed during the Tertiary period. Several great bodies of granitic rock are found in the valley, they are older than the Tertiary eruptive rocks. A large granite mass occupies the lofty central part of the Toquima Range in the region of Round Mountain. Another granite mass forms the main part of Lone Mountain. Big Smoky Valley, in the late Pleistocene, was occupied by two large lakes; the lakes were contained in the lowest parts of the northern and southern reaches of the valley and are known as Lake Toiyabe and Lake Tonopah, respectively. Shore features, such as gravelly beaches and embankments still exist in the valley while the former lake sites are presently occupied by alkali flats.
Stratified beds of the former lakes are not exposed. On the eastern alluvial slopes of the Toiyabe Range, there are many escarpments which face the valley and are believed to be due to recent faulting. Considerable volcanic activity and caldera development initiated in the Manhattan Caldera Complex about 16 million years ago in the Toquima mountains north of Manhattan Gulch, it is that gold was transported by solutions in a hydrothermal cell from an igneous intrusion, from country rock, to the host rock. When the gold at Manhattan was deposited 16 million years ago, the hydrothermal cells may have operated at some distance beneath the Earth’s surface. Over time, the upper formations at Manhattan eroded, as evidenced by the well-rounded and low-lying hills in the area, the gold they contained was washed down Manhattan Gulch and deposited in gravel. Manhattan Gulch averages 300 feet wide with a grading of four percent to the east. Rimrock slopes around the gulch range from 30 to 50 percent. Depth of the gravels ranges from 10 to 100 feet with an average of about 30 feet.
60 percent of the gravel is larger than 1 inch with the rest being sand and smaller gravel. The bedrock of the Gulch is composed predominantly of shale. Elevations range from about 5,800 feet above mean sea level at the west end of the gulch area to above 7,000 feet near the town of Manhattan. Vegetation transect surveys were conducted in Manhattan Gulch in spring 2009. In the lower Manhattan Gulch area, below 6,600 feet, shrub growth is dominant comprising about 80 percent of species composition, followed by grasses with about 15 percent of species composition, followed by various forbs. Common shrub species include green rabbitbrush and bud sage. Grasses include Indian ricegrass. Further west up Manhattan Gulch and toward the town of Manhattan, trees become dominant, with Juniperus osteosperma and Pinus monophylla being prevalent; as of 2005, the population of Manhattan was 124. There are The Manhattan Bar and Motel. Within about 10 miles north along State Route 376 active placer gold mining is taking place on a small scale.
Manhattan experiences a semi-arid climate with long, cold winters. Manhattan does not have a dry season. Precipitation is distributed throughout the year. Due to
Tonopah is an unincorporated town in and the county seat of Nye County, United States. It is located at the junction of U. S. Routes 6 and 95 midway between Las Vegas and Reno. In the 2010 census, the population was 2,478; the census-designated place of Tonopah has a total area of all land. The European-American community began circa 1900 with the discovery of silver-rich ore by prospector Jim Butler; the legendary tale of discovery says that he went looking for a burro that had wandered off during the night and sought shelter near a rock outcropping. When Butler discovered the animal the next morning, he picked up a rock to throw at it in frustration, noticing that the rock was unusually heavy, he had stumbled upon the second-richest silver strike in Nevada history. Men of wealth and power entered the region to consolidate the mines and reinvest their profits into the infrastructure of the town of Tonopah. George Wingfield, a 24-year-old poker player when he arrived in Tonopah, played poker and dealt faro in the town saloons.
Once he had a small bankroll, he talked Jack Carey, owner of the Tonopah Club, into taking him in as a partner and to file for a gaming license. In 1903, miners rioted against Chinese workers in Tonopah; this resulted in China enforcing a boycott in China of U. S. imported goods. By 1904, after investing his winnings in the Boston-Tonopah Mining Company, Wingfield was worth $2 million; when old friend George S. Nixon, a banker, arrived in town, Wingfield invested in his Nye County Bank, they grub-staked miners with friend Nick Abelman, bought existing mines. By the time the partners moved to Goldfield and made their Goldfield Consolidated Mining Company a public corporation in 1906, Nixon and Wingfield were worth more than $30 million. Wingfield believed that the end of the gold and silver mining production was coming and took his bankroll to Reno, where he invested in real estate and casinos. Real estate and gaming became big business throughout Central Nevada. By 1910, gold production was falling and by 1920, the town of Tonopah had less than half the population it had fifteen years earlier.
Small mining ventures continued to provide the small town struggled on. Located about halfway between Reno and Las Vegas, it has supported travelers as a stopover and rest spot on a lonely highway. Today the Tonopah Station has slots and the Banc Club offers some gaming. In Nye County is the Yomba Band of the Yomba Shoshone Tribe of the Yomba Reservation, a federally recognized band of Western Shoshone people; the Western Shoshone dominated most of Nevada at the time of European-American settlement in the 1860s. Since the late 20th century, Tonopah has relied on the nearby military Tonopah Test Range as its main source of employment; the military has used the range and surrounding areas as a nuclear bomb test site, a bombing range, as a base of operations for the development of the F-117 Nighthawk. In 2014, California-based solar energy company SolarReserve completed construction on a $980 million advanced solar energy project near Tonopah; the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project uses liquid sodium as a heat transfer medium for its solar energy storage technology.
The plant began producing power in November 2015. The founder, Jim Butler, named the settlement, from what is thought to be a Shoshone language word, pronounced "TOE-nuh-pah." Although the town had a variety of names, including Butler City, Jim Butler's name has survived. According to local history, the name is said to mean "hidden spring". Linguistically the name derives from either Shoshone to-nuv, or Northern Paiute to-nav, pa, meaning water in both dialects. Tonopah has an cold desert climate with cool winters and hot summers. Due to Tonopah’s aridity and high altitude, daily temperature ranges are quite large. Nights are cool in summer. There are an average of 50.3 afternoons with highs at or above 90 °F or 32.2 °C, 157.8 mornings with lows of 32 °F or lower, 7.6 afternoons where the high does not top freezing and 1.7 mornings with lows below 0 °F or −17.8 °C. The record high temperature in Tonopah was 104 °F on July 18, 1960, the record low −15 °F on January 24, 1937 and January 23, 1962.
There are an average of 38 days with measurable precipitation. The wettest calendar year was 1946 with 10.27 in and the driest 1927 with 1.92 in. The most precipitation in one month was 2.87 inches in November 1946. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 1.62 inches on August 17, 1977. Average annual snowfall is 16.8 inches or 0.43 metres, though in winter the median snow depth is zero and the maximum recorded only 13 inches or 0.33 metres on February 11, 1968. The most snowfall in one year was 79.3 inches from July 1946 to June 1947, including 37.0 inches or 0.94 metres in November 1946. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,627 people, 1,109 households, 672 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 162.1 people per square mile. There were 1,561 housing units at an average density of 96.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.24% White, 1.41% Native American, 0.76% African American, 0.42% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 2.82% from other races, 3.05% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.17% of the population. There were 1,109 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living