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Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds originating in Europe and registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook policy, studbook selection, the aim of breeding for equestrian sport. The term distinguishes these horses from both heavy draft horses and refined light saddle horses such as the Thoroughbred and Akhal-Teke. Although modern warmbloods are descended from heavier agricultural types systematically upgraded by hotblood influence, the term does not imply that warmbloods are direct crosses of "cold" and "hot". Open studbook policies separate most warmbloods from true "breeds" such as Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Morgans which have a closed stud book and require two purebred parents. Instead, most warmblood registries accept breeding stock from other similar populations to continuously improve their own, do not consider their own horses to be a discrete "breed"; the Trakehner is an exception, as although some other breeds are used within the breeding population, this horse is considered a true breed.

The Hanoverian and Selle Français studbooks are considered less open than others. Most warmblood registries recognize breeding stock from any other registry, a member of the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses, affiliated with the IOC-recognized International Federation for Equestrian Sports. A defining characteristic of a warmblood registry is studbook selection, though some purebred breeds in Europe use this practice. Studbook selection is the use of external evaluation – critiquing conformation and movement – of potential breeding stock to cull unsuitable breeding horses and direct the evolution towards a particular goal. Today, studbook selection entails a performance proof in addition to external evaluation for stallions. Standards of conformation and movement are not designed to perpetuate a particular ancestral type, but rather to meet a particular need; this concept is illustrated by the history of the Oldenburg horse through the past 150 years: in the late 19th century, the standard called for a heavy but elegant, high-stepping carriage horse, in the early 20th century for a heavier, economical farm and artillery horse, since 1950 for a modern sport horse.

The most critical characteristic of a warmblood registry is that its breeding goal is to breed sport horses. Each registry has a different focus, but most breed for show jumping and dressage. Many include combined eventing as well; the breeding aim is reflective of the needs of the market. In eras and regions which called for cavalry mounts, warmbloods were bred to fit that need; the purposeful evolution of the standard breeding aim is another characteristic of the warmbloods. Warmbloods have become popular since the end of World War II when mechanization made agricultural horses obsolete, recreational riding became more widespread in the western world; the ancestral warmblood types are referred to as the heavy warmbloods and are preserved through special organizations. The heavy warmbloods have found their niche in combined driving. Most warmbloods were developed in continental Europe Germany, it was once thought that the warmblood type, which originated in continental Europe, descended from wild, native proto-warmblood ancestors, called the Forest Horse, though modern DNA studies of early horses have disproven this hypothesis.

The best-known German warmbloods are the Hanoverian, Holsteiner and the purebred Trakehner. Others include the Württemberger, Westphalian, Zweibrücker, Brandenburger and Bavarian Warmblood. Several of these breeds are represented by ancestral types such as the Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger, Alt-Württemberger, Rottaler. Western European warmbloods include the French Selle Français, Belgian Warmblood, Dutch Warmblood, Swiss Warmblood, Austrian Warmblood and Danish Warmblood. Scandinavian countries produce high-quality warmbloods such as the Finnish Warmblood and Swedish Warmblood. Warmblood registries which are not based in continental Europe include those that regulate the breeding of American Warmbloods and Irish Sport Horses. Sport horse List of horse breeds Edwards, E. H; the Encyclopedia of the Horse, London: Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 1-56458-614-6. International Museum of the Horse World Breeding Federation for Sports Horses

Welsh 0-6-2T locomotives

This article summarizes Welsh 0-6-2T locomotives and, where possible, give links to main articles. The 0-6-2T tank locomotive could well be described as the standard steam locomotive of the railways of South Wales. Many of the independent railways used them and, at the grouping of 1923, the survivors passed into Great Western Railway stock; the GWR perpetuated the type in the GWR 5600 Class. In addition, the other major railway company in Wales, the LNWR had the LNWR Webb Coal Tank Class, though this was grouped into the LMS not the GWR; the railways of South Wales seem to have had a particular liking for the 0-6-2T type. This was because the nature of the work they undertook demanded high adhesive weight, plenty of power with good braking ability, but no need for outright speed, nor large tanks or bunker as the distances from pit to port were short; these Welsh locomotives were taken over by the GWR at the grouping in 1923 and many were rebuilt with GWR taper boilers. Many Welsh 0-6-2T locomotives passed into British Railways ownership in 1948 and these included.

NB GWR engines all retained their numbers upon nationalisation. Rhymney Railway, BR numbers 30-83 Cardiff Railway, BR number 155 Barry Railway, BR numbers 198-231 and 238-277 Taff Vale Railway, BR numbers 204-420 and 438-440 Brecon and Merthyr Railway, BR numbers 422-436 For a list of classes see Locomotives of the Great Western Railway Barry Railway Class B | Barry Railway Class B1 Brecon and Merthyr 0-6-2T locomotives Neath and Brecon Stephensons Port Talbot Railway 0-6-2T Rhymney Railway A class | Rhymney Railway M class | Rhymney Railway P class | Rhymney Railway R class The Rhymney Railway's A, M and R classes were successful designs ideally suited to hauling heavy coal trains a short distance. In 1926, No 17 was reboilered by the GWR and in this form was visually indistinguishable from the GWR 5600 Class; these three classes were designed for work on the Rhymney Railway. When the smaller railway companies were forcibly merged into the GWR in 1923, these modern 0-6-2Ts were in good order and had proved successful.

Collectively they became the blueprint for the 200 strong GWR 5600 class. The design of the 5600 followed the Rhymney designs quite but adopted GWR practice as far as possible, by utilising many standardized parts. Included in Collett’s innovations was a standard number 2 boiler, suitable for the 5600, complete with the traditional copper GWR safety valve casing and copper-capped chimney; some A and P classes were rebuilt but used the shorter standard number 10 boiler to good effect. Five R class locos were upgraded from 1926 onwards. All told sixteen "Stephenson" locos were dealt with between 1926 and 1949. Taff Vale Railway A class | Taff Vale Railway O1 class | Taff Vale Railway O2 class | Taff Vale Railway O4 class | Taff Vale Railway U1 class 5600 class 5643 6695

Politics of Bhutan

The Government of Bhutan has been a constitutional monarchy since 18 July 2008. The King of Bhutan is the head of state; the executive power is exercised by the Lhengye Zhungtshog, or council of ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Parliament, both the upper house, National Council, the lower house, National Assembly. A royal edict issued on April 22, 2007 lifted the previous ban on political parties, ordering that they be created, in anticipation of National Assembly elections to be held the following year. In 2008, Bhutan adopted its first modern Constitution, codifying the institutions of government and the legal framework for a democratic multi-party system; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Bhutan a "hybrid regime" in 2019. The Bhutanese people have never had doubts about their nation's sovereignty. Bhutan, in fact, has never been colonized. However, to the outside world, namely India and before that the British Raj, Bhutan was viewed as less than sovereign for their own geopolitical interests.

Bhutan was treated as a suzerainty by the British Raj, during which time the present monarchy was established. Foreign and defence policy was to be decided by the British according to the 1910 Treaty of Punakha; this did not mean so much to the Bhutanese, due to their policy of self-imposed isolation. In 1949, after Indian independence and India agreed to a ten-article, perpetual treaty which continued the relationship, but with India taking the place of the United Kingdom; that is, India agreed not to interfere in Bhutan's internal relations, while Bhutan agreed "to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations". The treaty established free trade and full extradition between the two countries. In February 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was revised with all references to phrases such as "will be guided" deleted, thus eliminating the last lingering doubts about the sovereign and independent status of Bhutan; the Constitution of Bhutan provides for a government consisting of three main branches – executive and judicial – plus the apolitical Dratshang Lhentshog of the Drukpa Kagyu state religion.

The secular and religious branches of government are unified in the person of the Druk Gyalpo. The trichotomy of secular government is not absolute. There are many independent commissions and institutions that operate outside this general framework, such as the Royal Monetary Authority and Election Commission. There are agencies whose members are drawn from more than one branch of government, such as the Judicial Commission. In addition, there are several ministries within the cabinet executive branch, such as the Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs, which in turn delegate powers to subsidiary departments according to legislation by the legislative branch; the legislative branch itself oversees devolved local governments. Bhutan's head of state is the Druk Gyalpo. Although his title is hereditary, he must retire by age 65, he can be removed by a two-thirds majority vote by the parliament followed by a national referendum, which must pass by a simple majority in all twenty districts of the country.

Prior to 2008, a similar abdication process existed under which the unicameral National Assembly, or Tshogdu could force the king to abdicate. The Je Khenpo is head of the Dratshang Lhentshog, he is viewed as the closest and most powerful advisor to the King of Bhutan. The 70th and present Je Khenpo is Jigme Chhoeda. Bhutan's head of government is its Prime Minister; the Prime Minister is nominated by the party that wins the most seats in the National Assembly and heads the executive cabinet, called the Lhengye Zhungtshog. In 1998, the monarch's executive powers were transferred to the Council of Ministers, or Lhengye Zhungtshog. At the time, candidates for the Council of Ministers were elected by the National Assembly for a fixed five-year term and had to be a part of the legislative assembly; the cabinet was headed by the Prime Minister, the head of government. The post of Prime Minister rotated each year between the five candidates who secured the highest number of votes; the 2005 draft Constitution of Bhutan included provision for a two-party democratic system, unveiled after four years of preparation.

The candidates to the cabinet Council of Ministers were nominated by the monarch, elected by the National Assembly. The members served five-year terms. There was a Royal Advisory Council, members nominated by the monarch. Bhutan elects its legislative branch through universal suffrage under the Constitution of 2008; the Bhutanese parliament is bicameral, consisting of a National Assembly. Prior to 2008, the legislative branch was the unicameral Tshogdu; the Tshogdu had 150 members, 106 members elected at various dates for a three-year term in single-seat constituencies, 34 appointed members and 10 representatives of the monastic body. Suffrage in Bhutan at that time was unique in that each family unit, rather than individual, had one vote. In Bhutan, political parties and referenda are overseen by the Election Commission, an independent government regulatory agency. Candidates for most elections and appointments in Bhutan must be non-partisan; the party that wins the most seats nominates the Prime Minister.

The first Prime Minister, Jigme Thinley, was a member of the Bhutan Peace and Prosperi

1980s in video games

The 1980s was the second decade in the industry's history. It was a decade of lows for video games; the decade began amidst a boom in the arcade business with giants like Atari still dominating the market since the late-1970s. Another, the rising influence of the home computer, a lack of quality in the games themselves lead to an implosion of the North American video game market that nearly destroyed the industry, it took home consoles years to recover from the crash, but Nintendo filled in the void with its Nintendo Entertainment System, reviving interest in consoles. Up until this point, most investors believed video games to be a fad. In the remaining years of the decade, Sega ignites a console war with Nintendo, developers, affected by the crash experimented with the more advanced graphics of the PC, Nintendo released the Game Boy, which would become the best-selling handheld gaming device for the next two-decades. Starting in 1983 the third generation began with the Japanese release of the Family Computer by Nintendo.

Although the previous generation of consoles had used 8-bit processors, it was at the end of this generation that home consoles were first labeled by their "bits". This came into fashion as 16-bit systems like Sega's Genesis were marketed to differentiate between the generations of consoles. In the United States, this generation in gaming was dominated by the NES/Famicom. Starting in 1987 and ending in 1996, the fourth generation of video game consoles consisted of games and systems programmed for the 16-bit era. During this generation, 2D graphics had improved over the previous generation and experimentation began to occur with 3D graphics, although 3D games were more prevalent on the PC at the time; the fourth generation was the first time compact discs were considered a viable port for video game retail sales with the CD-i. Some of the most notable systems released during this generation were the Super Famicom/Super Nintendo Entertainment System, the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis, the Neo Geo. Nintendo's Game Boy was released during the fourth generation, which would become the most popular series of handheld gaming systems during the 1990s.

A rivalry between Sega and Nintendo occurred during this generation, starting the first console war. In the early-1980s, arcade games were a vibrant industry; the arcade video game industry in the US alone was generating $5 billion of revenue annually in 1981 and the number of arcades doubled between 1980 and 1982. The effect video games had on society expanded to other mediums as well such as major films and music. In 1982, "Pac-Man Fever" charted on the Billboard Hot 100 charts and Tron became a cult classic. Following a dispute over recognition and royalties, several of Atari's key programmers split and founded their own company Activision in late 1979. Activision was the first third-party developer for the Atari 2600. Atari sued Activision for copyright infringement and theft of trade secrets in 1980, but the two parties settled on fixed royalty rates and a legitimizing process for third parties to develop games on hardware. In the aftermath of the lawsuit, an oversaturated market resulted in companies that had never had an interest in video games before beginning to work on their own promotional games.

The market was flooded with too many consoles and too many poor quality games, elements that would contribute to the collapse of the entire video game industry in 1983. By 1983, the video game bubble created during the golden age had burst and several major companies that produced computers and consoles had gone into bankruptcy. Atari reported a $536 million loss in 1983; some entertainment experts and investors lost confidence in the medium and believed it was a passing fad. A game given poster child status to this era, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial had such bad sale figures that the remaining unsold cartridges were buried in the deserts of New Mexico. The brunt of the crash was felt across the home console market. Home computer gaming continued to thrive in this time period with lower-cost machines such as the Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum; some computer companies adopted aggressive advertising strategies to compete with gaming consoles and to promote their educational appeal to parents as well.

Home computers allowed motivated users to develop their own games, many notable titles were created this way, such as Jordan Mechner's Karateka, which he wrote on an Apple II while in college. In the late 1980s, IBM PC compatibles became popular as gaming devices, with more memory and higher resolutions than consoles, but lacking in the custom hardware that allowed the slower console systems to create smooth visuals. By 1985, the home market console in North America had been dormant for nearly two years. Elsewhere, video games continued to be a staple of development. After seeing impressive numbers from its Famicom system in Japan, Nintendo decided to jump into the North American market by releasing the Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES for short. After release it took several years to build up momentum, but despite the pessimism of critics it became a success. Nintendo is credited with reviving the home console market. One innovation that led to Nintendo's success was its ability to tell stories on an inexpensive home console.

Nintendo took measures to prevent another crash by requiring third-party developers to adhere to regulations and standards, something that has existed on major consoles since then. One requirement wa

Fernando PĂ©rez de Lara

Fernando Pérez de Lara called Fernando Furtado or Hurtado, was the illegitimate son of Urraca, queen regnant of León and Castile, her lover, Count Pedro González de Lara. He was acknowledged publicly by both parents, his surname indicates that he was accepted by the Laras as one of their own. A rebellious attempt by his father to place him on the throne in 1130 failed, but he maintained good relations with his half-brother, King Alfonso VII, after that, he was not, however, a regular figure at the royal court, stayed for a time in Portugal. He was captured fighting for Alfonso VII against the Portuguese in the Battle of Valdevez in 1141. Freed, he returned to Castile. Fernando is first attested in a document of 14 April 1122, which he signed along with his father, his father's new wife and his sisters; this act confirmed the boundaries and rights of the village councils of Pinilla and Santa María de Retortillo. With the exception of this occasion in 1122, it seems. Fernando was recognised by the queen as her son in a document of 5 November 1123, by which Urraca made a donation to the Diocese of León.

The document was signed by "Fernando Pérez, younger son", an open acknowledgement the Fernando was the queen's son by Pedro, as indicated by the surname Pérez. Neither Fernando nor his uterine half-brother, the future king Alfonso VII, were married before their mother's death in 1126. Fernando had at least one known full sibling, Elvira Pérez, older, she married García Pérez de Traba and Count Beltrán de Risnel. The Historia Compostellana suggests that there were other sons and daughter from Urraca and Pedro's relationships: " slept with mother, with this queen he had sons and daughters out of wedlock." Fernando was born after Urraca's permanent estrangement from her husband, King Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre, in 1112. His sister Elvira is mentioned in a document of 1117, suggesting that she was older, he was therefore born around 1115. This makes it all but impossible that he is the Fernando Pérez, governing Baró and Cellorigo in 1120, or Mudá and Cervera de Pisuerga in 1122; when Queen Urraca died in 1126, Pedro González was regarded as favouring Alfonso of Aragon over Alfonso VII.

He nursed the hope that his son by Urraca could one day accede to the throne. The Peace of Támara between Aragon–Navarre and León–Castile and the birth of a son, Ramón, to Alfonso VII dashed any hope Pedro had of replacing the latter with the king of Aragon's support; this is the situation in which Pedro González and Beltrán de Risnel, Fernando's brother-in-law, launched a revolt in Castile in 1130 with allied uprisings in Asturias and León. The revolt, the goal of, to place Fernando Pérez on the throne, was crushed. Pedro was forced into exile, where he died that year. According to Fray Antonio Brandâo, writing in the 16th century, after this Fernando stayed for a time in the Kingdom of Portugal fighting on the Portuguese side against the Almoravids at the Battle of Ourique on 25 July 1139, he was in Portugal in July 1140, when he witnessed a donation by King Afonso Henriques to the Cistercian monastery of São João de Tarouca. Nonetheless, according to a Portuguese source, the Chronicon Lusitanum, Fernando was fighting on the Leonese side against Portugal when he was captured in the Battle of Valdevez in the summer of 1141.

In September 1141, he was with Alfonso VII, in Santiago de Compostela. After 1141, Fernando does not seem to have attended Alfonso's court with regularity, for he never witnessed royal charters. In 1150, he was close to his half-brother, Count Manrique Pérez de Lara, witnessing documents with him and attending court, he received the village of Junquera and its serfs from an act witnessed by Manrique. According to Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada, writing in the early 13th century, Fernando was the son of Urraca and Count Gómez González de Candespina, who died in 1111; that Pedro González was his father, however, is proved by a contemporary document which names Count Manrique Pérez de Lara as Fernando's half-brother. Fernando has been confused with Fernando Pérez Cautivo, who served as Alfonso VII's majordomo in 1156, Sancho III's in 1158; the Spanish genealogist Luis de Salazar y Castro made Fernando the father of Pedro Fernández de Castro, the founder and first grand master of the Order of Santiago. This relationship is unlikely on chronological grounds.

The House of Mendoza fabricated a royal descent for themselves by claiming that Fernando by his wife Guiomar Alonso had a daughter, Leonor Hurtado, who married Diego López de Mendoza

The Exchange Building

The Exchange Building is a residential building in London named after the original purpose of the building, to be a Telephone Exchange for British Telecom. In the end BT never used the building instead using a building behind in Jerome St - 1928 by the Office of Works; the Exchange Building is located on the A1202 Inner London Arterial Ring Road at 132 Commercial Street in Tower Hamlets. The Exchange Building is 20 metres tall, with 8 storeys; the building features the original metal and glass window design, intended to resemble the original Telephone Exchange style, with residential flats on each floor. The Exchange Building benefits from 24-hour porters as well as an underground car park. Built in 1936 on the former site of the Royal Cambridge Music Hall, it was a sleek and showier extension of the former tobacco works of Godfrey Philips & Son trading at 116 Commercial St, it was rebuilt and extended by W. Gilbee Scott and BWH Scott in 1922-5 and with faience facings in 1927. Above the central entrance, raised attic with Art Deco fluting and clock.

The top storey was added in 1998-9. The building was the first in a wave of converted residential buildings in East London, as the Tower Hamlets area was gentrified at the turn of the 21st Century. Spitalfields Brick Lane