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List of LGBT actions in the United States prior to the Stonewall riots

Although the Stonewall riots on June 28, 1969, are considered the impetus of the modern gay liberation movement, a number of demonstrations of civil resistance took place prior to that date. These actions organized by local homophile organizations but sometimes spontaneous, addressed concerns ranging from anti-gay discrimination in employment and public accommodations to the exclusion of homosexuals from the United States military to police harassment to the treatment of homosexuals in revolutionary Cuba; the early actions have been credited with preparing the gay community for Stonewall and contributing to the riots' symbolic power. A technique of early activists was the picket line for those actions organized by such Eastern groups as the Mattachine Society of New York, the Mattachine Society of Washington, Philadelphia's Janus Society and the New York chapter of Daughters of Bilitis, These groups acted under the collective name East Coast Homophile Organizations. Organized pickets tended to be in large urban population centers because these centers were where the largest concentration of homophile activists were located.

Picketers at ECHO-organized events were required to follow strict dress codes. Men had to wear ties, preferably with a jacket. Women were required to wear skirts; the dress code was imposed by Mattachine Society of Washington founder Frank Kameny, with the goal of portraying homosexuals as "presentable and'employable'". Many of the participants in these early actions went on to become involved in the gay liberation movement. List of LGBT rights organizations Timeline of LGBT history Allyn, David. Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution, an Unfettered History. Little and Company. ISBN 0-316-03930-6. Alwood, Edward. Straight News: Gays and the News Media. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08437-4. Bérubé, Allan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. New York, The Penguin Group. ISBN 0-452-26598-3. Bianco, David. Gay Essentials: Facts For Your Queer Brain. Los Angeles, Alyson Books. ISBN 1-55583-508-2. Campbell, J. Louis. Jack Nichols, Gay Pioneer: "Have You Heard My Message?".

Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-653-1. Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-34269-1. Cleninden and Adam Nagourney. Out For Good: The Struggle to Build a Gay Rights Movement in America. New York, Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81091-3. D'Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14265-5. Duberman, Martin. Stonewall. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-525-93602-5. Eisenbach, David. Gay Power: An American Revolution. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1633-9. Faderman and Stuart Timmons. Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, Lipstick Lesbians. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02288-X. Fletcher, Lynne Yamaguchi; the First Gay Other Records. Boston, Alyson Publications. ISBN 1-55583-206-7. Gallo, Marcia M.. Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1634-7.

Hogan and Lee Hudson. Queer: The Gay and Lesbian Encyclopedia. New York, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-3629-6. Loughery, John; the Other Side of Silence – Men's Lives and Gay Identities: A Twentieth-Century History. New York, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-3896-5. Marks Ridinger, Robert B.. Speaking For Our Lives: Historic Speeches and Rhetoric for Gay and Lesbian Rights. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-175-0. Miller, Neil. Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present. New York, Vintage Books. ISBN 0-09-957691-0. Murray, Stephen O.. American Gay. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-55191-1. Stryker and Jim Van Buskirk, with foreword by Armisted Maupin. Gay by the Bay: A History of Queer Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area. San Francisco, Chronicle Press. ISBN 0-8118-1187-5. Teal, Donn; the Gay Militants: How Gay Liberation Began in America, 1969–1971. New York, St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11279-3. Timmons, Stuart; the Trouble With Harry Hay. Boston, Alyson Publications.

ISBN 1-55583-175-3. Tobin and Randy Wicker; the Gay Crusaders. New York, Paperback Library, a division of Coronet Communications. ISBN 0-446-66691-2. Witt, Sherry Thomas and Eric Marcus. Out in All Directions: The Almanac of Gay and Lesbian America. New York, Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-67237-8. Resources on Regional Homophile/LGBT Organizations in the 1960s Political correspondence from the papers of Frank Kameny

Fort Mann

Fort Mann, located on the Santa Fe Trail west of what is now Dodge City, was a U. S. Army frontier fort. Early in 1847 Capt. William M. D. McKissack, the assistant quartermaster for the Army in the west, proposed for a government depot to be built halfway between Santa Fe and Fort Leavenworth. In a letter to a superior McKissack wrote, "In crossing the plains there is no means of securing Wagons that become unserviceable for want of repairs. McKissack made arrangements for the outpost to be constructed and occupied by teamsters, but no Army troops. In April 1847 forty teamsters under Capt. Daniel P. Mann, a master teamster, began construction of the post; the post was named Fort Mann, after him. By late May construction was completed; the fort consisted of four flat-roofed buildings laid out in a rectangle with a large rectangle courtyard at the center of them. The orientation of the buildings was not in a square, but it was laid out so the buildings were laid out so the stockade wall on the opposite side of the gate was on the north side of the fort.

The buildings, constructed of wood and adobe, were connected by four sections of wooden stockade walls at angles, giving the post an octagonal shape. At the center of one of the stockade walls was a gate one foot thick; the gate opened at its center. Loopholes were cut into the stockade walls to allow those inside to shoot outside in case of an attack. A six-pounder cannon, sometimes called a mountain howitzer, was mounted on wheels. Adobe breastworks were built on the roof of both the southeast building. Before Fort Mann was completed, daily alarms were sounded to alert the teamsters about potential hostilities with area Indians, who opposed anyone from the outside occupying what they considered their land. In May two incidents, with one teamster being killed, took place. One Indian was shot fatally, carried away by his comrades. Considering the troubles between the teamsters and Indians, Fort Mann should have had some soldiers present; the weapons at the post for its defense were few, consisting of the one cannon with forty rounds of grapeshot and forty cannon cartridges and six rifles and muskets.

On May 17 most of the teamsters left. Only ten or a few more teamsters were present after that; the ten few men left were rotated in a guard duty of the post, leaving no time day or night with the place unguarded. Some supplies got to Fort Mann, but the post was not safe and no one ventured outside the gates without a rifle. John Simpson Smith was appointed to command Fort Mann. After seven days, Smith left and Thomas Sloan, the post blacksmith, assumed command. Groups of hostile Indians continued to harass the fort and travelers passing through the area. Construction was not finished when Mann's group left and continued for a while with the reduced garrison. Sometimes there was peace; the teamsters repelled several attacks and it was said fifteen Indians were killed and thirty to forty were wounded. During a lull in the battle three defenders left, but were killed and scalped within sight of Fort Mann. After the Indians withdrew and Sloan decided to abandon Fort Mann. Taking the cannon with them, the teamsters headed to Santa Fe.

In early July the abandoned fort provided two men travelling the trial refuge. For two days Indians tried to overwhelm the fort, but left. A passing wagon train picked up the men; until November the abandoned fort suffered from neglect and from passing travelers, who stripped wood from it for cooking. In September the Indian Battalion Missouri Volunteers were formed in part to once again occupy Fort Mann, they arrived in November. The battalion, under Lieut. Col. William Gilpin had five companies. Two were mounted, one was artillery and two were infantry; the infantry and artillery companies were left at Fort Mann to expand the fort. The three companies, commanded by William Pelzer, comprised fifty-four officers and 216 enlisted men. Many enlisted men lived through the winter in crude shelters or tents; these men had never been on the great plains frontier and only one company was composed of English speakers. The other two companies were composed of Germans from St. Louis who knew no or little English and who had not been well trained in Army discipline.

Leaving Pelzer in charge turned into a disaster soon. On Nov. 19, 1847, a group of Pawnees were camped about one-fourth of a mile from the fort. The soldiers were assembled inside the fort walls. After Sixty-five or so Pawnees, under a white flag, approached the assembled troops were dismissed. Pelzer and some of the officers ventured outside the walls to meet the Indians and a peace pipe was passed amongst the Pawnees and officers. Pelzer ushered most of these Indians inside Fort Mann. Pelzer was advised by an officer who only became aware of the passing of the peace pipe, he thought the Indians were not sincere and advised Pelzer to hold all the Indians prisoner until Gilpin could come to Fort Mann. Some of the troops failed in an attempt to disarm the Indians and Pelzer ordered his men to fire upon the Indians. Company E, the only company of fluent English speakers, was ordered by its leader, Capt. Napoleon Koscialowski, to refrain from taking part in actions against the Indians. Nine Indians were killed in this fiasco and many were wounded and taken away by their comrades.

Two wounded Indians were taken prisoner and one of these was held in chains until the middle of 1848. This episode was a disaster in two ways. First, the Pawnees, who had come in peace, now had a deep distrust of th

Francis Arinze

Francis Arinze is a Nigerian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments from 2002 to 2008, he has been the Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni since 2005. Arinze was one of the principal advisors to Pope John Paul II and was considered papabile before the 2005 papal conclave, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Arinze was born in Eziowelle, Nigeria. A convert from an African traditional religion, he was baptized on his ninth birthday by Father Michael Tansi, beatified by John Paul II in 1998, his parents converted to Catholicism. At age 15, he entered All Hallows Seminary of Onitsha from which he graduated and earned a philosophy degree in 1950, his father was opposed to his entering the seminary, but after seeing how much Francis enjoyed it, he encouraged him. Arinze stayed at All Hallows until 1953 to teach. In 1955, he went to Rome to study theology at the Pontifical Urban University, where he earned a doctorate in sacred theology summa cum laude.

On 23 November 1958, at the chapel of the university, Arinze was ordained to the priesthood by Gregorio Pietro Agagianian, pro-prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. After ordination, Father Arinze remained in Rome, earning a master's in theology in 1959 and doctorate in 1960, his doctoral thesis on "Ibo Sacrifice as an Introduction to the Catechesis of Holy Mass" was the basis for his much used reference work, "Sacrifice in Ibo Religion", published in 1970. From 1961 to 1962, Arinze was professor of liturgy and basic philosophy at Bigard Memorial Seminary. From there, he was appointed regional secretary for Catholic education for the eastern part of Nigeria. Arinze was transferred to London, where he attended the Institute of Education and graduated in 1964. Francis Arinze became the youngest Roman Catholic bishop in the world when he was consecrated on 29 August 1965, at the age of 32, he was appointed titular bishop of Fissiana and named Coadjutor to the Archbishop of Onitsha, Nigeria.

He attended the final session of the Second Vatican Council in that same year. He became Archbishop of Onitsha on 26 June 1967, he was the first native African to head his diocese, succeeding Archbishop Charles Heerey, an Irish missionary. The new Archbishop did not have much time to settle into his office before the Nigeria-Biafra War broke out; the entire archdiocese was located in the secessionist Biafran territory during the Nigerian Civil War. As a result of the war, Archbishop Arinze had to flee his see city of Onitsha and to live as a refugee, first in Adazi and Amichi, for the three years of the war, which lasted from 1967 to 1970. Despite his own refugee status, Archbishop Arinze worked tirelessly for refugees, displaced persons, the sick and the hungry, offering support to priests and religious, giving the faithful hope for the future. With the help of foreign missionaries, he supervised what one international relief worker called one of "the most effective and efficient distributions of relief materials" in history.

He took care to keep the Church separate from the ongoing political conflict, gaining the respect of all factions in the country. Francis Arinze was still Archbishop of Onitsha when the Nigeria-Biafra war ended in 1970; as a part of Biafra and its people had suffered in the three-year war. The homes and businesses of the people had been devastated, the poor region was sinking deeper into poverty; the end of the war did not mean an end to the challenges facing the young Archbishop. The Nigerian government deported all foreign missionaries stationed in the archdiocese, leaving only the native clergy and religious, who were few in number; the government confiscated the Catholic schools, most of which served as churches or parish halls. Impressed by Arinze's many accomplishments as the leader of an archdiocese with few resources and his ability to work side by side with Muslims who represent a strong and not-to-be-ignored minority, Pope John Paul II in 1979 appointed Arinze pro-president of the Vatican's Secretariat for Non-Christians renamed the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue.

Arinze continued as the ordinary of his archdiocese, was elected unanimously as President of the Nigerian Bishops Conference in 1984. A year the people of Onitsha organized a pilgrimage to Rome when they learned that Archbishop Arinze would be named a Cardinal at the Consistory of 25 May 1985. On 8 April 1985, Arinze resigned from his post in Onitsha, the Pope named him a Cardinal-Deacon of San Giovanni della Pigna in the consistory held on 25 May 1985. Two days following his elevation to cardinal deacon, Arinze was appointed President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, he served in various related capacities including the president of the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops. He received honours in this capacity: On 24 October 1999 he received a gold medallion from the International Council of Christians and Jews for his outstanding achievements in inter-faith relations, he became a popular speaker in the United States. Arinze was a member of the Committee of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000.

In that capacity, he worked with individual bishops and priests throughout the world in preparation for the rare celebration of the Church. On 1 October 2002, Pope John Paul named him prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; when Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, all major Vatican officials – including Arinze – automatically lost their positions. He was considered papabile, that

Electric-steam locomotive

An electric-steam locomotive is a steam locomotive that uses electricity to heat the water in the boiler to create steam instead of burning fuel in a firebox. This is a unusual type of locomotive that only makes economic sense under specific conditions, it would be much more efficient to build and use an electric locomotive. However, lack of time and resources, lack of coal or similar fuel, the presence of cheap and available electricity may make conversion of an existing steam locomotive into an electric-steam locomotive a viable proposition. Switzerland has no natural reserves of coal, but the mountainous region offers plentiful, cheap, hydroelectricity, thus 2191 km of SBB lines were under the wires at the outbreak of the Second World War, whilst the price of imported coal kept rising. In an attempt to save on coal the Swiss Federal Railways fitted two small 0-6-0 steam shunters of class E 3/3 with a pantograph. Power was taken from overhead lines, fed to heating elements, via two transformers rated together at 480 kW.

The modified E 3/3 8521 was brought into use on 13 January 1943. They could run up to 20 minutes without power supply, like a fireless locomotive, once the boiler had been charged to full pressure; the firebox was retained keeping hot embers, with a classic fire for longer operation on non-electrified tracks. The water circulation pump, the control circuit and the lighting were powered by a battery, charged from a rectifier fed by one of the transformers; the system was capable of producing about 300 kg of steam per hour at 12 atm pressure. It allowed a saving of 700 -- 1200 kg of coal per working day. Bringing the locomotive to pressure took about one hour; the electric heaters were removed in 1951 from locomotive 8521 and in 1953 from 8522. As of 2013, locomotive E 3/3 8522 is still in service on the Sursee–Triengen railway as an ordinary steam engine with no electric heating. A Canadian patent for an electric-steam locomotive was granted as as 1992; the drawing shows a Crampton type 8-4-0 but its intended use is unknown.

A conventional coal-fired or oil-fired steam locomotive may be prepared for service by using an external electric pre-heater. This allows steam to be raised during the night so that the locomotive will be ready for use in the morning. Modern steam locomotives, such as the rack locomotives of Brienz–Rothorn railway and DLM's modernised class 52.80 locomotive, are fitted with internal electric heaters. This allows keeping the well insulated boiler warm overnight or to start heating automatically in the early morning; the electric-steam system is used in some small-scale model steam locomotives. In September 2003 Hornby Railways released its first steam-powered 00 gauge locomotive, a scale model locomotive where the boiler is heated by electric power collected from the running rails. Alfred Moser: Der Dampfbetrieb der schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847–1966. 4. Nachgeführte Auflage. Birkhäuser, Stuttgart 1967, S. 269. Electric locomotive Electric steam boiler Heilmann locomotive List of steam technology patents Steam turbine electric locomotive Carver, Rex.

"The Electro-steam story: Kettles on wheels!". The Railway Magazine. 155: 38–39. ISSN 0033-8923. "The Swiss Electric-Steam Locomotives". Loco locos. 7 Jan 2010. Pictures on www.douglas-self.com http://www.lokifahrer.ch/Lokomotiven/Loks-SBB/E_3-3/e-dampf.htm

American University of Central Asia

The American University of Central Asia the Kyrgyz-American University and the American University in Kyrgyzstan, is a liberal arts university located in Bishkek, the capital of the former Soviet republic of Kyrgyzstan. AUCA was established in 1997 with funding from the United States government and the Open Society Institute, a non-government donor organization set up by Hungarian philanthropist George Soros. One of its founders was journalist Scott Horton. While the university focuses on offering higher education opportunities to Central Asian students, its student body and faculty comes from all over Asia and other parts of the world. In March 2010, AUCA has established partnership with Bard College of United States; the partnership allows students of American Studies, Economics, European Studies and Comparative Politics and Mass Communications, Psychology and Software Engineering programs to receive liberal arts degrees accredited in the US. According to the USAID accreditation report, "AUCA is the first higher education institution in Central Asia that functions according to the American model, with a credit-hour system, an American-style liberal arts curriculum, a commitment to democratic values, freedom of expression and inquiry, academic integrity and honesty."The university is chartered in Kyrgyzstan and is authorized by the Kyrgyz Ministry of Education to offer the Kyrgyz National Diploma in eleven undergraduate programs and one graduate program.

AUCA offers American-style diplomas, students are required to take courses in both Russian and English. The main building of American University of Central Asia was constructed in the 1930s and was used by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Kirghiz SSR, by the Supreme Council of the republic. Portraits of Vladimir Lenin, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels are still hanging in the conference hall of AUCA, while the coat of arms of the Kirghiz SSR is kept on the facade of the building. In 2008 Ishak Masaliev a Kyrgyz parliament member from the Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan, called to change the location of AUCA, because of the "historic value" of the current main building; the new building has four stories, centered around a forum that will serve as the main meeting place. The main building uses geothermal heating and rainwater harvesting to reduce its environmental impact; the university offers part-time programs to prepare students for university study. The programs include an intensive course of English language learning and university-level academic classes.

The university offers American-style Bachelor of Arts degrees in 16 undergraduate programs: General Education Liberal Arts and Sciences American Studies Anthropology Applied Mathematics and Informatics Business Administration Economics Environmental Management and Sustainable development European Studies International and Business Law International and Comparative Politics Journalism and Mass Communications Psychology Sociology Software Engineering In addition to its undergraduate programs, AUCA offers a Master of Business Administration, Master of Science in Economics, Master of Arts in Central Asian Studies, Master of Arts in Applied Psychology AUCA Library provides information resources and services in support of teaching and research. The library holds about 60,000 items in its print collection of books, textbooks and other materials; the library provides access to 24 online databases. John Clark David Huwiler John D. Dreier Ellen Hurwitz Andrew Wachtel Jonathan Becker Andrew Kuchins Kamilla Sharshekeeva Gulnara Aitbaeva Bakyt Beshimov American University of Central Asia was ranked 163 among countries of emerging Europe and central Asia region in QS EECA University Rankings of 2020.

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