James Proudstar, known first as Thunderbird and as Warpath, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with the X-Men. Proudstar first appeared as the second Thunderbird in New Mutants #16. Blaming the X-Men for the death of his brother, Thunderbird, he joined the villainous Hellions group to get revenge, he reconsidered his views and became a longtime member of the militant X-Men offshoot X-Force. After a long journey to the Shi'ar Empire with the Uncanny X-Men, Warpath became a member of the new incarnation of X-Force, but he left after the events of Necrosha. An Apache Native American, Proudstar possesses speed, his powers resemble those of his older brother, the short-lived X-Men member Thunderbird, although Warpath's power-levels are much higher. Warpath is one of the few mutants to retain his powers after the Decimation. Warpath appeared in X-Men: Days of Future Past, portrayed by Booboo Stewart. Proudstar first appeared as the second Thunderbird in New Mutants #16, created by writer Chris Claremont and artist Sal Buscema.
The character appeared as an antagonist of the New Mutants and X-Men, but joined the New Mutants in issue #99 of that series, the team became known as X-Force in the first issue of that series. The character appeared as a member of that team for most of the duration of the title. James Proudstar was born on the Apache reservation at Arizona, he has John. John is a mutant superhero: Thunderbird with the X-Men. John is killed on one of the team's missions, James blames the X-Men's founder, Professor X, for his brother's joining the X-Men. Seeking revenge for his brother's death, James is recruited for Emma Frost's Hellions; as a Hellion, James clashes with the New Mutants and Kitty Pryde, but to his chagrin, Frost feels they are not ready to take on the adult X-Men. James defies Frost's orders, dons his brother's costume, kidnaps former X-Man Banshee to draw the team to the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, where John was killed. However, when the opportunity to kill Professor X arrives, James finds he has too many doubts about how John joined the X-Men.
James is reconciled with the X-Men. Months James leaves the Hellions and returns home to his family's reservation. Cable makes him another offer to join the New Mutants but he turns it down. After a meeting in New York City, James returns home to find his entire tribe murdered. Finding a Hellfire mercenary's mask at the scene, James deduces that Emma Frost committed the act to punish him for leaving the team. James joins the New Mutants, hoping to gain revenge; the New Mutants cut ties with the X-Men and become the militant adventurers X-Force, James changes his codename to Warpath. With the team, he fights the likes of Toad's Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, Weapon P. R. I. M. E; as a member of X-Force, James becomes more calm and controlled and strikes up a close friendship with his teammate Theresa Rourke Cassidy. Despite his strong attraction to her, Theresa only sees James as a friend. In a meeting with Emma Frost, she swears. Warpath meets Risque, who helps James with his confidence, the two begin a love affair.
However, Risque is being blackmailed by Sledge, she drugs Warpath and brings him to his lair. Sledge's partner, the Vanisher, has disappeared while teleporting. Sledge reveals to James that his enhanced senses would allow him to survive in this alternate dimension without going insane. James locates and rescues the Vanisher, being held captive by natives of the Darkforce Dimension, in turn Sledge gives information on one of his tribesman, Michael Whitecloud, whom James had presumed deceased. Whitecloud tells him that X-Force's adversary, was behind the killing of his tribe. James is returned to the living world by Blackheart; when James finds out Risque's involvement, he ends their relationship. After X-Force's disintegration, Warpath joins the Mumbai branch of the international mutant agency X-Corporation, his new team is a mix of old and new friends: Feral and Thornn. He stays there for a while. Cable and Domino enlist Warpath's help against the Skornn. After Cable kills the demon once again, the X-Force disbands.
Warpath is one of the few mutants to retain his powers after the events of Decimation. He begins living in the Mutant camp at the X-Mansion. Shortly afterwards, he joins the X-Men at Professor X's request. Warpath has a bond of sorts with fellow X-Men Hepzibah. Together, they confront one of the X-Mansion's guardian Sentinels when Caliban, a long time X-Men ally, runs onto the grounds. Warpath enters the Morlock tunnels along with Hepzibah and Caliban, to investigate the Morlocks' increased activity, which has included the capture of X-Men ward Leech, they see Warpath's name written on a Morlock wall, along with the names of the other X-Men. After the Morlock encounter and Warpath begin a relationship. Warpath rejoins X-Force as they search a Cooperstown hospital to pick up the trail of the fugitive Cable; as X-Force dispatches the remaining Reavers, Caliban sacrifices himself to save Warpath by intercepting bullets meant for him. Warpath and the rest of X-Force are charged with taking down Predator X.
Typhula quisquiliaris known as the bracken club, is a species of club fungus in the family Typhulaceae. It produces small, white fruit bodies up to 9 millimetres in height, each with a single distinct "head" and "stem"; the head is fertile. The fruit bodies grow from dead wood, favours bracken, where the species feeds saprotrophically. Though T. quisquiliaris was described under a different name by James Sowerby in 1803, the specific name quisquiliaris was sanctioned in 1821 by Elias Magnus Fries, the species was moved to the genus Typhula, which resulted in its accepted binomial name by Paul Christoph Hennings in 1896. The species has been recorded in north Africa. Typhula quisquiliaris was first described by James Sowerby in 1803 as Clavaria obtusa. However, this name was found to be illegitimate, as it had been given to a different species by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1797; the species was given its sanctioned name several years by Elias Magnus Fries, in his 1821 Systema Mycologicum. Fries named the species Pistillaria quisquiliaris, having named it Clavaria quisquiliaris.
The specific name quisquiliaris is from the Latin meaning "pertaining to refuse". In the same year, Samuel Frederick Gray reclassified Sowerby's Clavaria obtusa, naming it Geoglossum obtusum. Fries's name was taken up as the valid one, in 1896, Paul Christoph Hennings transferred the species to Typhula, giving the species the name by which it is known today. However, the name Pistillaria quisquiliaris was sometimes used into the 20th century. For instance, Carleton Rea used it in a 1922 publication; the species is known as the bracken club. Typhula quisquiliaris produces fruit bodies in the form of clubs; each fruit body consists of a single distinct "stem" and "head", measures up to 7 mm in height. The surface of the head is smooth and white, measures 1.5 to 4 mm by 1 to 2.5 mm. The rounded stem is infertile, of a similar colour to the head. However, it has a fine downy covering, is somewhat translucent; the stem measures from 0.3 to 0.4 mm in width. The stem attaches to sclerotium, buried into the branch from which the fruit body grows.
Typhula quisquiliaris spores are narrowly ellipsoid, measure from 9 to 14 by 4 to 5.5 micrometres. The spores are white, contain small granules; the spores are borne on basidia which measure 50 to 70 by 7 to 8 μm, with four spores on each basidium. The downy covering of the stem is made up of thick-walled hairs, each measuring 15 to 60 by 3 to 7 μm, though they are swollen towards the base; the sclerotium measures from 1.5 to 3 by 0.5 μm, is a pale yellow colour. Clamp connections are present in the hyphae. Typhula quisquiliaris fruit bodies are found in rows, growing from plant detritus; the species favours bracken Pteridium aquilinum, but the colonisation of dead matter from other plants is not unknown. Upon these substrates, it feeds as a saprotroph, breaking down the dead organic matter in order to sustain itself; the species has been recorded in northern Africa. In Europe, the fruit bodies can be encountered from April to December
Schizobranchia insignis is a marine feather duster worm. It may be known as the split-branch feather duster, split-plume feather duster, the feather duster worm, it may be found from Alaska to Central California, living on pilings and rocks, intertidal to 46 m. It is abundant on the underside of wharves in Puget Sound, on wharves at Boston Harbor marina. Specimens of S. insignis are 10–20 cm long, 5–10 mm in diameter, with tubes which are whitish and pliable. The tentacular crown is uniform orange, mauve, brown, grey, or green in color. Among sabellids of the Pacific Northwest, S. insignis is unique in that all radioles are dichotomously branched at least once. Radioles of Eudistylia polymorpha are not branched, only a few of the radioles of E. vancouveri are branched. S. insignis is free-spawning, releasing gametes into the water column for fertilization. If disturbed by touch, water movement, or shadow, the tentacular crown can be withdrawn within the tube, by retractor muscles. Ciliated radioles collect planktonic particles, which are carried to the mouth.
S. insignis has been found to accumulate dissolved carbon exuded by an alga. For feeding and respiration, S. insignis passes 70 ml/h/g animal of water through the tentacular crown by the cilia's movement. The hooked setae of Schizobranchia insignis have been found to dig into the tube wall and serve as anchors to secure the worm from being sucked out by a fish or pulled by wave action. Worms were found to withstand high pressures of 100-200 kPa. Along with other species of polychaete worms, S. insignis is host to kleptoparasitic suspension-feeding snails, like Trichotropis cancellata, that live on the worms and steal food. Photo of S. insignis photo of S. insignis Brusca, R. C. & G. J. Brusca, 2003. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Kozloff, E. N. 1996. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Washington. Kozloff, E. N. 2000. Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast. University of Washington Press, Washington. Lamb, A. & Hanby, B. P. 2005.
Savernake Low Level railway station was a station on the Berks and Hants Extension Railway, near the village of Burbage in Wiltshire, England. It was open from 1862 until 1966; the Berks and Hants Extension Railway, which ran from Hungerford to Devizes, opened on 11 November 1862, the station named Savernake was opened with the line. It was situated between Bedwyn and Pewsey stations, about 0.6 miles northeast of the village of Burbage where the line passed under the road to Durley. The site is directly above the Bruce Tunnel which carries the Avon Canal. There was a goods station at Burbage Wharf, about three-quarters of a mile to the west, providing an interchange between the railway, the canal and the road to Marlborough; this was closed in 1947. On 15 April 1864, the Marlborough Railway opened its short branch line to Marlborough, operated by the Great Western and taken over by it, Savernake became a junction; when the Reading to Taunton line was created and the Stert to Westbury cut-off opened in 1900, the platforms at Savernake were lengthened, the footbridge roofed and brick waiting rooms provided on the down platform.
Until 1916, Savernake had six trains a day, plus up to six slip coaches from Paddington, the fastest covering the 70 mi to Savernake in 75 minutes. In the 1950s Savernake had ten trains a day on the main line, seven to Marlborough and two other Midland and South Western Junction Railway trains. On 1 July 1924, the station was renamed Savernake Low Level; the station was renamed Savernake for Marlborough on 11 September 1961 when the High Level station closed, although through trains on the former M&SWJR had used Savernake Low Level for some time because of a landslip on the original line. The station closed on 18 April 1966 but the first-built line remains in use, providing a route from Reading and Hungerford to Westbury and beyond. Savernake Station on navigable O. S. map
The development of an animal model of autism is one approach researchers use to study potential causes of autism. Given the complexity of autism and its etiology, researchers focus only on single features of autism when using animal models. One of the more common rodent models is the Norway rat. More recent research has used the house mouse to model autism. Other strains of mice used include mu opioid receptor knockout mice, as well as Fmr1 knockout mice; the Norway rat has been used, by Mady Hornig to implicate thiomersal in autism. The current scientific consensus is that no convincing scientific evidence supports these claims, major scientific and medical bodies such as the Institute of Medicine and World Health Organization as well as governmental agencies such as the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reject any role for thiomersal in autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders. Behaviors measured in these models include "approach to olfactory pheromones emitted by other mice, approach to familiar and new conspecifics, reciprocal social interactions, ultrasonic vocalizations, communal nesting and parenting behaviors, territorial scent marking, aggressive behaviors."
Social interaction is measured by how the mouse interacts with a stranger mouse introduced in the opposite side of a test box. Researchers from the University of Florida have used deer mice to study restricted and repetitive behavior such as compulsive grooming, how these behaviors may be caused by specific gene mutations. In addition, Craig Powell of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, with a grant from Autism Speaks, is using mice to examine the potential role of neuroligin gene mutations in causing autism. Much research has been done into the use of a rat model to show how Borna virus infection, exposure to valproic acid in utero, maternal immune activation may cause autism. Another goal of the use of rodent models to study autism is to identify the mechanism by which autism develops in humans. Other researchers have developed an autism severity score to measure the degree of severity of the mice's autism, as well as the use of scent marking behavior and vocalization distress as models for communication.
It has been observed that mice lacking the gene for oxytocin exhibit deficits in social interaction, that it may be possible to develop treatments for autism based on abnormalities in this and other neuropeptides. In 2012, a researcher from the University of Nebraska at Kearney published a study reviewing research, done using the songbird as a model for autism spectrum disorders, noting that the neurobiology of vocalization is similar between humans and songbirds, that, in both species, social learning plays a central role in the development of the ability to vocalize. Other research using this model has been done by Stephanie White at the University of California Los Angeles, who studied mutations in the FOXP2 gene and its potential role in learned vocalization in both songbirds and humans. In 2013, a study was published by Swiss researchers which concluded that 91% of valproic acid-autism studies using animal models suffered from statistical flaws—specifically, they had failed to use the litter as a level of statistical analysis rather than just the individual
The Berkeley Street Historic District is a historic district on Berkeley Street and Berkeley Place in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It encompasses a neighborhood containing one of the greatest concentrations of fine Italianate and Second Empire houses in the city, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, with a substantial increase in 1986. Berkeley Street is located west of Cambridge Common in western Cambridge, running parallel to and south of Concord Avenue between Craigie Street and Garden Street. Land in this area was acquired by Harvard University professor Joseph Worcester in 1843, laid out for subdivision in 1852. Most of the houses on Berkeley Street were built between 1852 and 1872, for people prominent in business and politics. Berkeley Place, a dead end street projecting southerly from Berkely Street, was laid out in 1890. Most of its houses date to the period between 1892 and 1918; when the district was first listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, it included 15 properties on Berkeley Street.
Most of these houses are in the fashionable Bracketed Italianate style of that time, with a number of examples of the Second Empire style. A few houses, built in the Queen Anne style, are sympathetic to the earlier houses in massing and style. Four years the district was expanded to include most of the properties on Berkeley Place. Stylistically, they are a cross section of styles fashionable at that time: Queen Anne and Colonial Revival. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts