X-Men are a team of fictional mutant superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist/co-writer Jack Kirby and writer Stan Lee, the characters first appeared in The X-Men #1 and formed one of the most recognizable and successful franchises of Marvel Comics, appearing in numerous books, television shows and video games. Most of the X-Men are mutants, a subspecies of humans who are born with superhuman abilities activated by the "X-Gene"; the X-Men fight for peace and equality between normal humans and mutants in a world where anti-mutant bigotry is fierce and widespread. They are led by Charles Xavier known as Professor X, a powerful mutant telepath who can control and read minds, their archenemy is Magneto, a powerful mutant with the ability to manipulate and control magnetic fields who leads the Brotherhood of Mutants. Both have opposing philosophies regarding the relationship between mutants and humans. While the former works towards peace and understanding between mutants and humans, the latter views humans as a threat and believes in taking an aggressive approach against them, though he has found himself working alongside the X-Men from time to time.

Professor X is the founder of Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters at a location called the X-Mansion, which recruits mutants from around the world to teach them how to use their powers and coexist with humanity. Located in Salem Center in Westchester County, New York, the X-Mansion is the home and training site of the X-Men; the founding five members of the X-Men who appear in The X-Men #1 are Angel-Archangel, Cyclops and Jean Grey. More well known X-Men included Wolverine, Rogue, Jubilee, Colossus, Kitty Pryde/Shadowcat and Bishop. Since dozens of mutants from various countries and diverse backgrounds, a number of non-mutants, have held membership as X-Men; the X-Men has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books, including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films. Most notably, the superhero team has been the predominant focus of the X-Men film series with each film drawing influences from the comic book storylines. After a decade of being shadowed by the Avengers, in 2019, visionary writer Jonathan Hickman helmed the Dawn of X relaunch of the X-Men, propelling them to the forefront of Marvel once again.

In 1963, with the success of Spider-Man, the Hulk, Iron Man, the Fantastic Four, co-creator Stan Lee wanted to create another group of superheroes but did not want to have to explain how they got their powers. In 2004, Lee recalled, "I couldn't have everybody bitten by a radioactive spider or exposed to a gamma ray explosion, and I took the cowardly way out. I said to myself,'Why don't I just say they're mutants? They were born that way.'"In a 1987 interview, Kirby said: The X-Men, I did the natural thing there. What would you do with mutants who were just plain boys and girls and not dangerous? You school them. You develop their skills. So I gave them a teacher, Professor X. Of course, it was the natural thing to do, instead of disorienting or alienating people who were different from us, I made the X-Men part of the human race, which they were. Radiation, if it is beneficial, may create mutants that'll save us instead of doing us harm. I felt that if we train the mutants our way, they'll help us – and not only help us, but achieve a measure of growth in their own sense.

And so, we could all live together. Lee devised the series title after Marvel publisher Martin Goodman turned down the initial name, "The Mutants," stating that readers would not know what a "mutant" was. Within the Marvel Universe, the X-Men are regarded to have been named after Professor Xavier himself; the original explanation for the name, as provided by Xavier in The X-Men #1, is that mutants "possess an extra power... one which ordinary humans do not!! That is why I call my students... X-Men, for EX-tra power!" Early X-Men issues introduced the original team composed of Cyclops, Marvel Girl, Beast and Iceman, along with their archenemy Magneto and his Brotherhood of Evil Mutants featuring Mastermind, Scarlet Witch, Toad. The comic focused on a common human theme of good versus evil and included storylines and themes about prejudice and racism, all of which have persisted throughout the series in one form or another; the evil side in the fight was shown in human form and under some sympathetic beginnings via Magneto, a character, revealed to have survived Nazi concentration camps only to pursue a hatred for normal humanity.

His key followers and the Scarlet Witch, were Romani. Only one new member of the X-Men was added, Mimic/Calvin Rankin, but soon left due to his temporary loss of power; the title lagged in sales behind Marvel's other comic franchises. In 1969, writer Roy Thomas and illustrator Neal Adams rejuvenated the comic book and gave regular roles to two introduced characters: Havok/Alex Summers and Lorna Dane called Polaris. However, these X-Men issues failed to attract sales and Marvel stopped producing new stories with issue #66 reprinting a number of the older comics as issues #67–93. In Giant-Size X-Men #1, writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum introduced a new team that starred in a revival of The X-

T. Alexander Harrison

Thomas Alexander Harrison, was an American marine painter who spent most of his career in France. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, 1871-72. For nearly six year he worked as a draftsman for a United States government survey expedition mapping the Pacific coast, he studied for a short time at the San Francisco School of Design. In 1879, he moved to Paris and studied at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts under Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jules Bastien-Lepage. Chafing under the restraints of the schools, he traveled to Brittany, where at Pont-Aven and Concarneau he turned his attention to marine painting and landscape. A figure-piece he sent to the 1882 Salon attracted attention, a boy daydreaming on the beach, which he called Châteaux en Espagne. In the 1885 Salon, he had a large canvas of several nude women called En Arcadie, a remarkable study of flesh tones in light and shade which had a strong influence on the younger men of the day; this received the first of many awards conferred upon him.

Les Amateurs, was awarded a first medal at the 1889 Paris Exhibition. Other honors included the 1887 Temple Gold Medal of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, medals in Munich, Ghent and elsewhere, he was decorated by the Legion of Honour, was an officier of Public Instruction, Paris. He was a member of the Société Nationale des Paris, his reputation rests on marine pictures such as The Wave, with long waves rolling in on the beach, great stretches of open sea under poetic conditions of light and colour. Cecilia Beaux spent the summer of 1888 in Concarneau, she painted a portrait of Harrison, wrote of him: Harrison, now at the apex of his strength, had met the "Daemon" and thrown him, in his two big pictures En Arcadie and The Wave. Tall and superbly handsome, he won all he appeared to care for, much that he didn't want, he could not be called a Nature-lover, for he loved Nature only when married to Art. He wished to paint large, he was enamoured of the successive opaline surfaces of the low incoming waves and strove for the Sea's gift as it comes to one facing it on long beaches.

His method was searching, had the quality of science because he had been trained as an engineer, which profession he abandoned for painting. Harrison rented a ramshackle cottage near the Brittany town of Beg-Meil, each evening raced to the dunes to watch the sun set over the ocean. In late-summer 1896, he was joined there by struggling writer Marcel Proust and composer Reynaldo Hahn, he opened their eyes to how light plays on water: We have seen the sea successively turn blood red, nacreous with silver, white, emerald green, yesterday we were dazzled by an pink sea specked with blue sails. Harrison seems to have been the inspiration for the character "C," in Proust's attempted first novel Jean Santeuil, his brother, L. Birge Harrison a painter successful in snow scenes, studied at the École des Beaux Arts, under Cabanel and Carolus-Duran. Another brother, Butler Harrison, was a figure painter; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Harrison, Thomas Alexander".

Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 24–25


Adalid was a military officer rank in Castile. The position, second to the commander, was akin to that of captain, it is not clear when the term was established. It is mentioned in a ballad at the time of King Ramiro of León. By the time of John II of Castile, the rank of adalid was gone, but the term was in use as an honorary title. An adalid had to be wise, courageous and possess common sense. Another prerequisite for holding the privileged post of adalid was that the candidate must have achieved the status of "almogavar de caballo", in accordance with the Fuero sobre elfecho de las cavalgadas; when a king or a lord wanted to create an adalid, he brought together twelve adalides who made the selection. If twelve adalides could not be found a tales de circumstantibus was established, adding men who had proved themselves in war. According to King Alonso, "It was advised in ancient times that they were to have the qualities before mentioned... in order to be able to guide the troops and armies in time of war... therefore they were called Adalides, equivalent to guides."

Adalides were required to know their men, the regional terrain, military tactics. They had to be skilled in provisioning, establishing camps, foraging for wood and food, exercising authority, developing military intelligence, they served both in the Aragon geneta. Similar to knights, they held the same social status, incurred the same right and punishments. Adalides were horsemen, they selected Almocadenes, who were non-officer leaders of the infantry, it was the duty of the adalides and almocadenes to defend the faith, the king, the land