A superhero is a heroic stock character possessing supernatural or superhuman powers, dedicated to fighting the evil of their universe, protecting the public, battling super-villains. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine, although the word superhero is commonly used for females. Superhero fiction is the genre of fiction, centered on such characters in American comic book and films since the 1930s; some superheroes derive their status from the technology they create and use, rather than from non-human or superhuman biology. While the definition of "superhero" is "a figure in a comic strip or cartoon, endowed with superhuman powers and portrayed as fighting evil or crime", the longstanding Merriam-Webster dictionary gives the definition as "a fictional hero having extraordinary or superhuman powers. Terms such as masked crime fighters, costumed adventurers or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to characters such as the Spirit, who may not be explicitly referred to as superheroes but share similar traits.

Some superheroes use their powers to help daily crime while combating threats against humanity from supervillains, who are their criminal counterparts. At least one of these supervillains will be the superhero's archenemy; some long-running superheroes and superheroines such as Superman, Spider-Man, Wonder Woman, the Hulk, Green Lantern, the Flash, Captain America, Wolverine, Iron Man and the X-Men have a rogues gallery of many villains. The word superhero dates to at least 1917. Antecedents of the archetype include such folkloric heroes as Robin Hood, who adventured in distinctive clothing; the 1903 play The Scarlet Pimpernel and its spinoffs popularized the idea of a masked avenger and the superhero trope of a secret identity. Shortly afterward and costumed pulp fiction characters such as Jimmie Dale/the Gray Seal, Buck Rogers, The Shadow, Flash Gordon, comic strip heroes, such as the Phantom began appearing, as did non-costumed characters with super strength, including the comic-strip characters Patoruzú and Popeye and novelist Philip Wylie's character Hugo Danner.

In the 1930s, both trends came together in some of the earliest superpowered costumed heroes such as Japan's Ōgon Bat, Mandrake the Magician, Superman in 1938 and Captain Marvel at the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books. The precise era of the Golden Age of Comic Books is disputed, though most agree that it was started with the launch of Superman in 1938. Superman has remained one of the most recognizable superheroes, his success spawned a new archetype of characters with secret identities and superhuman powers. At the end of the decade, Batman was brought to fruition by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. In Italy, Vincenzo Baggioli and Carlo Cossio created in 1938 Dick Fulmine, a native hero who lacked powers. During the 1940s there were many superheroes: The Flash, Green Lantern and Blue Beetle debuted in this era; this era saw the debut of one of the earliest female superheroes, writer-artist Fletcher Hanks's character Fantomah, an ageless ancient Egyptian woman in the modern day who could transform into a skull-faced creature with superpowers to fight evil.

The Invisible Scarlet O'Neil, a non-costumed character who fought crime and wartime saboteurs using the superpower of invisibility created by Russell Stamm, would debut in the eponymous syndicated newspaper comic strip a few months on June 3, 1940. Captain America appeared for the first time in print in December 1940, a year prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese government, when America was still in isolationism. Created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, the superhero was the physical embodiment of the American spirit during World War II. One superpowered character was portrayed as an antiheroine, a rarity for its time: the Black Widow, a costumed emissary of Satan who killed evildoers in order to send them to Hell—debuted in Mystic Comics #4, from Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Most of the other female costumed crime-fighters during this era lacked superpowers. Notable characters include The Woman in Red, introduced in Standard Comics' Thrilling Comics #2; the most iconic comic book superheroine, who debuted during the Golden Age, is Wonder Woman.

Modeled from the myth of the Amazons of Greek mythology, she was created by psychologist William Moulton Marston, with help and inspiration from his wife Elizabeth and their mutual lover Olive Byrne. Wonder Woman's first appearance was in All Star Comics #8, published by All-American Publications, one of two companies that would merge to form DC Comics in 1944. Pérák was an urban legend originating from the city of Prague during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in the midst of World War II. In the decades following the war, Pérák has been portrayed as the only Czech superhero in film and comics. In

Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg (bishop)

Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg was Bishop of Cammin and Hildesheim. The father of Magnus was Duke Eric IV of Saxe-Lauenburg, his brothers were Duke Bernard II of Saxe-Lauenburg. He was a canon in Cammin. Under a dispensation from having to attain the required canonical age, Magnus was appointed Bishop of Cammin in 1410 by Pope Alexander V; this appointment was a result of the Western Schism, because there was a Bishop Nicholas in the Bishopric, a supporter of Gregory XII. Though the latter died after a short period, Magnus' post was not undisputed. In 1415, Gregory XII assigned the Bishopric to the Bishop of John of Gudensberg. With the general recognition of Martin V as pope in 1418, Magnus was accepted as the sole Bishop of Cammin. A short time afterwards he was ordained bishop. In the years that followed he concentrated on preserving the independence of the territory of the bishopric, the Stift. In 1417, he was enfeoffed with Cammin by King Sigismund. In 1422, this found expression in its entry in the Reichsmatrikel.

Magnus tried to regain the estates of the Stift enfeoffed by his predecessors. Despite that, the position of the bishop was not recognised by Bogislav IX and other magnates, the disputes continued. In 1424, Magnus moved to the seat of the Bishop of Hildesheim, he had been appointed as coadjutor by Bishop John III. During his reign, the monastery's debts had risen sharply, he had faced external threats. Magnus called for an extended electoral capitulation, he tried to strengthen his position as the territorial lord in the Bishopric of Hildesheim and expanding its area. Internally, he was keen to bring peace. To that end, he entered into alliances with neighbouring cities, he tried to establish a good relationship with the city of Hildesheim. This was successful overall, but at times, there were conflicts between the city's aspirations for independence and his attempt to expand his territorial lordship. Magnus tried to redeem the Bishopric's fiefs. However, this was only possible for Steuerwald Castle.

The need for money led to the levying of taxes. This required the approval of the Landstände. In doing so, they expanded their influence. In addition, districts Ämter and other legal rights had to be pledged. In return, parts of the lordships of Everstein and Homburg were acquired, thus the Bishopric of Hildesheim reached its greatest extent. In the ecclesial life of the Bishopric, Magnus introduced a number of indulgences; the festival of the Presentation of Mary was introduced for the first time. He supported monastic reform efforts. Where necessary, he used his power as a territorial lord for this purpose, he supported Nicholas of Cusa. In 1452, Magnus appointed Bernard of Brunswick-Lüneburg as coadjutor and resigned shortly afterwards. In the same year he was buried in Hildesheim Cathedral. Hans-Georg Aschoff, "Magnus, Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 15, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 663–664

Highfive (company)

Highfive is an American video conferencing company which combines cloud-based software with its proprietary in-room video conferencing hardware. The company, established in 2012 by former Google employee Shan Sinha, has its headquarters in Redwood City, California. In 2016, Fortune named Highfive on its list of the "10 Best Small Workplaces in Technology." Highfive was founded in 2012 by Jeremy Roy. Sinha, one of the developers of Google Drive, noticed while working for Google that there was a high demand for videoconferencing, with tens of thousands of video calls made, he left Google to found Highfive, believing that the market leader, was not “secure or robust enough for business needs.” Sinha’s vision for Highfive is to “make videoconferencing as commonplace as e-mail in business.” After it was established, the company worked in stealth mode as Parlay Labs from 2012 until Highfive’s launch in October, 2014. In March, 2015 Highfive announced. Investors in the firm include General Catalyst Partners, Google Ventures, Andreessen Horowitz, Drew Houston, Aaron Levie, Marc Benioff and Shishir Mehrotra.

In March, 2016 the company announced a 341% growth in customers during 2015 and that it had surpassed the milestone of one million call minutes per week from over 1400 customers. In an interview with Jim Cramer, Sinha commented on the market success: "We are seeing some big secular trends happening that are causing people to be more comfortable with video; the new workforce is all at an age now that they grew up with video.” In May, Highfive announced that they had incorporated telephone conferencing service Dolby Voice into its services. Highfive's software is linked to its in-room video conferencing device, its applications work on personal computers, iPhone, iPad or Android devices, require little time to set up. Bluetooth technology enables calls to be initiated on a mobile device or tablet and beamed onto a large TV screen, which the Los Angeles Times likened to “an Apple TV with a 1080p HD camera and a microphone with a 30-foot range attached.” ‘’Entrepreneur’’ wrote of the product: “Each device delivers HD video and high-fidelity audio.

Installation is straightforward. The interface is intuitive. There are no extra wires, he argues that Highfive is unique because it offers a product of comparable quality and better functionality, available for businesses of all sizes, in any room, at 1/20 of the cost. Philipp Karcher, a senior analyst with Cambridge, Massachusetts based Forrester Research concurred that Highfive’s strength lies in it accessibility to smaller firms and its lower cost. A Polycom-sponsored study conducted by Wainhouse Research found that Highfive was "going after a market of about 30 million to 50 million meeting rooms." Known clients include, Warby Parker, Evernote, Patagonia and Zenefits. Fortune states that in June, 2016 Highfive now faces competition from Logitech, Huawei, ZTE in targeting smaller firms with video conferencing services. Highfive has become known for its surveys into workforce habits. In September, 2015 Highfive commissioned a poll, in which they surveyed 1200 office employees on distractions during the workday.

In June, 2016 the company, in conjunction with Zogby Analytics, conducted a video conferencing survey which found that nearly half of the 800 respondents found video conferencing unsettling due to being conscious of their appearance on camera. Telecollaboration Teleconference Videotelephony Official website