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Warrant officer

Warrant officer is a rank or category of ranks in the armed forces of many countries. Depending on the service and/or historical context, some WOs are classified as the most junior of the commissioned ranks, the most senior of the NCO ranks or in a separate category of their own. However, warrant officer ranks are always senior to non-commissioned officer ranks and subordinate to commissioned officer ranks. WO ranks are prominent in the militaries of Commonwealth nations and the United States; the name of the rank originated in medieval England. It was first used during the 13th century, in the Royal Navy, where Warrant Officers achieved the designation by virtue of their accrued experience or seniority, technically held the rank by a warrant – rather than by the requirements of a formal commission. WOs in the British services have traditionally been considered and treated as distinct from non-commissioned officers, as such. Warrant officers in the United States are classified in rank category "W", distinct from "O" and "E".

However, Chief Warrant Officers are commissioned, on the same basis as commissioned officers, take the same oath. US WOs are experts in a particular technical field, with long service as enlisted personnel. In Commonwealth countries, warrant officers have been included alongside NCOs and enlisted personnel in a category called other ranks, equivalent to the US "E" category. In Commonwealth services, warrant officers rank between chief petty officer and sub-lieutenant in the navy, between staff sergeant and second lieutenant in the army and between flight sergeant and pilot officer in the air force; the warrant officer corps began in the nascent Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain; these officers had no knowledge of life on board a ship—let alone how to navigate such a vessel—and relied on the expertise of the ship's master and other seamen who tended to the technical aspects of running the ship.

As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts. Literacy was one thing that most warrant officers had in common, this distinguished them from the common seamen: according to the Admiralty regulations, "no person shall be appointed to any station in which he is to have charge of stores, unless he can read and write, is sufficiently skilled in arithmetic to keep an account of them correctly". Since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate. In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition. In the 18th century they fell into two clear categories: on the one hand, those privileged to share with the commissioned officers in the wardroom and on the quarterdeck. Somewhere between the two, were the standing officers; these classes of warrant officer messed in the wardroom with the commissioned officers: the master: the senior warrant officer, a qualified navigator and experienced seaman who set the sails, maintained the ship's log and advised the captain on the seaworthiness of the ship and crew.

In the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status. The standing officers were: the boatswain: responsible for maintenance of the ship's boats, rigging and cables. Other warrant officers included surgeon's mates, boatswain's mates and carpenter's mates, armourers and clerks. Masters-at-arms, who had overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline. By the end of the century, the rank structure could be illustrated as follows: In 1843, the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status, while in 1853 the lower-grade warrant officers were absorbed into the new rate of chief petty officer, both classes thereby ceasing to be warrant officers. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades: warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of modern technology in the Royal Navy to include telegraphis

DLF (company)

DLF Limited is Gurgaon based commercial real estate developer. It is based in New Delhi, India. DLF developed residential colonies in Delhi such as Shivaji Park, Model Town, Rajouri Garden, Krishna Nagar, South Extension, Greater Kailash, Kailash Colony, Hauz Khas. DLF builds residential and retail properties. With the passage of Delhi Development Act in 1957, the local government assumed control of real estate development in Delhi and banned private real estate developers; as a result, DLF began acquiring land at low cost outside the area controlled by the Delhi Development Authority, in the district of Gurgaon, in the adjacent state of Haryana. In the mid-1970s, the company started developing their DLF City project at Gurgaon, its plans include hotels and special economic zones-related development projects. The company is headed by Kushal Pal Singh. Kushal Pal Singh, according to the Forbes listing of richest billionaires in 2009, was the 98th richest man in the world and the world's richest property developer.

The company's US$2 billion IPO in July 2007 was India's biggest IPO in history. In its first quarter results for the period ending 30 June 2007, the company reported a turnover of ₹31.2098 billion and profits after taxes of ₹15.1548 billion. As of 31 March 2012, the company had 1,380 square feet of leased retail space across the country. In 2013–14, it leased out 3 million sq ft of office space in India. In August 2011 a penalty of ₹6.3 billion was imposed on DLF by the Competition Commission of India after finding DLF guilty of breaching laws regarding the unfair pricing of goods and services. The complaint was lodged against DLF by buyers in its residential projects Belaire & Park Place, located in Gurgaon. DLF has paid part of the penalty, the matter is in the Supreme Court of India. In February 2015, the CCI ordered its investigative arm to probe two more projects of DLF in Gurgaon, namely, DLF Regal Gardens and DLF Skycourt. DLF's first residential project was Krishna Nagar in East Delhi, completed in 1949.

Subsequently, the company developed 21 colonies in Delhi, including Model Town, Rajouri Garden, Punjabi Bagh, South Extension, Greater Kailash, Kailash Colony and Hauz Khas. The passage of Delhi Development Act in 1957 was the first serious challenge to company’s growth; the Act meant that the government would assume control of all real estate development activities in the city. As a result, DLF focused on the suburb of Gurgaon in Haryana. Which had the potential for development of commercial properties; as DLF started to acquire land under the leadership of Chairman K. P. Singh, Gurgaon embarked on a period of rapid growth; the land purchase program adopted a humane approach. To this effect, DLF partnered with farmers so that they got a share in profits. DLF acquired and created a land bank and sold plots to buyers after demarcation; the profits from the sales were subsequently shared with farmers, which encouraged more farmers to come forward and partner with DLF. A 58 crore deal was cancelled between Robert Vadra by IAS officer Ashok Khemka.

In 2008, DLF became the title sponsor of the Indian Premier League, a newly formed Twenty20 cricket league. DLF paid close to ₹2 billion for the 5-year sponsorship deal; the deal ended in the 2012 version of the season. It is now sponsored by Vivo and called Vivo IPL. DLF is sponsoring the 2018-2022 I League. Haryana Urban Development Authority and DLF, in a 50: 50 joint venture, have completed work on a 16- lane, 10.5 km road network in Gurgaon. This stretch from NH8 Toll Plaza to Sector 55/56 in Gurgaon with six underpasses, one flyover and freeways has improved traffic management in the city. To create this infrastructure facility, DLF had engaged Parsons Brinckerhoff for project management consultancy and construction work had been awarded to IL&FS. Official website

Let's Smile

Let's Smile is F. I. R.'s 5th Anniversary album, released on 25 December 2009. )is the song which marks the fifth anniversary of the band, after forming the band as F. I. R. in 2004. The album features 11 new tracks, with the song'Hero' being offered as a bonus track; the release of this album marks the 5th anniversary of the band F. I. R.. The track "荊棘裡的花" is listed at number 94 on Hit Fm Taiwan's Hit Fm Annual Top 100 Singles Chart for 2010. "Find My Way" "I Am Here" "向日葵盛開的夏天" "紀念日" "衝浪季節" "紅潮" "荊棘裡的花" "讓我們一起微笑吧" "貓頭鷹的夢" "WE ARE" Track for 5th anniversary of F. I. R. "Hero"