Warren Edward Buffett is an American business magnate and philanthropist, the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway. He is considered one of the most successful investors in the world and has a net worth of US$88.9 billion as of December 2019, making him the fourth-wealthiest person in the world. Buffett was born in Nebraska, he developed an interest in business and investing in his youth entering the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1947 before transferring and graduating from the University of Nebraska at the age of 19. He went on to graduate from Columbia Business School, where he molded his investment philosophy around the concept of value investing, pioneered by Benjamin Graham, he attended New York Institute of Finance to focus his economics background and soon after began various business partnerships, including one with Graham. He created Buffett Partnership, Ltd in 1956 and his firm acquired a textile manufacturing firm called Berkshire Hathaway, assuming its name to create a diversified holding company.
In 1978, Charlie Munger became vice chairman of the company. Buffett has been the chairman and largest shareholder of Berkshire Hathaway since 1970, he has been referred to as the "Oracle" or "Sage" of Omaha by global media outlets. He is noted for his adherence to value investing and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth. Research published at the University of Oxford characterizes Buffett's investment methodology as falling within "founder centrism" – defined by a deference to managers with a founder's mindset, an ethical disposition towards the shareholder collective, an intense focus on exponential value creation. Buffett's concentrated investments shelter managers from the short-term pressures of the market. Buffett is a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 99 percent of his fortune to philanthropic causes via the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, he founded The Giving Pledge in 2009 with Bill Gates, whereby billionaires pledge to give away at least half of their fortunes.
Buffett was born in 1930 in Omaha, the second of three children and the only son of Leila and Congressman Howard Buffett. Buffett began his education at Rose Hill Elementary School. In 1942, his father was elected to the first of four terms in the United States Congress, after moving with his family to Washington, D. C. Warren finished elementary school, attended Alice Deal Junior High School and graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1947, where his senior yearbook picture reads: "likes math. After finishing high school and finding success with his side entrepreneurial and investment ventures, Buffett wanted to skip college to go directly into business, but was overruled by his father. Buffett displayed an interest in investing at a young age, he was inspired by a book he borrowed from the Omaha public library at the age of seven, One Thousand Ways to Make $1000. Much of Buffett's early childhood years were enlivened with entrepreneurial ventures. In one of his first business ventures Buffett sold chewing gum, Coca-Cola bottles, weekly magazines door to door.
He worked in his grandfather's grocery store. While still in high school, he made money delivering newspapers, selling golf balls and stamps, detailing cars, among other means. On his first income tax return in 1944, Buffett took a $35 deduction for the use of his bicycle and watch on his paper route. In 1945, as a high school sophomore, Buffett and a friend spent $25 to purchase a used pinball machine, which they placed in the local barber shop. Within months, they owned several machines in three different barber shops across Omaha; the business was sold in the year for $1,200 to a war veteran. Buffett's interest in the stock market and investing dated to schoolboy days he spent in the customers' lounge of a regional stock brokerage near his father's own brokerage office. On a trip to New York City at age ten, he made a point to visit the New York Stock Exchange. At 11, he bought three shares of Cities Service Preferred for himself, three for his philanthropic sister Doris Buffett. At the age of 15, Warren made more than $175 monthly delivering Washington Post newspapers.
In high school, he invested in a business owned by his father and bought a 40-acre farm worked by a tenant farmer. He bought the land. By the time he finished college, Buffett had accumulated $9,800 in savings. In 1947, Buffett entered the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, he would have preferred to focus on his business ventures. Warren joined the Alpha Sigma Phi fraternity, he transferred to the University of Nebraska where at 19, he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. After being rejected by Harvard Business School, Buffett enrolled at Columbia Business School of Columbia University upon learning that Benjamin Graham taught there, he earned a Master of Science in Economics from Columbia in 1951. After graduating, Buffett attended the New York Institute of Finance; the basic ideas of investing are to look at stocks as business, use the market's fluctuations to your advantage, seek a margin of safety. That's. A hundred years from now they will still be the cornerstones of investing.
Buffett worked from 1951 to 1954 at Co. as an investment salesman. In April 1952, Buffett discovered that Graham wa
Rhydypennau is a hamlet in the Genau'r-glyn district of Ceredigion, Wales 4 1⁄2 miles north-east of Aberystwyth. Along with the village of Pen-y-garn, Rhydypennau is now considered to be part of the neighbouring village of Bow Street. All three places stretch in a long narrow strip along the main Aberystwyth to Machynlleth road. In his memoirs about growing up in Llanfihangel Geneu’r Glyn, Pen-y-garn and Bow Street, Tom Macdonald recalls that the local pronunciation of Rhydypennau was ‘Rhypenne’. An early Bronze-age copper thin-butted flat axe was found to the north-east of Rhydypennau Bridge; the axe has one smooth face, hammered along its edges, whilst the other is irregular and shows traces of tooling. Rhydypennau is centred on the junction of the A487 with the road towards Borth; as well as a few houses, there is the Rhyd-y-Pennau Inn, Rhydypennau Garage, the Pennau craft centre, Rhydypennau Farm. The old Rhydypennau School overlooks the hamlet, whilst the present Rhydypennau school, Ysgol Rhydypennau, is located in Pen-y-garn.
Robert Burnham Jr. was an American astronomer, best known for writing the classic three-volume Burnham's Celestial Handbook. He is the discoverer of numerous asteroids including the Mars crossing asteroid 3397 Leyla, as well as six comets. Burnham's late years were tragic. However, he is remembered by a generation of deep sky observers for his unique contribution to astronomy, the Celestial Handbook; the main-belt asteroid. Burnham was born in Illinois, in 1931, the son of Robert Sr. and Lydia. His family moved to Prescott, Arizona, in 1940, he graduated from high school there in 1949; that was the culmination of his formal education. Always a shy person, he had few friends, never married, spent most of his time observing with his home-built telescope. In the fall of 1957 he received considerable local publicity; this led to his being hired by Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1958 to work on a survey of stellar proper motion using a blink comparator. While Burnham was working at Lowell, he and his co-worker, Norman G. Thomas, discovered five more comets, in excess of 1500 asteroids.
In addition to his regular duties at the observatory, Burnham spent all of his free time working on the Celestial Handbook. His writing and his book were never supported by Lowell Observatory. Subtitled "An Observer's Guide to the Universe Beyond the Solar System," the Celestial Handbook combines a lengthy introduction to astronomy with catalog information for every constellation in the sky. Thousands of stars and deep sky objects visible in small telescopes are covered in meticulous detail. Self-published in a loose-leaf serial format beginning in 1966, with a revised edition by Dover Publications in 1978, the Celestial Handbook was well reviewed in amateur astronomy magazines and became a best seller in this specialized field, it is considered to be a classic in the literature of amateur astronomy. Due to the popularity of Celestial Handbook, Tony Ortega writing in the Phoenix New Times in 1997 described Burnham as an author "whose name has become so familiar to some readers it has become a sort of shorthand, like Audubon to birders, Hoyle to card players, Webster to poor spellers, Robert to parliamentarians."
Ortega described the book series as:...a sort of real-life hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy, a compendium with something to say about nearly every cosmic destination worth visiting. Part travel guide, part history text, part encyclopedia, it's like a handheld natural history museum of the universe, and for decades it's held a grip on the imaginations of most people who ply the night skies with telescopes, people who yearn to travel in space and know that they can, any dark and clear night. Reading Burnham's massive, three-volume work is like reading the notes of an adventurer who has spent a lifetime studying the treasures of a lost civilization: Its 2,138 pages are loaded with tables of data, technical passages and illustrations interspersed with historical arcana and ancient poetry, and all of it is meant as an incentive for the reader to recover those treasures by looking upward. It is compared to other books because there is none other like it. No other popular work completeness. Burnham mentions the spinthariscope.
In April 1979, the year after Celestial Handbook was published by Dover, Burnham received notice that the proper motion survey would soon be completed and that the observatory could not afford to keep him on in the position he had long held. Despite months of warning, he failed to make other arrangements and, after twenty-one years at Lowell, his job ended in December of that year. Unwilling to take the only position, offered to him, that of janitor at the observatory, he left. Burnham was never able to recover professionally, or financially after he lost the job at Lowell. Over the next few years, while sales of the Celestial Handbook were growing, Burnham's personal circumstances were worsening, his shyness increased and he shunned all publicity, becoming more reclusive. He bickered with Dover about royalties and about the creation of possible new editions or translations of his book, he worked sporadically on a fantasy novel - which he never completed. Writing for the Frosty Drew Observatory in 2000, Doug Stewart said: Had Burnham been a more astute businessman he might have parlayed his justifiable fame into a comfortable income.
He would have been in great demand on the speakers' circuit, could have held a top post in any planetarium in the country. He was quite a skilled speaker before such groups, a skill honed in over twenty years of observatory tours at Lowell, but this was not Jr.. He continued to shy away from publicity, at the same time, his small income became less and less reliable while Dover's success with his guide increased. As his situation worsened, never married, become bitter and depressed, isolated himself from his few friends and family, he had lived for a time in Phoenix, but in May 1986 he left Phoenix and dropped out of sight informing no one but his publisher of his whereabouts. Despite being the author of a successful book, Burnham spent the last years of his life in poverty and obscurity in San Diego, selling his paintings of cats at Balboa Park; the fans of Celestial Handbook were unaware of his personal circumst