Warren County, Indiana

Warren County lies in western Indiana between the Illinois state line and the Wabash River in the United States. According to the 2010 census, the population was 8,508; the county seat is Williamsport. Before the arrival of non-indigenous settlers in the early 19th century, the area was inhabited by several Native American tribes; the county was established in 1827 and was the 55th county to be formed in Indiana. It is one of the most rural counties in the state, with the third-smallest population and the lowest population density at about 23 inhabitants per square mile; the county has four incorporated towns with a total population of about 3,100, as well as many small unincorporated communities. The county is divided into 12 townships. Much of the land in the county is given over to agriculture on the open prairie in the northern and western parts. Nearer the river along the southeastern border, the land has many hills and tributary streams and is more wooded. Agriculture, government and health care each provide substantial portions of the jobs in the county.

Four Indiana state roads cross the county, as do two U. S. Routes and one major railroad line. In the centuries before the arrival of European settlers, the area that became Warren County was on the boundary between the Miami and Kickapoo tribes. By the late 18th century, many Miami had moved further south; the first non-indigenous settler in the area was Zachariah Cicott, a French-Canadian who first traded with the Kickapoo and Potawatomi people around 1802. When General William Henry Harrison took an army from Vincennes to the Battle of Tippecanoe in late 1811, Cicott served as a scout. Following the War of 1812, Cicott resumed his trading on the Wabash. Other settlers came to the area, but not until around 1822; the county was established on March 1827, by the Indiana General Assembly. It was named for Dr. Joseph Warren, killed in 1775 at the Battle of Bunker Hill, in which he fought as a private because his commission as a general had not yet taken effect; the short-lived town of Warrenton was the original Warren County seat, chosen by commissioners in March 1828.

The first county courthouse was a log house in Warrenton that belonged to Enoch Farmer, one of the county's earliest settlers. When the county seat moved to Williamsport, a log house belonging to the town's founder, William Harrison, served this purpose for several years; the first purpose-built courthouse was completed in 1835 at a cost of $2,000. The third courthouse was built in 1886, in a new section of town that grew around the newly constructed railroad; that building burned in 1907, the fourth and current Warren County courthouse was completed on the same site in 1908 at a cost of $115,000. As the 19th century progressed, the United States government's Indian removal policy pushed Native American tribes west of the Mississippi River. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act was signed into law, though that act did not directly address the Potawatomi people of Indiana, it led to several additional treaties that resulted in their removal. In what came to be known as the Potawatomi Trail of Death, about 860 Potawatomi Indians who had refused to leave were forced to move from Indiana to Kansas.

On September 14, 1838, the group camped near Williamsport, on September 15 they camped in the southwestern part of the county before moving into Illinois. Before reaching their destination in Kansas, over 40 of them had died, many of them children; when the county was established, the Wabash River was vital to shipping. Zachariah Cicott traded up and down the river, cities like Attica, Perrysville and Williamsport were founded near the river's banks and flourished because of it. In the 1840s, the Wabash and Erie Canal began to operate and provided broader shipping opportunities, but the canal favored towns which were on the "right side" of the river; some towns, such as Williamsport and Perrysville, managed to participate in canal traffic through the use of side-cuts that brought traffic from the canal across the river. When railroads were constructed starting in the 1850s, they in turn began to render the canals obsolete and allowed trade to reach towns that lacked water connections; the canal continued to be used through the early 1870s.

The first trains to run in Warren County operated on portions of the Toledo and Western Railway in 1856. The railroad entered the county near Williamsport and was built westward, reaching the western border at State Line City by 1857. West Lebanon was the only other settlement near the railroad's path, but the line bypassed it by about a mile. In 1869 the Indianapolis and Western Railway was built across Mound Township in the southern part of the county. A few years in 1872, a branch of the Chicago and Vincennes Railroad (


Yerranderie is a ghost town located near Kanangra-Boyd National Park of New South Wales, Australia in Wollondilly Shire. Yerranderie was a silver mining town of 2000 people, but the mining industry collapsed in 1927, the town was cut off from direct access from Sydney by the establishment of the Warragamba Dam and Lake Burragorang in 1959; the Yerranderie Post Office opened on 1 November 1899 and closed in 1958. The town is now divided into two sections, the residential township adjacent to a private airstrip and the historic site one kilometre further west; the area is surrounded by mining relics. Accessible by dirt road from Oberon, New South Wales 70km to the west. Aircraft occasionally fly out from Camden Airport; the township was established on the slopes north of Yerranderrie Peak, the remains of a volcanic dyke and the source of the mineral wealth of the area. The name of Yerranderrie is taken from two local Aboriginal words meaning summit. Yerranderie was caught up in what was, at the time, the world’s longest strike, lasting for eighteen months in 1919-20.

The workers of this small mine belonged to the same union as those at Broken Hill. When the Broken Hill mine went on strike, the workers at Yerranderie were required to join that strike by their union; the strike, was not about any issue at Yerranderie. The town was bought by Valerie Anne Lhuede, who developed it as a tourist centre and total environment project; the old post office serves as a guest house. Other restored buildings include two miners cottages as well as several shops; the caretakers live in Krubi Cottage nearby. In March 2011, Lhuede announced, "I am donating Yerranderie to the National Parks and Wildlife Service with a list of my wishes for Yerranderie’s future." Blue Mountains National Parks and Wildlife Service - Yerranderie Private Town

HMS Gorgon (1914)

HMS Gorgon and her sister ship Glatton were two monitors built as coastal defence ships for the Royal Norwegian Navy, as HNoMS Nidaros and Bjørgvin by Armstrong Whitworth at Elswick. She was purchased from Norway at the beginning of the First World War, but was not completed until 1918 although she had been launched over three years earlier, she engaged targets in Occupied Flanders for the last several months of the war and fired the last shots of the war against such targets on 15 October 1918. She was used as a target ship after several attempts to sell her had fallen through before being sold for scrap in 1928. Nidaros was ordered by Norway in 1913 to supplement the older Eidsvold and Tordenskjold classes of coastal defense ships, she would have been known in Norway as P/S Nidaros. However, when the First World War broke out, the Royal Navy requisitioned most warships under construction in Britain for foreign powers and refunded the two-thirds of the Bjørgvin's £370,000 purchase price paid by the Norwegians.

Nidaros was laid down by Armstrong Whitworth at Elswick on 11 June 1913 and launched on 9 June 1914. She was renamed as Gorgon, after an earlier breastwork monitor of 1871, her completion was delayed by the modifications made by the British, which included modifying the boilers to use both oil and coal and conversion of 12 double-bottom tanks to carry oil. This work began on 9 January 1915, but was suspended the following May, when it was estimated that only another 10–12 months of work remained, to allow for faster progress to be made on the large light cruisers Furious and Courageous that were building in Armstrong's Naval Yard downriver. In September 1917, work was resumed on a new design that added a large anti-torpedo bulge along about 75% of the hull's length, suppression of the torpedo tubes and the 100-millimetre guns planned by the Norwegians, a large tripod mast was fitted behind the single funnel to carry the directors for both the 6-inch and 9.2-inch guns. Both of these guns had to be relined to use standard British ammunition and the mount for the 9.2-inch gun was modified to give a maximum elevation of 40° which gave the gun a maximum range of 39,000 yards.

Addition of the bulges cost 2 knots in speed, but prevented the extra weight resulting from all of these changes from deepening her draft. She was completed on 4 June 1918. Gorgon displaced 5,700 long tons at deep load as built, with a length of 310 feet, a beam of 73 feet 7 inches at maximum, although her main hull only had a beam of 55 feet and a draught of 16 feet 4 inches, she was powered by two vertical triple expansion steam engines, which developed a total of 4,000 indicated horsepower from four Yarrow watertube boilers and gave a maximum speed of 12 knots. She was armed with two 9.2-inch guns arranged in two single-gun turrets, one turret each fore and aft. Her secondary armament consisted of four six-inch guns in single gun turrets, two of which superfired over the 9.2-inch turrets and the others were positioned on each side of the superstructure. One 3 in anti-aircraft gun was mounted on each center-line six-inch turret, she carried four 3-pounder and four 2-pounder guns on high-angle mounts.

Gorgon arrived at Dover on 6 June 1918. Her first engagement was on 26 July when she fired eight rounds at a range of 33,000 yards at a German howitzer battery to calibrate her guns and fire control system, which provoked a response from the German 380-millimetre gun of Batterie Pommern south of Ostende. Three days she accompanied Marshal Soult on a bombardment of Batterie "Tirpitz", she spent the next month and a half either out on patrol in the English Channel or preparing for the bombardment scheduled for the end of September in support of a major offensive along the coast. At daybreak on 28 September 1918, Gorgon, in company with General Wolfe, anchored about 7 mi off De Panne and opened fire about 7:15 on a bridge at Snaeskerke, Belgium at a range of 36,000 yd. Conditions were not good as both wind and tide were against her. Gorgon's stern anchor cable parted and she swung around on her bow anchor so that only her rear turret could bear on the target. No aircraft were made available to spot for her so there was little chance of a hit and she only fired eleven rounds.

She, the other monitors, were attacked several times during the day by German aircraft with little effect and several coast defense batteries attempted to engage them through the smokescreen put up by the motor launches supporting the operation. She fired thirteen shells the next day in another attempt to destroy the bridge and claimed one hit although this was not confirmed by subsequent observations. On 14 October, she repeated the experience, except that her target was now the Middelkerke batteries, she fired 41 rounds during the morning at a range of 26,000 yards, but she accompanied Vice-Admiral Keyes in the destroyer Termagant in a reconnaissance mission to see if the Germans were still holding the coast in strength. The fire of the Tirpitz and Raversyde Batteries soon disabused them of any notions to the contrary and Gorgon was forced to turn away at maximum speed, faster than she'd made on trials, when they straddled her and hit her with splinters from the near-misses; the following day she fired 30 rounds in 20 minutes.

These were the last shots of the war fired against German batteries on the Belgian coast. She was sent to Portsmouth af