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Shinto in Korea

The origins of Shinto in Korea are a result of Japan's incursions since an unbalanced treaty in 1876. Shinto's rise in Korea is directly associated with the Japanese government's ideological use of the traditional folk practices of Japan described as "State Shinto." As Japan expanded its control of Korea, it expanded the number of shrines, with the aim of one national shrine in each province. By 1945, attendance at shrines was in many cases compulsory. Japan's Meiji restoration had been rejecting any relationship between Shinto, the folk tradition of Japan, religious belief. Imperial Japan interpreted Shinto as a "suprareligious" institution based on a set of traditions, rather than moral instructions; as such, requirements to participate in Shinto ceremonies were not deemed to be a violation of the Meiji-era's freedom of religion doctrine. This was the position of the state described as "State Shinto," and not followed by priests or practitioners of Shinto; the earliest Shinto shrine in Korea is believed to be Kotohira shrine Ryūtōsan shrine, built in 1678, built by workers of the local Japan House trade office.

In 1876, the Japan–Korea Treaty of Amity introduced Japanese settlers, Shinto proselytizers, to Incheon and Wonsan. As Japanese traders arrived in these ports, they brought Shinto practices with them. For example, Genzan shrine, in Wonsan, was constructed in 1882, was elevated to National Shrine status by the Japanese in 1936. By 1911, Sugawara Tenmangu, Konpira shrines had been established, ostensibly for the practice of Japanese nationals living there. Other active groups included Konkokyo, Tenrikyo and Shinrikyo. After the Japan-Korea treaty of 1910, Korea was under Japanese rule. In turn, the Governor-General responsible for managing Korea for Imperial Japan was empowered to expand the use of shrines there. A year a police report on shrine activities in Korea stated that "shrines are established for the purpose of the protection of local areas, are revered among many residents. Shrines are managed along with other civic groups by the local association of Japanese residents."In 1913, to mark the anniversary of the occupation, members of the Korean royal family presented an offering to Amaterasu at a Shinto shrine in Seoul, signaling their subordination to the Japanese government.

Meanwhile, Japanese expatriates at this time were protective of Japanese customs, reluctant to engage or inform Koreans about shrine practices, despite government orders to promote them, the Japanese government struggled to incorporate Korean nationals into leadership roles at the shrines. Chosen shrine, in Seoul, was built in 1920 and was named an Imperial Shrine in 1925, it was the first Korean shrine to be funded by the state, was established as the first in a series of national shrines to be built in each Korean province. By the 1930s, it was the Korean Governor-General's policy to build a Shinto shrine in every village in Korea, the total reached 995 by the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945; this was 57 percent of all shrines Japan built outside of Japan during the war. These shrines were more aggressive in their outreach to locals than the expatriate-led shrines had been before. In 1925, primary school students and staff were required to attend local shrines as part of a "Imperial subject-making" initiative, kōminka seisaku.

In 1936, shrine worship was made compulsory for university students as well. Schools refusing to participate in these trips could be closed. Under the National Mobilization law of 1938, laws requiring Christian schools to visit shrines were expanded to include all Christians; that September, members of a Presbyterian church in Korea were forced to visit a shrine by soldiers with bayonets. The question of whether or not it was acceptable for Christians to attend shrine ceremonies was a dilemma that divided the Korean Church during the 1930s, with Presbyterians being more opposed and the Methodists and Roman Catholics more tolerant of the practice, it was however foreign missionaries, the most outspoken on the issue, but their opposition had meant many were no longer able to stay in Korea in the north. On one hand many churches and mission groups believed that it was idolatry, while many other churches came to trust the Japanese when they claimed that the ceremonies weren't religious in nature but rather just ultra-nationalism.

The latter believed that fundamental opposition to shrine worship was doing more harm to Christianity in Korea than it was doing good. Thus, in order to appease the Japanese colonialists and keep Christian schools open, many Christians became tolerant of shrine worship including the Presbyterian General Assembly, once so opposed to the practice; as more Christians took part in shrine worship, it weakened the argument for the fundamentalists. Post-WWII today, the Shrine question remains a sensitive issue among Korean Christians. While many considered it to have been a tactful necessity to keep the Church visible, many were disappointed by the lack of gospel faithfulness Christian leaders displayed in the face of persecution. In the following decades, many pastors repented for compromising their faith during Japanese colonialism and were encouraged to be a'sheep' for a short period as way of restoring the integrity of their faith. Japanese Imperial scholars such as Ryuzo Torii and Ogasawara Shōzō’ advocated the position that Korean and Japanese folk traditions shared a common, shamanic link, which bolstered Im

Waldheim–Rochlitz railway

The Waldheim–Rochlitz railway was a single-track branchline of about 21 km length in Saxony, connecting the towns of Waldheim and Rochlitz via Hartha and Geringswalde. It was opened in 1893, closed in 1998 and served the purposes of the local industry and population. First attempts to have a railway built between Waldheim and Rochlitz were made in the 1870s; the towns of Geringswalde and Hartha had a particular interest in it, as they expected advantages for their further economic development. A first petition to the Saxon parliament in 1871 was rejected by the First Chamber. Another petition in 1872, supported by Geringswalde, Hartha and Waldheim unterstützt wurde, was rejected, further attempts in the following years remained without success. Instead of the Waldheim–Rochlitz line, a railway from Schweikershain to Colditz via Geringswalde and Lastau and a branch line connecting Hartha to Waldheim were discussed in the 1870s. While first rentability studies were permitted in 1882, the project was rejected again in 1883.

In a new petition of 12 November 1883 the communities declared themselves ready to purchase the necessary land at their own expenses. In December 1883 the mayor of Geringswalde presented himself at ministries and railway deputations in Dresden. With a petition dated 7 November 1887 the towns of Geringswalde, Hartha and Waldheim complained to the Second Chamber of the Saxon Parliament about the slow progress. Preparatory work for a branch line was permitted in 1888 and began in 1889. Permission for the actual construction was given on 13 March 1890 by the Second Chamber of the Saxon Parliament, shortly thereafter by the First Chamber. However, the exact route, in particular the location of Hartha station, had not been decided upon yet. A station close to the town center would have made the line about one kilometre longer, would have required two more bridges, while a shorter, more southern route would have meant a greater distance of the station from the town. Despite the wishes of neighbouring communities, the supporters of the southern route prevailed.

As a consequence, Geringswalde station was built south of the town. Two options were considered for the route to Rochlitz, a northern one along Auenbach brook or a southern one along Aubach brook. Construction started on 1 April 1891. Site offices were established in Waldheim and Rochlitz, their first tasks were surveying work, purchase of land, provision of materials, hiring of workers; the groundbreaking ceremony was held on 27 October 1891 on the site of the bridge across Zwickauer Mulde, the largest engineering structure on the line. Substantial work, started only in June 1892. Part of Hausberg hill in Döhlen needed to be removed to make room for road; the rock masses were used to raise the ground on the site of Döhlen station. Work in Geringswalde and Hartha started in August 1892, in Waldheim in November 1892. There, the expansion of the station in 1888, together with the removal of rock on its north-western edge, had created favourable conditions for further construction work. Considering that only two major engineering structures needed to be built, the initial plan was to complete the line within a year.

However, the deadline of 1 July 1893 could not be met, tracklaying only started in August 1893. Although a first timetable was published for September 1893, the line was only completed in November 1893; the first engine reached Hartha on 6 October 1893. After two postponements, the line was opened with a delay of half a year on 6 December 1893 with a special train, the stagecoach route between Geringswalde and Rochlitz having ceased operation before. Upon opening, the line was given - as usual for Saxon railway lines - its route initials WR, derived from the initials of the termini; the line catered to local demand. The first timetable provided for four trains daily in each direction. In 1914 there were eight trains towards Waldheim and six towards Rochlitz on workdays, taking 60 to 70 minutes to travel the 21 km long line, one train from Waldheim to Geringswalde. Before World War I there were so-called "theatre trains" running through to and from Döbeln; the use of locomotives of Saxon Class V V has been recorded photographically.

The traffic volume declined after World War I, for a limited period there was no passenger traffic on Sundays. Further disruptions were caused by a strike of railway workers in 1922. Traffic only stabilised in the late 1920s. At this time, the timetable arrangements were found unsatisfactory by the travelling public who requested through trains between Waldheim and Narsdorf as well as better connections, considered the passenger rolling stock to be outdated; the travel time for passenger trains had remained between 60 and 70 min, the number of trains had hardly changed. On 26 September 1940 the bridge across the road between Arras and Milkau was exchanged for a new one with the help of a railway crane; the line did not suffer damage during World War II. Around 1980 there were three locomotive-hauled passenger trains each way between Waldheim and Rochlitz from Monday to Friday, needing about 40 min for one trip, two locomotive-hauled passenger trains each way between Waldheim and Rochlitz, as well as two trains operated by diesel railcar each way between Waldheim and Altenburg.

The morning train from Waldheim to Rochlitz continued from Monday to Friday to Narsdorf. Additionally, a mixed train ran from Monday to

Tewfik Mishlawi

Tewfik Mishlawi was a veteran Lebanese journalist, well known in the Middle East and Arab world. Born 1935 in Haifa, British Mandate Palestine, Mishlawi fled to Lebanon with his family during the 1948 Palestinian exodus. Becoming a naturalized Lebanese, Mishlawi studied economics at the American University of Beirut, he is survived by his wife Phillipa, their son Nadim, Nadim's son Karim, as well as two children from a previous marriage. Mishlawi did a good deal of research work in the field of journalism, involving such topics as foreign perceptions of the American news media and journalism from a third world perspective, among other things. From 1963 to 1973, Mishlawi was deputy editor in chief of The Daily Star, Lebanon's only English language daily newspaper. From 1973 to 1976, he worked as a staff reporter for the Beirut Bureau of the United Press International. From 1973 to 1985, he was Special Middle East correspondent for The Wall Street Journal, providing hard news and features. From 1977 to 1979, he was ad hoc correspondent for BusinessWeek in New York City.

From 1980 to 1983 he was special correspondent for The Times in London, providing hard news. From 1985 to 1992, he was director of training at the Center for Foreign Journalists in Reston, Virginia. Since returning to Lebanon in 1992, he had continued working on his own periodical, the Middle East Reporter, a media digest that would translate and sum up the Arabic press for foreign diplomats and academics, he conducted a number of workshops to train journalists during this period. Many who knew Tewfik Mishlawi considered him an honest and serious journalist committed to impartial reporting, something, not an easy task in the Arab World in view of the region's recurrent instability and conflicting political loyalties.

Heaven Is for Real

Heaven is for Real: A Little Boy's Astounding Story of His Trip to Heaven and Back is a 2010 New York Times best-selling Christian book written by Todd Burpo and Lynn Vincent and published by Thomas Nelson Publishers. The book documents the report of a near-death experience by Burpo's three-year-old son Colton. By April 2012, more than one million ebooks had been sold, more than 10 million copies had been sold by 2014. A feature film based on the book was released on April 16, 2014, earning $101 million at the box office. Todd Burpo and Lynn Vincent co-wrote this book when Todd Burpo's three-year-old son had appendicitis; when Colton's mother, first noticed he was not feeling well she took him to the emergency room and was told that Colton had influenza, as all the tests for a possible appendicitis came back negative. As time passed on, Colton continuously kept throwing up, when Todd and Sonja knew that he did not just have influenza; when Todd and Sonja went to a different emergency room with Colton, they were told that Colton had to have an emergency appendectomy as he could die.

Months after surviving the emergency surgery to remove his appendix, Colton shared the story of how he left his body during surgery and went to heaven. Colton began describing people that seemed impossible for him to have known about. Examples include knowledge of an unborn sister miscarried by his mother in 1998 and details of a great-grandfather who had died 30 years before Colton was born. Colton explained how he met Jesus riding a rainbow-colored horse and sat in Jesus' lap while angels sang songs to him, he saw Mary kneeling before the throne of God and at other times standing beside Jesus. Colton Burpo the three-year-old son of Todd Burpo and Sonja Burpo, was the one. At the time of the incident, Todd Burpo was pastor at a Crossroads church in Nebraska. Sonja Burpo was a teacher at a local school. Cassie Burpo is the older sister of Colton Burpo. Pop was Todd Burpo's grandfather and Dr. O’Holleran was the doctor that performed the emergency appendectomy on Colton. Within ten weeks of its November 2010 release, the book debuted at No. 3 on the New York Times bestseller list.

A variety of Christians have expressed questions regarding the book. The Berean Call, a Christian ministry and newsletter, cited the book for its "extra-biblical" and "problematic" claims, as well as the lack of any medical evidence that the boy was clinically dead during the surgery. Author and pastor John MacArthur has criticized the book for presenting an un-Biblical perspective on the afterlife. In an interview with The New Yorker magazine, Heaven Is for Real co-author Lynn Vincent expressed concern that Christians would find the book to be a "hoax" if she included people in heaven having wings. In 2015, Alex Malarkey – a boy with a similar story to Colton Burpo's – publicly recanted his own story and book The Boy Who Came Back from Heaven, stating that his near-death experience described in that book was fictional, condemned Christian publishers and bookstores for selling popular "heaven tourism" books, which he said "profit from lies." Following Malarkey's statement, Colton Burpo said that while he acknowledged that some among the public had doubts about his account, he stood by Heaven Is for Real's contents nonetheless.

In less than just one year of being released, this book surpassed the 1 million sales and was awarded the Platinum sales Award. In 2014 after seeing 10 million copies, the book was awarded the Diamond Sales Award. In May 2011, Sony Pictures acquired the film rights of the book; the film was released on April 16, 2014 starring Connor Corum, Margo Martindale, Greg Kinnear, Kelly Reilly, Thomas Haden Church, Jacob Vargas. As of July 2014, Rotten Tomatoes rated it at 46%. Critics praised the script and cast; the Boy Who Came Back from Heaven, a fabricated account of a near-death experience 23 Minutes in Hell 90 Minutes in Heaven Miracles from Heaven Proof of Heaven Howard Storm Elaine Robillard - Memories Of Heaven, claims to have memories of heaven. Dancing Past The Dark website Heaven Is for Real on Facebook The Christian Post article on near-death experiences Heaven is for Real Jesus Painting

Henry Tuson

General Sir Henry Brasnell Tuson was a Royal Marines officer who served as Deputy Adjutant-General Royal Marines. Educated at Christ's Hospital, Tuson was commissioned into the Royal Marine Artillery on 20 April 1854. After serving in China during the Second Opium War, he commanded the Royal Marine Artillery at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir in September 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War and commanded again at the First and Second Battles of El Teb in February 1884 during the Mahdist War for which he was awarded the Order of Osmanieh, second class, on 5 October 1885, he was appointed colonel second commandant of the Royal Marine Artillery on 5 October 1886 and Deputy Adjutant-General Royal Marines in August 1893 before retiring in March 1900