Radio Luxembourg was a multilingual commercial broadcaster in Luxembourg. It is known in most non-English languages as RTL, the English language service of Radio Luxembourg began in 1933 as one of the earliest commercial radio stations broadcasting to Ireland and Britain. It was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in the United Kingdom, Radio Luxembourgs parent company, RTL Group, continued broadcasts to the UK until July 2010 as the owners of the British TV channel Five. In 1922, the British government awarded a broadcasting licence to a single British Broadcasting Company, whose shares were owned by British. Although in theory the BBC could have sold sponsored airtime, it attempted to gain its revenue by selling its own brand of licensed radio receivers manufactured by the companies of the BBC. This arrangement lasted until 1927, when the licence of the original BBC was allowed to expire. The assets of the commercial company were sold to a new non-commercial British Broadcasting Corporation.
The IBC began leasing time on transmitters in continental Europe and reselling it as sponsored English-language programming aimed at audiences in Britain, in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg during 1924, François Anen built a 100-watt transmitter to broadcast military music concerts and plays to listeners in Luxembourg. Because the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is centrally located in western Europe, it was a location for transmitters aimed at reaching audiences in many nations. On 19 December 1929 the government of Luxembourg passed a law awarding a monopoly licence to operate a radio broadcasting franchise from the Grand Duchy. On 29 December this licence was awarded to the Society, which in turn created the Luxembourg Broadcasting Company to be identified on the air as Radio Luxembourg, in May 1932 Radio Luxembourg began high powered test transmissions aimed directly at Britain and Ireland. The reaction of the British government was hostile, as the band used for these tests radiated a signal far superior to anything previously received from outside the country.
The British government accused Radio Luxembourg of pirating the various wavelengths it was testing, the station had planned to commence regular broadcasts on 4 June 1933, but the complaints caused Radio Luxembourg to keep shifting its wavelength. Radio Luxembourg began broadcasting in both the French and English languages on a new 200 kW transmitter on 230 kHz in the long-wave band, the English service was leased to Radio Publicity Ltd in the United Kingdom. 11% of Britons listened to it during the week, preferring Luxembourgs light music and variety programmes to the BBC. Up to half of Britons did so before 10,15 am on weekdays when the BBC did not broadcast, the BBC and successive British governments continued to oppose the competition, citing Radio Luxembourgs use of an unauthorized frequency. As the station could not use General Post Office telephone lines to broadcast from London, many English-language programmes were recorded there, despite the opposition, by 1938 many British companies advertised on Radio Luxembourg and fellow European broadcaster Radio Normandy.
The stations thus exposed millions of Britons and British companies to commercial broadcasting,12,15 pm – Do-Do Broadcasts – sponsored medication programme for asthma suffers
Australian nationality law
Australian nationality law determines who is and who is not an Australian citizen. The status of Australian nationality or Australian citizenship was created by the Nationality, the 1948 Act was amended many times, notably in 1973,1984,1986 and 2002. The Australian Citizenship Act 2007 replaced the 1948 Act, commencing on 1 July 2007, on 13 December 1973, Australia acceded to the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness and to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. Australian passports are issued to Australian citizens by the Department of Foreign Affairs, a person may acquire citizenship automatically, by operation of law, or by application after a period of residence in Australia. The process of acquiring citizenship by application is referred to as naturalisation, until the passing in Australia of the Nationality Act 1920, Australias nationality law, like that of other Commonwealth countries, was governed by the English common law concept of a British subject. The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 codified the common law rules, Australia followed with the passing of the Nationality Act 1920, which codified the concept of a British subject in Australia, effective from 1 January 1921.
Until all Commonwealth countries, with the exception of the Irish Free State, had a single nationality status of British subject. It was decided at that conference that the United Kingdom and the self-governing dominions would each adopt a national citizenship. However, the status of other British subjects in Australia differed from the status of those who were not British subjects, aborigines became Australian citizens under the 1948 Act in the same way as other Australians. The same applied to Torres Strait Islanders and the population of the Territory of Papua. The relationship between Australian citizenship and a citizen of the British Empire or Commonwealth continued to evolve, in 1986, the Australia Act 1986 severed almost all of the last remaining constitutional links between the United Kingdom and Australia. Subsequently, in 1988, for the first time, the High Court ruled that anyone who was not an Australian citizen, the 1948 Act was amended many times, notably in 1958,1973,1984,1986 and 2002.
In 1973 the 1948 Act was renamed the Australian Citizenship Act 1948, on 15 March 2007, the Australian Citizenship Act 2007 received Royal Assent and replaced the 1948 Act, commencing on 1 July 2007. 1948, Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 created the concept of Australian citizenship, Australian citizens continued to be British subjects. 1958, On 8 October 1958, provisions which caused some naturalised Australians resident outside Australia,1973, Significant changes to the law implemented by the Whitlam Labor government, mostly effective on 1 December 1973. Distinction between migrants from Commonwealth and other countries abolished, the previous residence requirements of 1 year and 5 years to become Australian citizens replaced by a common residence period of 3 years, but with a six-month transition period. Age of majority for citizenship purposes reduced from 21 to 18, the 1948 Act was renamed the Australian Citizenship Act 1948. 1975, The Papua New Guinea Regulations 1975 provided that any Australian citizen becoming a citizen of Papua New Guinea at Independence on 16 September 1975 should lose Australian citizenship
British Academy Television Awards
The British Academy Television Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. They have been awarded annually since 1955 and it is the British equivalent to the Emmy Awards in the United States. The first ever Awards, given in 1955, consisted of six categories, until 1958, they were awarded by the Guild of Television Producers and Directors. From 1958 onwards, after the Guild had merged with the British Film Academy, in 1976, this became the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. The Television Awards are usually presented in April, with a ceremony for the Television Craft Awards on a different date. The Craft Awards are presented for more technical areas of the industry, such as effects, production design. Individual performances, such as actors, can either be entered by the performers themselves or by the broadcasters. The programmes being entered must have been broadcast on or between March and February of the year to be eligible for the years awards.
Entry is free, and entry forms are available between November and January each year. After all the entries have been received, they are voted for online by all members of the Academy. The programmes and performances attracting the most votes, usually four in each category, are shortlisted as the nominees for each award. The winner is chosen from the four nominees by a jury of nine academy members for each award. These Awards are suggested by the Television Committee and awarded by the Academys Council and they are not necessarily always given every year, but as and when appropriate. The Awards ceremony is broadcast on British television, usually the day after it has taken place, between 1998 and 2006, it was alternated between ITV and BBC One. But since 2007, it has been broadcast by BBC One, in 1991, a controversial selection was made in the Best Drama Serial category, when Prime Suspect beat G. B. H. to win the award. Following the ceremony, four of the seven voting members of the signed a public statement declaring that they had voted for G. B. H. to win. B. H.
Price claimed that the papers could not be recounted as they had subsequently been destroyed. No blame was attached to Shubik by the four judges
William Tell is a folk hero of Switzerland. His legend is recorded in a late 15th-century Swiss illustrated chronicle and it is set in the time of the original foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. According to the legend, Tell—an expert marksman with the crossbow—assassinated Gessler, along with Arnold von Winkelried, Tell is a central figure in Swiss patriotism as it was constructed during the Restoration of the Confederacy after the Napoleonic era. Several accounts of the Tell legend exist, the earliest sources give an account of the apple shot, Tells escape, and the ensuing rebellion. The assassination of Gessler is not mentioned in the Tellenlied but is present in the White Book of Sarnen account. William Tell was known as a man, a mountain climber. In his time, the Habsburg emperors of Austria were seeking to dominate Uri, the newly appointed Austrian Vogt of Altdorf, raised a pole under the village lindentree, hung his hat on top of it, and demanded that all the townsfolk bow before the hat.
On 18 November 1307, Tell visited Altdorf with his son and passed by the hat, publicly refusing to bow to it. Gessler—intrigued by Tells famed marksmanship but resentful of his defiance—devised a cruel punishment and his son were to be executed. However, he could redeem his life by shooting an apple off the head of his son Robert in a single attempt, Tell split the apple with a bolt from his crossbow. Gessler noticed that Tell had removed two crossbow bolts from his quiver, before releasing him, he asked why. Tell was reluctant to answer, but after Gessler promised he would not kill him, he replied that had he killed his son, he would have killed Gessler with the second bolt. Gessler was furious and ordered Tell to be bound, saying that he had promised to spare his life, Tell was brought to Gesslers boat to be taken to the dungeon in the castle at Küssnacht. A storm broke on Lake Lucerne, and the guards were afraid that their boat would sink and they begged Gessler to remove Tells shackles so he could take the helm and save them.
Gessler gave in, but once freed, Tell led the boat to a rocky place, the site is already known in the White Book as the Tellsplatte. Since the 16th century the site has been marked by a memorial chapel, as Gessler arrived, Tell assassinated him, using the second crossbow bolt, along a stretch of the road cut through the rock between Immensee and Küssnacht, now known as the Hohle Gasse. Tells blow for liberty sparked a rebellion in which he played a leading part, according to Tschudi, Tell fought again against Austria in the 1315 Battle of Morgarten. Tschudi has an account of Tells death in 1354, according to which he was killed trying to save a child from drowning in the Schächenbach River in Uri, the first reference to William Tell appears in the White Book of Sarnen
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art is a drama school in London, England. It is one of the oldest drama schools in the United Kingdom, RADA is an affiliate school of the Conservatoire for Dance and Drama. Its higher education awards are validated by Kings College London and its students graduate alongside members of the departments which form the Kings Faculty of Arts & Humanities and it is based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London, close to the Senate House complex of the University of London. Undergraduate students are eligible for government student loan through the Conservatoire for Dance, RADA has a significant scholarships and bursaries scheme, offering financial assistance to many students at the Academy. The current director of the academy is Edward Kemp, the president is Sir Kenneth Branagh, the chairman is Sir Stephen Waley-Cohen and its vice-chairman was Alan Rickman until his death in 2016. RADA was founded in 1904 by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, an actor manager, in 1905, RADA moved to 52 Gower Street, and a managing council was set up to oversee the school.
Its members included George Bernard Shaw, who donated his royalties from his play Pygmalion to RADA. In 1920, RADA was granted a Royal Charter, and in 1921, the Prince of Wales opened the theatre. The Gower Street buildings were torn down in 1927, and replaced with a new building, financed by George Bernard Shaw, in 1923, John Gielgud studied at RADA for a year. He became President of the academy, and its first honorary fellow, a number of famous actors took on leading roles at RADA, such as Richard Attenborough, Oliver Neville, Nicholas Barter, and Alan Rickman. Other 1924 saw RADAs first government subsidy, a grant of £500, in 2001, RADA joined forces with the London Contemporary dance School to create the UKs first Conservatoire for Dance and Drama. The Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance joined this Conservatoire in 2005, in 2000 the Academy founded RADA Enterprises Ltd, which includes RADA in Business, providing training in communications and teambuilding that uses drama training techniques in a business context.
The profits are fed back into the Academy to fund students training, RADA is based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London. The main RADA building is on Gower Street, with a second premises nearby in Chenies Street, the Goodge Street and Euston Square underground stations are both within walking distance. RADA has five theatres and a cinema, there is a 150-seat cinema. In January 2012, RADA acquired the lease to the adjacent Drill Hall venue in Chenies Street, the Drill Hall is a Grade II listed building with a long performing arts history, and was where Nijinsky rehearsed with Diaghilev’s Ballet Russes in 1911. This venue has a 200-seat space, the Studio Theatre, and a 50-seat space, the RADA library contains around 30,000 items. The collection was started in 1904 with donations from actors and writers of the such as Sir Squire Bancroft, William Archer, Arthur Wing Pinero
Walthamstow is the principal town of the London Borough of Waltham Forest in North East London, England. It is located 7.5 miles northeast from Charing Cross, Walthamstow is a large town, situated between the North Circular Road to the north, Lee Valley and the Walthamstow Reservoirs to the west, and Epping Forest to the east. The town centre consists of Walthamstow Market, the longest single street market in Europe, Walthamstow is recorded c.1075 as Wilcumestowe and in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wilcumestou. King John visited Shern Hall in 1213, the building survived until 1896, at one point Walthamstow was just a culmination of five small villages, and affairs were discussed at Vestry House, acting as the first town hall. In 1870 it had grown to the size of a small suburb, until the 19th century it was largely rural, with a small village centre and a number of large estates. The main route through the district was the aforementioned Hoe Street, there were various smaller lanes, crossing the town.
The road now known as Forest Road was originally called Clay Street, further south, the High Street was named Marsh Street, and led from the original settlement out to the marshes. Shernhall Street is an ancient route, as is Wood Street, in the 1660s Sir William Batten, Surveyor of the Navy, and his wife Elizabeth Woodcocke had a house here where, according to Samuel Pepys, they lived like princes and cultivated a vineyard. With the advent of the railways and the ensuing suburbanisation in the late 19th century, Walthamstow experienced a growth in population. The Lighthouse Methodist Church which dates from 1893 which is situated on Markhouse Road, there is a lantern at the top of the tower, which contains a spiral staircase. The LGOC X-type and B-type buses were built at Blackhorse Lane from October 1908 onwards, the B-type is considered one of the first mass-production buses. The manufacturing operation became AEC, famous as the manufacturer of many of Londons buses, on 13 June 1909, A. V.
Roes aircraft took to the air from Walthamstow Marshes. It was the first all-British aircraft and was given the nickname of the Yellow Terror. Roe founded the Avro aircraft company, which built the acclaimed Avro Lancaster. From 1894 Walthamstow was a district and from 1929 a municipal borough in Essex. In 1931 the population of the borough, covering an area of 4,342 acres, other places in east London formerly of the county of Essex, such as Ilford and Romford were placed into London Boroughs along with Walthamstow. None of the district names or codes was changed at this time. Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, the town has become popular mostly as a result of gentrification
The Avengers (TV series)
The Avengers is an espionage British television series created in 1961. The Avengers initially focused on Dr. David Keel and his assistant John Steed, Hendry left after the first series and Steed became the main character, partnered with a succession of assistants. Steeds most famous assistants were intelligent and assertive women, Cathy Gale, Emma Peel, the Avengers ran from 1961 until 1969, screening as one-hour episodes its entire run. The pilot episode, Hot Snow, aired on 7 January 1961, the final episode, aired on 21 May 1969. The Avengers was produced by Associated British Corporation, a contractor within the ITV network, after a merger in July 1968 ABC Television became Thames Television, which continued production of the series although it was still broadcast under the ABC name. By 1969 The Avengers was shown in more than 90 countries, ITV produced a sequel series The New Avengers with Patrick Macnee returning as John Steed, and two new partners. In 2007 The Avengers was ranked #20 on TV Guides Top Cult Shows Ever, the Avengers was marked by different eras as co-stars came and went.
The only constant was John Steed, played by Patrick Macnee, the Associated British Corporation produced a single series of Police Surgeon, in which Ian Hendry played police surgeon Geoffrey Brent, from September through December 1960. While Police Surgeon did not last long, viewers praised Hendry, and ABC Television cast him for their new series, The Avengers, which replaced Police Surgeon in January 1961. The Avengers began with episode Hot Snow, in which medical doctor Dr David Keel investigates the murder of his fiancée, a stranger named John Steed, who was investigating the ring and together they set out to avenge her death in the first two episodes. Afterwards, Steed asked Keel to partner him as needed to solve crimes, Hendry was considered the star of the new series, receiving top billing over Macnee, and Steed did not appear in two episodes. As the first series of The Avengers progressed, Steeds importance increased, while Steed and Keel used wit while discussing crimes and dangers, the series depicted the interplay—and often tension—between Keels idealism and Steeds professionalism.
The other regular in the first series was Carol Wilson, the nurse, Carol assisted Keel and Steed in cases, and in at least one episode being very much in the thick of the action, but without being part of Steeds inner circle. Hafner had played opposite Hendry as a nurse in one episode of Police Surgeon, the series was shot on 405-line videotape using a multicamera setup. There was little provision for editing and virtually no location footage, as was standard practice at the time, videotapes of early episodes of The Avengers were reused. Keel and Lucy Briggs-Owen as Carol Wilson, production of the first series was cut short by a strike. By the time production could begin on the series, Hendry had quit to pursue a film career. Macnee was promoted to star and Steed became the focus of the series, Dr Martin King, a thinly disguised rewriting of Keel, saw action in only three episodes produced from scripts written for the first series
Sir Francis Drake (TV series)
Sir Francis Drake is a 1961-1962 British adventure television series starring Terence Morgan as Sir Francis Drake, commander of the sailing ship the Golden Hind. As well as battles at sea and sword fights, the series deals with intrigue at Queen Elizabeths court. The series was a joint ABC/ATV production, made at Elstree Studios, a replica of the Golden Hind was constructed at a cost of £25,000 and was used for filming in and around the bays of Torbay and Dartmouth. In 1963 the ship was moored in Brixham harbour in Devon where it became a tourist attraction. The ship was destroyed in a storm in 1987, after which it was towed to Dartmouth, historical research was provided by E. Hayter Preston. Beatrice Dawson designed the period costumes worn in the show. Ian Stuart Black was story editor, the fight scenes were arranged by Peter Diamond, who appeared in four episodes. The series was shown on UK network ATV from 12 November 1961. It aired on NBC from 24 June 1962, to 9 September 1962 as a replacement for Car 54.
The complete series is out on DVD and includes a still showing Terence Morgan as Sir Francis Drake playing bowls, new York City, Penguin Books,1984 ed. Sir Francis Drake at the Internet Movie Database
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world.
The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command.
Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical and linguistic associations. More recently, it is used to refer to those in Londons East End. Linguistically, cockney English refers to the accent or dialect of English traditionally spoken by working-class Londoners, in recent years, many aspects of cockney English have become part of general South East English speech, producing a variant known as Estuary English. The earliest recorded use of the term is 1362 in passus VI of William Langlands Piers Plowman, the mythical land of luxury Cockaigne appeared under a variety of spellings—including Cockayne and Cockney—and became humorously associated with the English capital London. This may have developed from the sources above or separately, alongside such terms as cock, by 1600, this meaning of cockney was being particularly associated with the Bow Bells area. In 1617, the travel writer Fynes Moryson stated in his Itinerary that Londoners, the same year, John Minsheu included the term in this newly restricted sense in his dictionary Ductor in Linguas.
The use of the term to describe all Londoners generally, survived into the 19th century before becoming restricted to the working class, the term is now used loosely to describe all East Londoners, although some distinguish the areas that were added to London in 1964. The region in which cockneys are thought to reside is not clearly defined, a common view is that in order to be a cockney, one must have been born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow. However, the church of St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in 1666 by the Great Fire of London, although the bells were destroyed again in 1941 in the Blitz, they had fallen silent on 13 June 1940 as part of the British anti-invasion preparations of World War II. Before they were replaced in 1961, there was a period when, by the within earshot definition, the East London Maternity Hospital in Stepney, which was 2.5 miles from St Mary-le-Bow, was in use from 1884 to 1968. There is a maternity unit still in use at the Royal London Hospital in Whitechapel, Home births were very common until the late 1960s.
According to the legend of Dick Whittington the bells could once be heard from as far away as the Highgate Archway, thus while all East Enders are cockneys, not all cockneys are East Enders. The area north of the Thames gradually expanded to include East Ham, West Ham, loach has a reputation for using genuine dialect speakers in films,3 Clear Sundays Up the Junction Cathy Come Home Poor Cow Bronco Bullfrog The Long Good Friday. The DVD of this film has a feature that explains the rhyming slang used. Nevertheless, the stop, double negatives, and the vocalisation of the dark L. The study, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, said that the accent, migration of cockney speakers has led to migration of the dialect. In Essex, planned towns that grew from post-war migration out of London often have a strong influence on local speech. In recent years the dialect has moved out of inner-city London towards the outskirts of suburban London, today cockney-speaking areas include parts of Dagenham, Billericay, Romford, Loughton, Basildon, Thurrock
The Four Just Men (TV series)
The Four Just Men was a 1959 television series produced by Sapphire Films for ITC Entertainment. It was broadcast for one season of 39 half-hour monochrome episodes, the men reassemble, and decide to fight for justice and against tyranny, using money donated for the purpose by their late commanding officer. Their reputation as the Four Just Men is well known, the series is unusual in having the four main actors appear alternately, one or occasionally two makes a brief appearance in each others episode, often using a telephone. Honor Blackman as Nicole, Tim Colliers French girlfriend and secretary, andrew Keir as Jock, Ben Manfreds manservant and best friend. Lisa Gastoni as Giulia, Ricco Poccaris secretary, robert Rietti as Francesco, Poccaris butler. At the time Four Just Men was the most ambitious film series yet made for British TV and it was produced by Sapphire Films at Walton Studios, and on location in Britain and Italy. None of its four stars had been cast as regulars for a series before.
John Schlesinger was credited as exterior unit or second unit director on a number of episodes, airdate is for ATV Midlands ITV regions varied date and order. Each story featured one star and often brief appearances of the others, DD = Dan Dailey JH = Jack Hawkins RC = Richard Conte VS = Vittorio De Sica. Network DVD released the 39 episodes during August 2010 in a 5 DVD region 2 set, the Four Just Men at the Internet Movie Database epguides. com Dinosaur TV
Three Crooked Men
Three Crooked Men is a 1958 British crime film. Three crooks break into a store hoping to gain access to the next door. When the store keeper returns unexpectedly, the men take him hostage, a passerby sees trouble and tries to help, but he too is captured. The police arrive and arrest the crooks, but the owner and passerby, thinking they are part of the gang