Warrior

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A warrior is a person specializing in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based warrior culture society that recognizes a separate warrior class or caste.

History[edit]

Warriors seem to have been present in the earliest pre-state societies. Along with hunting, war was considered to be a definitive male activity. No matter the pretext for combat, it seemed to have been a rite of passage for a boy to become a man. Warriors took upon costumes and equipment that seemed to have a symbolic significance; combat itself would be preceded by ritual or sacrifice. Men of fighting age often lived apart in order to encourage bonding, and would ritualise combat in order to demonstrate individual prowess among one another. [1] Most of the basic weapons used by warriors appeared before the rise of most hierarchical systems. Bows and arrows, clubs, spears, and other edged weapons were in widespread use. However with the new findings of metallurgy, the aforementioned weapons had grown in effectiveness. [2]

When the first hierarchical systems evolved 5000 years ago, the gap between the rulers and the ruled had increased. Making war to extend the outreach of their territories, rulers often forced men from lower orders of society into the military role. This had been the first use of professional soldiers —a distinct difference from the warrior communities.[3]

The warrior ethic in many societies later became the preserve of the ruling class. Egyptian pharaohs would depict themselves in war chariots, shooting at enemies, or smashing others with clubs. Fighting was considered a prestigious activity, but only when associated with status and power. European mounted knights would often feel contempt for the foot soldiers recruited from lower classes. Even in meso American societies of pre-Columbian America, the elite aristocratic soldiers remained separated from the lower classes of stone-throwers. [4]

In contrast to the belief of the caste and clan based warrior who saw war as a place to attain valor and glory, warfare was a practical matter that could change the course of history. History always showed that men of lower orders who, provided that they were practically organized and equipped, almost always outfought warrior elites through an individualistic and humble approach to war. This was the approach of the Roman legions who had only the incentive of promotion, as well as a strict level of discipline. When Europe's standing armies of the 17th and 18th centuries developed, discipline was at the core of their training. Officers had the role of transforming men that they viewed as lower class to become reliable fighting men. [5]

Inspired by the Ancient Greek ideals of the 'citizen soldier', many European societies during the Renaissance began to incorporate conscription and raise armies from the general populace. A change in attitude was noted as well, as officers were told to treat their soldiers with moderation and respect. For example, men who fought in the American Civil War often elected their own officers. With the mobilization of citizens in the armies sometimes reaching the millions, societies often made efforts in order to maintain or revive the warrior spirit. This trend continues to the modern day. [6] Due to the heroic connotations of the term "warrior", this metaphor is especially popular in publications advocating or recruiting for a country's military.[7]

Women as warriors[edit]

While the warrior class in tribal societies is typically all-male, there are some exceptions on record where women (typically unmarried, young women) formed part of the warrior class, particularly in pre-modern Japan.[citation needed]

A purported group of fighting women is the legendary Amazons, recorded in Classical Greek mythology. Similarly, the Valkyries are depicted in Norse mythology, particularly the Icelandic Etta. During the Viking Age a type of female warrior was the skjaldmær, or shieldmaiden. Hard historical evidence of non-mythological female warrior classes have been harder to come by, but some studies have been done (e.g. Birka warrior). However, groups of female warriors typically belong in folkelore and mythology, rather than in reality where there were only exceptional cases of women engaging directly in combat roles.

A 2017 study led by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson produced DNA results confirming the remains excavated in Birka, Sweden, were a female warrior.[8] However, prominent historian and viking specialists, such as Judith Jesch, have disputed the findings, calling their thinking "sloppy" and citing issues of academic validity, including referential errors, a lack of involvement from linguistics experts, and no physical evidence that the skeleton in question actually engaged in any battle.[9] Meanwhile, archaeologist Anna Kjellström, who worked with Hedenstierna-Jonson on the initial study, voiced her own doubts claiming it was clear the "material and the contextual information given... did not match the data".[10]

Many women not only fought on the field but led entire hosts of men within Pictish, Briton, and Irish Tribes in Pre Christian culture.[citation needed] Boudicca of the Iceni is a famous example of a female leader of warriors, who rebelled against Roman rule in Britain. Tomoe Gozen is celebrated in Japanese history as a woman samurai General in the 12th Century. Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War. These women survive in few historical testimonies like those of the Byzantine Empire.

Warrior communities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grant, R.G (2007). Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7566-3203-8.
  2. ^ Grant, R.G (2007). Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7566-3203-8.
  3. ^ Grant, R.G (2007). Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7566-3203-8.
  4. ^ Grant, R.G (2007). Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7566-3203-8.
  5. ^ Grant, R.G (2007). Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7566-3203-8.
  6. ^ Grant, R.G (2007). Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7566-3203-8.
  7. ^ e.g. Wong, Leonard, "Leave No Man Behind: Recovering America’s Fallen Warriors." Armed Forces & Society, July 2005; vol. 31: pp. 599-622.; Bradley C.S. Watson, "The Western Ethical Tradition and the Morality of the Warrior." Armed Forces & Society, October 1999; vol. 26: pp. 55-72; Samet, Elizabeth D., "Leaving No Warriors Behind: The Ancient Roots of a Modern Sensibility." Armed Forces & Society, July 2005; vol. 31: pp. 623-649; Miller, Laura L. and Charles Moskos, "Humanitarians or Warriors?: Race, Gender, and Combat Status in Operations Restore Hope." Armed Forces & Society, July 1995; vol. 21: pp. 615-637
  8. ^ "Viking warrior from Birka grave confirmed as female". Archaeology News from Past Horizons. 8 September 2017. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  9. ^ http://norseandviking.blogspot.com/2017/09/lets-debate-female-viking-warriors-yet.html?m=1
  10. ^ https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/09/have-we-finally-found-hard-evidence-for-viking-warrior-women/
  11. ^ Bruno Mugnai; Christopher Flaherty (23 September 2014). Der Lange Türkenkrieg (1593-1606): The long Turkish War. Soldiershop. p. 47. ISBN 978-88-96519-91-2.
  12. ^ a b Nicholas Charles Pappas (1982). Greeks in Russian military service in the late eighteen and early nineteenth centuries. Stanford University. p. 99.
  13. ^ Craig, Matthew. Ashigaru - Samurai Combat in the Age of the Country at War. Junkhouse. p. 48. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  14. ^ Johnson, E. Patrick; Riviera, Ramon H. Blacktino Queer Performance. Duke University Press.
  15. ^ Emerson, Caryl (2008). The Cambridge Introduction to Russian Literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 71.
  16. ^ Crummy, Robert (2014). Aristocrats and Servitors: The Boyar Elite in Russia, 1613-1689. Princeton University Press. p. 12.
  17. ^ Head, Duncan "Armies of the Macedonian and Punic Wars 359 BC to 146 BC" (1982), p140.
  18. ^ Tucker, Phillip (2017). Death at the Little Bighorn: A New Look at Custer, His Tactics, and the Tragic Decisions Made at the Last Stand. Skyhorse Publishing. p. Chapter 2. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  19. ^ Lenman, B., Anderson, T. Chambers Dictionary of World History, p. 200
  20. ^ Coker, Christopher (2007). The Warrior Ethos: Military Culture and the War on Terror. Routledge.
  21. ^ Grant, R.G. Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 78.
  22. ^ Preston, Claire (2006). Bee. Reaktion Books. p. 118. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  23. ^ Hoig, Stan (Jul 31, 1990). The Peace Chiefs of the Cheyennes. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 85. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  24. ^ Sohail H. Hashmi (3 July 2012). Just Wars, Holy Wars, and Jihads: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Encounters and Exchanges. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-19-975503-5.
  25. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi (28 April 1997). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 437–438. ISBN 978-0-521-57455-6.
  26. ^ Kumar, Ram (2012). Martyred but Not Tamed: The Politics of Resistance in the Middle East. SAGE Publishing India.
  27. ^ Chartrand, Rene; Durham, Keith; Harrison, Mark; Heath, Ian (2016). The Vikings. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 43. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  28. ^ L. Alcock. Kings and Warriors, Craftsmen and Priests in Northern Britain AD 550–850. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. p. 56. ISBN 0-903903-24-5.
  29. ^ Marinatos, Nanno (2002). My library My History Books on Google Play Goddess and the Warrior: The Naked Goddess and Mistress of the Animals in Early Greek Religion. Routledge. p. 2-82.
  30. ^ Neer, Richard T. Greek art and archaeology : a new history, c. 2500-c. 150 BCE. New York. p. 95. ISBN 9780500288771. OCLC 745332893.
  31. ^ Grant, R.G. Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 78.
  32. ^ Hicks, Jim (1975). The Persians. Time-Life Books.
  33. ^ Ian F W Beckett (30 June 2016). A Guide to British Military History: The Subject and the Sources. Pen and Sword. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-1-4738-5667-7. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  34. ^ Richard H. Shultz; Andrea J. Dew (22 August 2006). Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat. Columbia University Press. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-231-50342-6. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  35. ^ Thomas R. Metcalf (24 April 2007). Imperial Connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 1860-1920. University of California Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-520-24946-2. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  36. ^ Sánchez-Murillo, R. (2012). La palabra universal. Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo. Retrieved September 5, 2012, from link Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine..
  37. ^ Cleveland, Bunton, William, Martin (2013). A History of the Modern Middle East. Westview Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8133-4833-9.
  38. ^ Das, Sonia N. (2016). Linguistic Rivalries: Tamil Migrants and Anglo-Franco Conflicts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190461782.
  39. ^ Purnima Dhavan (3 November 2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.
  40. ^ Timothy May (7 November 2016). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-61069-340-0.
  41. ^ D'A. J. D. Boulton, "Classic Knighthood as Nobiliary Dignity", in Stephen Church, Ruth Harvey (ed.), Medieval knighthood V: papers from the sixth Strawberry Hill Conference 1994, Boydell & Brewer, 1995, pp. 41–100.
  42. ^ Frank Anthony Carl Mantello, A. G. Rigg, Medieval Latin: an introduction and bibliographical guide, UA Press, 1996, p. 448.
  43. ^ Charlton Thomas Lewis, An elementary Latin dictionary, Harper & Brothers, 1899, p. 505.
  44. ^ Fowler, Hinduism (1997), pp. 19–20.
  45. ^ Adhikari, Indra. Military and Democracy in Nepal. Routledge. ISBN 9781317589068.
  46. ^ Cohn, Marc (2007). The Mathematics of the Calendar. p. 60. ISBN 978-1430324966.
  47. ^ Chambers, James (2003). The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books. ISBN 978-0-7858-1567-9.
  48. ^ Christopher Tyerman (2007). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Penguin Books Limited. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-14-190431-3.
  49. ^ Hardgrave, Robert L. The Nadars of Tamilnad. University of California Press. p. 279.
  50. ^ "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". census.gov. US Census Bureau.
  51. ^ Fisher, Michael (2007). Visions of Mughal India: An Anthology of European Travel Writing. I.B Taurus and Co. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-84511-354-4.
  52. ^ Ratti & Westbrook 1991, p. 325
  53. ^ Mazumder, Rajit K. The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab. pp. 99, 105.
  54. ^ "Samurai (Japanese warrior)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  55. ^ Marjeta Šašel Kos (2005). Appian and Illyricum. Narodni Muzej Slovenije. p. 144. ISBN 978-961-6169-36-3.
  56. ^ Mines, Mattison (1984). The Warrior Merchants: Textiles, Trade and Territory in South India. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780521267144.
  57. ^ Chlumsky, Nathan. Inside Kungfu: Chinese Martial Arts Encyclopedia. p. 19.
  58. ^ The article Sköldmö in Nordisk familjebok (1917).
  59. ^ Hans Delbrück (1990). Medieval Warfare: History of the Art of War. University of Nebraska Press. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8032-6585-1.
  60. ^ Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, ISBN 4-7674-2015-6
  61. ^ Harley, T. Rutherford. The Public School of Sparta, Greece & Rome, Vol. 3, No. 9 (May 1934) pp. 129-139.).
  62. ^ Grant, R.G. Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 78.
  63. ^ Grant, R.G. Warrior: A Visual History of the Fighting Man. Penguin. p. 78.
  64. ^ Edgar Sanderson; John Porter Lamberton; Charles Morris. Six Thousand Years of History: Famous warriors. T. Nolan. p. 6.
  65. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi (30 January 2014). Travel and Artisans in the Ottoman Empire: Employment and Mobility in the Early Modern Era. I.B.Tauris. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-78076-481-8.
  66. ^ Historical Abstracts: Modern history abstracts, 1450-1914. American Bibliographical Center, CLIO. 1985. p. 644.
  67. ^ Karl Bihlmeyer; Hermann Tüchle (1967). Church History: The Middle Ages. Newman Press. p. 26.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]