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Warsaw Ghetto

The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II. It was established by the German authorities in November 1940. At its height as many as 460,000 Jews were imprisoned there, in an area of 3.4 km2, with an average of 9.2 persons per room subsisting on meager food rations. From the Warsaw Ghetto, Jews were deported to mass-killing centers. In the summer of 1942 at least 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp during Großaktion Warschau under the guise of "resettlement in the East" over the course of the summer; the ghetto was demolished by the Germans in May 1943 after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprisings which had temporarily halted the deportations. The total death toll among the Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto is estimated to be at least 300,000 killed by bullet or gas, combined with 92,000 victims of rampant hunger and hunger-related diseases, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the casualties of the final destruction of the Ghetto.

Before World War II, the majority of Polish Jews lived in the merchant districts of Muranów, Powązki, Stara Praga, while most ethnic Germans lived in Śródmieście. Over 90% of Catholics lived further away from the commercial center; the Jewish community was the most prominent there, constituting over 88% of the inhabitants of Muranów. Many Jews left the city during the depression. Antisemitic legislation, boycotts of Jewish businesses, the nationalist "endecja" post-Piłsudski Polish government plans put pressure on Jews in the city. In 1938 the Jewish population of the Polish capital was estimated at 270,000 people; the Siege of Warsaw continued until September 29, 1939. On September 10 alone, the Luftwaffe conducted 17 bombing raids on the city. In total, some 30,000 people were killed, 10 percent of the city was destroyed. Along with the advancing Wehrmacht, the Einsatzgruppe EG IV and the Einsatzkommandos rolled into town. On November 7, 1939, the Reichsführer-SS reorganized them into local security service.

The commander of EG IV, SS-Standartenführer Josef Meisinger, was appointed chief of police for the newly formed Distrikt Warschau. After the takeover of Warsaw, the German authorities began the registration of the ethnic Germans who were issued the Kennkarte separate from the rest of the locals. By June 1940 there were 5,500 Volksdeutsche registered in Warsaw. In the next two years their number more than doubled, on top of over 50,000 German military personnel. By the end of the September campaign the number of Jews in and around the capital increased with thousands of refugees escaping the Polish-German front. In less than a year, the number of refugees in Warsaw exceeded 90,000. On October 12, 1939, the General Government was established by Adolf Hitler in the occupied area of central Poland; the Nazi-appointed Jewish Council in Warsaw, a committee of 24 people headed by Adam Czerniaków, was responsible for carrying out German orders. On October 26, the Jews were mobilized as forced laborers to clear bomb damage and perform other hard labor.

One month on November 20, the bank accounts of Polish Jews and any deposits exceeding 2,000 zł were blocked. On November 23, all Jewish establishments were ordered to display a Jewish star on doors and windows. Beginning December 1, all Jews older than ten were compelled to wear a white armband, on December 11, they were forbidden from using public transit. On January 26, 1940, the Jews were banned from holding communal prayers due to "the risk of spreading epidemics." Food stamps were introduced by the German authorities, measures were stepped up to liquidate all Jewish communities in the vicinity of Warsaw intensified. The Jewish population of the capital reached 359,827 before the end of the year. On the orders of Warsaw District Governor, Ludwig Fischer, the Ghetto wall construction started on April 1, 1940, circling the area of Warsaw inhabited predominantly by Jews; the work was supervised by the Warsaw Judenrat. The Nazi authorities expelled 113,000 ethnic Poles from the neighbourhood, ordered the relocation of 138,000 Warsaw Jews from the suburbs into the city centre.

On October 16, 1940, the creation of the ghetto covering the area of 307 hectares was announced by the German Governor-General, Hans Frank. The initial population of the ghetto was 450,000. Before the Holocaust began the number of Jews imprisoned there was between 375,000 and 400,000; the area of the ghetto constituted only about 2.4% of the overall metropolitan area. The Germans closed the Warsaw Ghetto to the outside world on November 15, 1940; the wall around it was 3 m high and topped with barbed wire. Escapees were shot on sight. German policemen from Battalion 61 used to hold victory parties on the days when a large number of prisoners were shot at the ghetto fence; the borders of the ghetto changed and its overall area was reduced, as the captive population was decreased by outbreaks of infectious diseases, mass hunger, regular executions. The ghetto was divided in two along Chłodna Street, excluded from it, due to its local importance at that time; the area south-east of Chłodna was known as the "S

Ruchi Badola

Ruchi Badola is an Indian-born professor and scientist at the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun in the Department of Eco-development Planning and Participatory Management. She has conducted research in the field of community based conservation, she obtained her master’s from Garhwal University and joined the Wildlife Institute of India in 1988 as a research scholar and pursued her PhD on Economic Assessment of People Forest Interactions in the Elephant Forest Corridor Linking the Rajaji and Corbett National Park. She leads the “Pravasi Ganga Prahari” programme, a platform for citizens of Indian origin, others residing across the globe to contribute towards Ganga Cleanliness and rejuvenation under National Mission for Clean Ganga vision. Other conservation programme, she has made critical contributions are "Biodiversity Conservation and Ganga Rejuvenation" project to aquatic life in the Ganga,, she has published in peer reviewed journals and has authored chapters in seven books. Most she was of the lead author in International Center for Integrated Mountain Development assessment report on Hindu Kush Himalayas, has contributed chapter on “Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in the Hindu Kush Himalaya”

Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope is a radio telescope in the Ahr Hills in Bad Münstereifel, Germany. For 29 years the Effelsberg Radio Telescope was the largest steerable radio telescope on Earth. In 2000, it was surpassed by the Green Bank Observatory's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in Green Bank, US, which has a larger elliptical 100 by 110-metre aperture; the telescope is located about 1.3 km northeast of Effelsberg, a southeastern part of the town of Bad Münstereifel. It is placed less than 300 m west of the 398 m high Hünerberg, in the neighbouring Land of Rhineland-Palatinate. In the vicinity of the telescope, the boundary of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia is the Effelsberger Bach, which runs only a few metres east of the telescope; the Effelsberger Bach is 6.5 km long, flowing from the Effelsberger Wald into the Sahrbach, which in turn flows south and into the Ahr river. A hiking path leads past the telescope; the trail ends at the 39 cm model of the Sun next to the visitor centre.

The Effelsberg radio telescope is operated by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, the radio astronomy institute of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. It was constructed from 1968 to 1971 and inaugurated on 1 August 1972. A major technical difficulty in building a radio telescope of 100 m diameter was how to deal with the deformation of the mirror due to gravity when it is rotated to point in a different direction; the mirror must have a precise parabolic shape to focus the radio waves, but a conventionally-designed dish of this size would "sag" when rotated so the mirror loses its parabolic shape. The Effelsberg telescope uses a novel computer-designed mirror support structure which deforms in such a way that the deformed mirror will always take a parabolic shape; the focus will move during such deformation, the feed antenna suspended in front of the mirror is moved by the computer control system as the telescope is rotated to keep it at the focus. Tests after completion of the telescope showed that the intended accuracy of the mirror surface of 1 mm had not only been met, but exceeded significantly.

About 45% of the observing time is available to external astronomers. The Effelsberg 100-m telescope was involved in several surveys, including the one at 408 MHz by Haslam et al. Stockert Radio Telescope Lovell Telescope – at Jodrell Bank Observatory Official website of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy Dr Norbert Junkes video interview on Astrotalkuk.org Effelsberg Official Webpage Bill Keel's "Telescopes I've seen"