Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II to oppose Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Majdanek and Treblinka concentration camps. After the Grossaktion Warsaw of summer 1942, in which more than a quarter of a million Jews were deported from the ghetto to Treblinka and murdered, the remaining Jews began to build bunkers and smuggle weapons and explosives into the ghetto; the left-wing Jewish Combat Organization and right-wing Jewish Military Union formed and began to train. A small resistance effort to another roundup in January 1943 was successful and spurred the Polish groups to support the Jews in earnest; the uprising started on 19 April when the ghetto refused to surrender to the police commander SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop, who ordered the burning of the ghetto, block by block, ending on 16 May. A total of 13,000 Jews died, about half of them burnt suffocated.

German casualties were less than 150, with Stroop reporting only 110 casualties. It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II; the Jews knew that the uprising was doomed and their survival was unlikely. Marek Edelman, the only surviving ŻOB commander, said that the motivation for fighting was "to pick the time and place of our deaths". According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the uprising was "one of the most significant occurrences in the history of the Jewish people". In 1939, German authorities began to concentrate Poland's population of over three million Jews into a number of crowded ghettos located in large Polish cities; the largest of these, the Warsaw Ghetto, concentrated 300,000–400,000 people into a densely packed, 3.3 km2 central area of Warsaw. Thousands of Jews died due to rampant disease and starvation under SS-und-Polizeiführer Odilo Globocnik and SS-Standartenführer Ludwig Hahn before the mass deportations from the ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp began.

The SS conducted many of the deportations during the operation code-named Grossaktion Warschau, between 23 July and 21 September 1942. Just before the operation began, the German "Resettlement Commissioner" SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle called a meeting of the Ghetto Jewish Council Judenrat and informed its leader, Adam Czerniaków, that he would require 7,000 Jews a day for the "resettlement to the East". Czerniaków committed suicide. 254,000–300,000 ghetto residents met their deaths at Treblinka during the two-month-long operation. The Grossaktion was directed by SS-Oberführer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, the SS and police commander of the Warsaw area since 1941, he was relieved of duty by SS-und-Polizeiführer Jürgen Stroop, sent to Warsaw by Heinrich Himmler on 17 April 1943. Stroop took over from von Sammern-Frankenegg following the failure of the latter to pacify the ghetto resistance; when the deportations first began, members of the Jewish resistance movement met and decided not to fight the SS directives, believing that the Jews were being sent to labour camps and not to their deaths.

By the end of 1942, ghetto inhabitants learned that the deportations were part of an extermination process. Many of the remaining Jews decided to revolt; the first armed resistance in the ghetto occurred in January 1943. On 19 April 1943, Passover eve, the Germans entered the ghetto; the remaining Jews knew that the Germans would murder them and they decided to resist to the last. While the uprising was underway, the Bermuda Conference was held from 19–29 April 1943 to discuss the Jewish refugee problem. Discussions included the question of Jewish refugees, liberated by Allied forces and those who still remained within German-occupied Europe. On 18 January 1943, the Germans began their second deportation of the Jews, which led to the first instance of armed insurgency within the ghetto. While Jewish families hid in their so-called "bunkers", fighters of the ŻZW, joined by elements of the ŻOB, engaging the Germans in direct clashes. Though the ŻZW and ŻOB suffered heavy losses, the Germans took casualties, the deportation was halted within a few days.

Only 5,000 Jews were removed, instead of the 8,000 planned by Globocnik. Hundreds of people in the Warsaw Ghetto were ready to fight and children, sparsely armed with handguns, gasoline bottles, a few other weapons, smuggled into the ghetto by resistance fighters. Most of the Jewish fighters did not view their actions as an effective measure by which to save themselves, but rather as a battle for the honour of the Jewish people, a protest against the world's silence. Two resistance organizations, the ŻZW and ŻOB, took control of the ghetto, they built dozens of fighting posts and executed a number of Nazi collaborators, including Jewish Ghetto Police officers, members of the fake resistance organization Żagiew, as well as Gestapo and Abwehr agents. The ŻOB established a prison to execute traitors and collaborators. Józef Szeryński, former head of the Jewish Ghetto Police, committed suicide. On 19 April 1943, on the eve of Passover, SS auxiliary forces entered the ghetto, they were planning to complete the deportation action within three days, but were ambushed by Jewish insurgents firing and tossing Molotov cocktails and hand grenades from alleyways and windows.

The Germans

Byers, Kansas

Byers is a city in Pratt County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 35. Byers was founded in 1914, it was named for Otto Phillip Byers. The first post office in Byers was established in April 1915. Byers is located at 37°47′16″N 98°52′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.19 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 35 people, 15 households, 9 families residing in the city; the population density was 184.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21 housing units at an average density of 110.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 5.7 % from two or more races. There were 15 households of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.0% were non-families. 40.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 43.5 years. 25.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 57.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 50 people, 20 households, 18 families residing in the city; the population density was 272.1 people per square mile. There were 20 housing units at an average density of 108.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.00% of the population. There were 20 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.0% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.0% were non-families. 10.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.67. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 30.0% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $18,125, the median income for a family was $18,125. Males had a median income of $21,250 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,461. There were 47.4% of families and 36.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 18.8% of under eighteens and 100.0% of those over 64. Byers High School became defunct in 1966, after which time its students were bussed to a regional rural community outside Pratt, called Skyline High School. CityByers - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 438, local school districtMapsByers City Map, KDOT

Gerard Conyers

Sir Gerard Conyers was an English banker and Lord Mayor of London. He was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England from 1715 to 1717 and Governor from 1717 to 1719, replacing Sir Peter Delmé and being succeeded in turn by John Hanger, he was elected alderman for Broad St ward in the City of London, appointed joint Sheriff of the City of London in 1716 and chosen Lord Mayor in 1722. As Lord Mayor he decreed that “all carts and other carriages coming out of Southwark into this City do keep all along the west side of the said bridge: and all carts and coaches going out of the City do keep along the east side of the said bridge”, thus helping to establish the British custom of driving on the left, he was President of St. Thomas's Hospital from 1733 to 1737, he lived at East Sheen from 1707 to his death. Chief Cashier of the Bank of England Media related to Governors of the Bank of England at Wikimedia Commons