The Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra is a Polish orchestra based in Warsaw. Founded in 1901, it is one of Poland's oldest musical institutions; the orchestra was conceived on initiative of an assembly of Polish aristocrats and financiers, as well as musicians. Between 1901 and the outbreak of World War II in 1939, several virtuoso- and conductor-composers performed their works with the orchestra, including Edvard Grieg, Arthur Honegger, Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Maurice Ravel, Camille Saint-Saëns, Richard Strauss, Igor Stravinsky. Among the other luminaries who played with the Philharmonic were pianists Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Arthur Rubinstein, Vladimir Horowitz and Claudio Arrau, violinists Jascha Heifetz and Pablo de Sarasate, cellist Pablo Casals; the Philharmonic has played host to the Chopin International Piano Competition since the contest began in 1927, appeared at the inaugural Wieniawski International Violin Competition and Universal Festival of Polish Art.
The orchestra underwent an eclipse during the Second World War, during which it lost half its members to the war, as well as its elegant building, erected and modeled after the Paris Opera around the start of the 20th century by Karol Kozłowski. In 1947, the orchestra resumed its regular season, but had to wait until 1955 for its home to be rebuilt, albeit in a new style; when the building was dedicated on 21 February, the Philharmonic was proclaimed the National Orchestra of Poland. The conductor Witold Rowicki was responsible for helping modernize the ensemble and ensuring the orchestra cultivated Polish music both old and recent, as represented by the works of Frédéric Chopin, Henryk Górecki, Witold Lutosławski, without failing to refine its mastery of the world repertoire. At home, the orchestra performs in the Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music besides accompanying the final rounds of the Chopin International Piano Competitions, while abroad it has toured the five continents to critical acclaim.
The Philharmonic has recorded music for several anime series. Notable shows include Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo, Cowboy Bebop, Soukyuu no Fafner, Giant Robo: The Animation, Ah! My Goddess: The Movie, Princess Nine, Vision of Escaflowne, Wolf's Rain, Hellsing Ultimate, Genesis of Aquarion, more Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood, it has recorded music for Namco's Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War, together with the Hollywood Session Orchestra, for the SEGA action-RPG Phantasy Star Universe. The orchestra was involved in a major performance for the film Avalon, composed by Kenji Kawai, part of a performance is shown in the film, it played the soundtrack for the film Battle Royale. Most they have recorded music for the Square Enix role-playing video game Final Fantasy XIII. Emil Młynarski Zygmunt Noskowski Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński Grzegorz Fitelberg Zdzisław Birnbaum Roman Chojnacki Józef Ozimiński Olgierd Straszyński Andrzej Panufnik Jan Maklakiewicz Witold Rudziński Władysław Raczkowski Witold Rowicki Bohdan Wodiczko Kazimierz Kord, now Honorary Director Antoni Wit Jacek Kaspszyk Andrey Boreyko Sinfonia Varsovia, National Forum of Music, NOSPR, Music of Poland History from the Orchestra's official website Official website Official service of sale of tickets www.warszawa1939.pl The Warsaw Philharmonic edifice before the World War II.
Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra discography at MusicBrainz
Emory Douglas is an American graphic designer who worked as the Minister of Culture for the Black Panther Party from 1967 until the Party disbanded in the 1980s. His graphic art was featured in most issues of The Black Panther newspaper; as the art director and main illustrator for The Black Panther, Douglas created images that became icons, representing black American struggles during the 1960s and 1970s. Douglas was born in Grand Rapids and grew up in the San Francisco Bay area; as a teenager, he was incarcerated at the Youth Training School in California. He studied commercial art, taking graphic design classes, at San Francisco City College; as Erika Doss wrote, "He joined the college's Black Students Union and was drawn to political activism." Douglas joined the Black Panther Party in 1967 after stopping by the Black House, a space created by Eldridge Cleaver with Ed Bullins and Willie Dale, when they were discussing the Black Panther Community News Service, mentioned to them that he could help improve the look of it.
In 1967 Douglas became the "Revolutionary Artist" and Minister of Culture for the Black Panther Party. He redesigned The Black Panther newspaper and switched to web press, which allowed for colored printing and the use of graphics, he used the back cover and most of the front cover for his graphics and collages that aligned with the BPP message. Here he developed the iconic images that branded the BPP, including the depiction of policemen as pigs, his graphics featured pigs bloodied or hanged as protest against police brutality against African Americans. He incorporated imagery in line with the Party's 10-Point program, including things such as social services and decent housing. In addition to this, Douglas aligned the Black Panther Party with "Third World liberation struggles" and anti-capitalist movements in works such as the edition of January 3, 1970, which shows a pig dressed in an American flag being impaled while having many guns pointing at it, saying things like "Get out of the ghetto" and "Get out of Africa".
In addition to the paper, Douglas designed postcards, event flyers, posters that were meant as recruitment tactics as well as an additional method of spreading the BBP ideology and creating the impression that there was mass support of the cause. Douglas recalled, "After a while it flashed on me that you have to draw in a way that a child can understand to reach your broadest audience without losing the substance or insight of what is represented.". In 1967 Douglas became Minister of Culture for the Black Panther Party. In 2007, the San Francisco Chronicle reporter Jessica Werner Zack reported that he "branded the militant-chic Panther image decades before the concept became commonplace, he used the newspaper's popularity to incite the disenfranchised to action, portraying the poor with genuine empathy, not as victims but as outraged and ready for a fight."Douglas drew a lot of inspiration from third world struggles and used art as the primary method of propaganda and outreach. His graphics served to promote the Party's ideologies, which were inspired by the rhetoric of revolutionary figures such as Malcolm X and Che Guevara.
His images were very graphic, meant to promote and empower black resistance with the hope of starting a revolution to end institutionalized mistreatment of African Americans. In 1970 the BBP shifted their stance to emphasize survival programs as opposed to violence. With that, Douglas's imagery changed as well, showing African Americans receiving free food and clothes, they promoted free health clinics, free legal aid amongst other things. These programs were considered part of their revolutionary tactic. In response, the FBI cracked down on the cause more, until it brought it to an end. However, their ideology is still alive today. Douglas worked at the black community-oriented San Francisco Sun Reporter newspaper for over 30 years after The Black Panther newspaper was no longer published, he continued to create activist artwork, his artwork stayed relevant, according to Greg Morozumi, of the Bay Area EastSide Arts Alliance: "Rather than reinforcing the cultural dead end of'post-modern' nostalgia, the inspiration of his art raises the possibility of rebellion and the creation of new revolutionary culture."In 2006, artist and curator Sam Durant edited a comprehensive monograph on the work of Douglas, Black Panther: The Revolutionary Art of Emory Douglas, with contributors including Danny Glover, Kathleen Cleaver, St. Clair Bourne, Colette Gaiter, Greg Morozumi, Sonia Sanchez.
After the book's publication, Douglas had retrospective exhibitions at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles and the New Museum in New York. Since the re-introduction of his early work to new audiences, he continues to make new work and interact with audiences in formal and informal settings all over the world, his international exhibitions and visits include Urbis, England. Douglas profoundly understood the power of images in communicating ideas... Inexpensive printing technologies—including photostats and press-type and patterns—made publishing a two-color illustrated, weekly tabloid newspaper possible. Graphics production values as
John Yule Mackay was a Scottish Anatomist and Academic who served as the second Principal of University College Dundee. Mackay started his academic career as a student at the University of Glasgow. In 1881 he graduated with a MB CM and four years was awarded an MD, he served as assistant to Professor John Cleland, who held the chair of anatomy. He was appointed lecturer in embryology at Glasgow, holding that position until 1894. In 1888 a report he wrote on'The development of the branchial arches in birds’ was published in Philosophical Transactions. According to Michael Shafe, Mackay played a key role in setting up the Student Representative Council at the University of Glasgow by raising funds and negotiating between the University authorities and students. In 1894 he left Glasgow when was appointed Professor of Anatomy at Dundee, he was awarded an LLD by the University. The year after Mackay arrived at Dundee, the College's Principal William Peterson left the College and Mackay was appointed as his successor, an appointment made permanent in 1897.
He continued to act as Professor of Anatomy until 1925. Nicknamed'The Chief', Shafe describes him as'a good administrator with a fine business mind'. Early his term in office, University College became a part of the University of St Andrews after a prolonged battle. In 1896 along with Cleland, his former superior at Glasgow, he produced the works Textbook of Human Anatomy and Dictionary of Dissection. In 1902 he became chairman of General Medical Council’s educational committee; this was followed in 1920 by his appointment as a member of the Scottish Consultative Council on Medical and Allied Services. These additional responsibilities combined with his teaching and administrative duties at Dundee meant he had no time for additional research. Mackay served as principal throughout the Great War; when the College's War Memorial was unveiled in 1922, he spoke of the College's pride in its students and younger teaching staff who had joined the forces during the conflict, as well as the grief felt for those who had fallen.
In October 1924 Mackay delivered a historic public lecture on'Primitive Man' at University College. This was the inaugural lecture in a series held in partnership with the Dundee Naturalists Society; this series was the start of what would evolve into the University of Dundee's Saturday Evening Lecture Series, which celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2014. Although in failing health, he remained Principal until 1930. Mackay died unmarried on 30 March 1930, his funeral took place in Dundee’s St Enoch’s Church, where he had been an elder, he was buried in Barnhill Cemetery