Obra is a river in west Poland, a tributary of the Warta river, with a length of 164 kilometres and the basin area of 2,758 km2. The river is popular with canoe and kayak enthusiasts and a canoe trail exists. The river source is near Jarocin, the mouth into the Warta River in the town of Skwierzyna, the Obra flows through several other towns like Bledzew, Krzywin, Zbaszyn and Trzciel. The river flows through several lakes, the Obra is a popular river for canoeing and kayaking. The canoe trips usually begin from Zbaszyn, from there, the river passes through wilderness areas and well as the countryside. The canoe trip is not particularly difficult, with the exception of a few tricky place where fallen trees might pose a disruption, the Obra is widely regarded as a safe river for beginners. The Obra River is a habitat for flora and fauna. Several species of orchids grow here, mud sedge, club-mosses and Turks cap lily, together with more than 200 species of mosses and an equally large number of fungi grow in the area around Obra.
Stretches of oak and Scots pine grow along the river, the Obra is an important habitat for birds. There are over 150 species inhabiting the area, some of the important birds found here are the sea eagle, golden eagle, common merganser, eagle owl, black stork, black woodpecker, and corn crake. Swamp turtles live in Obras waters, over 40 species of mammals roam the area around the Obra, including beaver, river otter, badgers and wild boar. Fish species found in Obra include catfish, river trout, lake trout, barbel, there is a local lore connected with the Obra river. The lore is centered near the part of the river. There is a story of the existence of a giant fish in Lake Czapliniec, the fish is widely believed to be an old fish that has grown to a gigantic size. Others refer to it as a monster, tales of the fish eating ducks and even small dogs abound. Krzywiń Kościan Kargowa Trzciel Międzyrzecz Skwierzyna Rivers of Poland
Bydgoszcz /ˈbɪdɡɒʃtʃ/ is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 358,614, and an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants and it has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, Bydgoszcz is part of the metroplex Bydgoszcz-Toruń, which totals over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz hosts the Pomeranian Philharmonic concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, and the Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport. There are a number of other Polish place-names which make use of the goszcz suffix, the name Byd-gost contains archaic elements of the Proto-Slavonic root byd which existed as a variant of the verb to raise, and the common Slavic root Goszcz. Some people identify the name of the town as Budorgis, a name from the 2nd century which is listed next to the village Calisia on the amber route, during the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya, became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes.
In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, the city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, and incorporated into the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń, king Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights on 19 April 1346. The city increasingly saw an influx of Jews after that date, in 1555, due to pressure by the clergy, the Jews were expelled and came back only with the annexion to Prussia in 1772. In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading, during 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally. During the events of war the town suffered demolitions, the town was conquered a second and third time by Sweden in 1656 and 1657 during the Second Northern War. On the latter occasion the castle was destroyed completely and has since remained a ruin.
After the war only 94 houses were inhabited,103 stood empty and 35 were burned down, the suburbs had been damaged considerably. In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, Bydgoszcz was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia, renamed Bromberg, at the time, the town was seriously depressed and semi-derelict. In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, with Napoleons defeat at the Battle of Nations in 1815, the town was returned to Prussia as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen. In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, in the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway contributed greatly to the development of Bromberg. The first stretch, from Schneidemühl to Bromberg, was opened in July 1851, the city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were Germans and 16 percent Poles. After World War I, despite Brombergs German majority, it was assigned to the recreated Polish state by the 1919 Versailles Treaty, now officially Bydgoszcz again, the city belonged to the Poznań Voivodeship
Poland Is Not Yet Lost
Mazurek Dąbrowskiego is the national anthem of Poland. It is known by its title, Pieśń Legionów Polskich we Włoszech. English translations of its Polish incipit include, Poland has not yet perished, Poland has not perished yet, Poland is not lost, Poland is not lost yet, and Poland is not yet lost. The music is an unattributed mazurka and considered a folk tune that Polish composer Edward Pałłasz categorizes as functional art which was fashionable among the gentry, Pałłasz wrote, Wybicki probably made use of melodic motifs he had heard and combined them in one formal structure to suit the text. It is one of the most important songs of the Slavic nations, the text of the hymn was modified to suit new occasions and socio-political contexts throughout the songs history. When Poland re-emerged as an independent state in 1918, Dabrowskis Mazurka became its de facto anthem and it was officially adopted as the national anthem of the Republic of Poland in 1926. It inspired songs by other peoples struggling for independence during the 19th century.
One such anthem is Hey, the original lyrics, authored by Wybicki, were a poem consisting of six stanzas and a chorus repeated after all but last stanzas, all following an ABAB rhyme scheme. The official lyrics, based on a variant from 1806, show a departure from the original text. It misses two of the original stanzas and reverses the order of other two, the initial verse, Poland has not yet died was replaced with Poland has not yet perished, suggesting a more violent cause of the nations possible death. The manuscript is today only from facsimile copies, twenty four of which were made in 1886 by Edward Rożnowski, Wybickis grandson. The chorus and subsequent stanzas include heart-lifting examples of heroes, set as role models for Polish soldiers, Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, Stefan Czarniecki. Dąbrowski, for whom the anthem is named, was a commander in the failed 1794 Kościuszko Uprising against Russia, bonaparte was, at the time when the song was written, a commander of the Italian campaign of French Revolutionary Wars and Dąbrowskis superior.
Having already proven his skills as a leader, he is described in the lyrics as the one who has shown us ways to victory. Bonaparte is the only person mentioned by name in the Polish anthem. In the same castle, Józef Wybicki, started his career as a lawyer, one of his major victories during the uprising was the Battle of Racławice where the result was partly due to Polish peasants armed with scythes. Alongside the scythes, the song mentioned other types of weaponry, traditionally used by the Polish szlachta, or nobility, the sabre, known in Polish as szabla and her father are fictional characters. They are used to represent the women and elderly men who waited for the Polish soldiers to return home, the melody of the Polish anthem is a lively and rhythmical mazurka
The Oder is a river in Central Europe. It rises in the Czech Republic and flows through western Poland, the river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and into three branches that empty into the Gulf of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea. Ptolemy knew the modern Oder as the Συήβος – a name derived from the Suebi. While he refers to an outlet in the area as the Οὐιαδούα Ouiadoua, the name Suebos may be preserved in the modern name of the Świna river – an outlet from the Szczecin Lagoon to the Baltic. In the Old Church Slavonic language, the name of the river is Vjodr, the Oder is 854 kilometres long,112 km in the Czech Republic,742 km in Poland and is the second longest river in Poland. It drains a basin of 118,861 square kilometres,106,056 km2 of which are in Poland,7,217 km2 in the Czech Republic, channels connect it to the Havel, Vistula system and Kłodnica. It flows through Silesian, Lower Silesian and West Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland, the main branch empties into the Szczecin Lagoon near Police, Poland.
The Szczecin Lagoon is bordered on the north by the islands of Usedom, between these two islands, there is only a narrow channel going to the Bay of Pomerania, which forms a part of the Baltic Sea. The largest city on the Oder is Wrocław, in Lower Silesia, the Oder is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as the town of Koźle, where the river connects to the Gliwice Canal. The upstream part of the river is canalized and permits larger barges to navigate between the sites around the Wrocław area. Further downstream the river is flowing, passing the towns of Eisenhüttenstadt. Downstream of Frankfurt the river Warta forms a connection with Poznań. At Hohensaaten the Oder–Havel Canal connects with the Berlin waterways again, near its mouth the Oder reaches the city of Szczecin, a major maritime port. The river finally reaches the Baltic Sea through the Szczecin Lagoon, the river in Germania Magna was known to the Romans as the Viadrus or Viadua in Classical Latin, as it was a branch of the Amber Road from the Baltic Sea to the Roman Empire.
In German language it was and is called the Oder, written in older records as Odera or Oddera in Medieval Latin documents and it was mentioned in the Dagome iudex, which described territory of the Duchy of Poland under Mieszko I of Poland ca. 990, as a part of western frontier. Before Slavs settled along its banks, Oder was an important trade route, a document of the Bishopric of Prague mentions Zlasane, Trebovyane and Dedositze in Silesia. In the 13th century, the first dams were built to protect agricultural lands, the Finow Canal, built for the first time in 1605, connects Oder and Havel
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. The Baltic Sea is connected by waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal. Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea and they were collected in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør, in the Great Belt at Nyborg. In the Little Belt, the site of intake was moved to Fredericia, the narrowest part of Little Belt is the Middelfart Sund near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers widely agree that the physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill. The Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö, it is used by the Øresund Bridge, including the Drogden Tunnel.
By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg, another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. Its the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, and a limit to the Belt Sea. The shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology, the remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen and in species. While Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people called the Suebi, the origin of the latter name is speculative. Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt and he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder.
Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Pytheas and it is possible that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia in On the Ocean by Pytheas. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean near belt of sea, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning white, fair. This root and its meaning were retained in both Lithuanian and Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian, yet another explanation is that the name originally meant enclosed sea, bay as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe the name derives from the god Balder of Nordic mythology, in the Middle Ages the sea was known by variety of names
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska is a historical region of west-central Poland. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied throughout history. Since the Middle Ages the proper or exact/strict Wielkopolska included the Poznań, in the wider sense it encompassed Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships. One another meaning included Mazovia and Royal Prussia, after the Partitions of Poland, Greater Poland was often identified with the Grand Duchy of Posen. The region in the proper sense roughly coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship, because Greater Poland was the settlement area of the Polans and the core of the early Polish state, the region was at times simply called Poland. The more specific name is first recorded in the Latin form Polonia Maior in 1257 and its original meaning was the Older Poland, as opposed to Lesser Poland, a region in south-eastern Poland with its capital at Kraków which became the main center of the state later.
Greater Poland comprises much of the area drained by the Warta River and its tributaries, the region is distinguished from Lesser Poland with the lowland landscape, and from both Lesser Poland and Mazovia with its numerous lakes. In the strict meaning, it covers an area of about 33,000 square kilometres, in the wider sense, it has almost 60,000 square kilometres, and 7 million inhabitants. The regions main metropolis is Poznań, near the centre of the region, on the Warta. Other cities are Kalisz to the south-east, Konin to the east, Piła to the north, Ostrów Wielkopolski to the south-east, Gniezno to the north-east, and Leszno to the south-west. An area of 75.84 square kilometres of forest and lakeland south of Poznań is designated the Wielkopolska National Park, the region contains part of Drawa National Park, and several designated Landscape Parks. For example, the Rogalin Landscape Park is famous for about 2000 monumental oak trees growing on the plain of the river Warta. Greater Poland formed the heart of the 10th-century early Polish state, in the testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty, which initiated the period of fragmentation of Poland, the western part of Greater Poland was granted to Mieszko III the Old.
The eastern part, with Gniezno and Kalisz, was part of the Duchy of Kraków, for most of the period the two parts were under a single ruler, and were known as the Duchy of Greater Poland. The region came under the control of Władysław I the Elbow-High in 1314, in the reunited kingdom, and in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the country came to be divided into administrative units called voivodeships. In the case of the Greater Poland region these were Poznań Voivodeship, the Commonwealth had larger subdivisions known as prowincja, one of which was named Greater Poland. However, this covered an larger area than the Greater Poland region itself, taking in Masovia. In 1768 a new Gniezno Voivodeship was formed out of the part of Kalisz Voivodeship