Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from a wooden fort built by William the Conqueror during 1068. Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, situated on a bend of the River Avon; the original wooden motte-and-bailey castle was rebuilt in stone during the 12th century. During the Hundred Years War, the facade opposite the town was refortified, resulting in one of the most recognisable examples of 14th-century military architecture, it was used as a stronghold until the early 17th century, when it was granted to Sir Fulke Greville by James I in 1604. Greville converted it to a country house and it was owned by the Greville family, who became Earls of Warwick in 1759, until 1978 when it was bought by the Tussauds Group. In 2007, the Tussauds Group was purchased by The Blackstone Group which merged it with Merlin Entertainments. Merlin continues to operate the site under a renewable 35-year lease. Warwick Castle is situated on a sandstone bluff at a bend of the River Avon; the river, which runs below the castle on the east side, has eroded the rock the castle stands on, forming a cliff.
The river and cliff form natural defences. When construction began in 1068, four houses belonging to the Abbot of Coventry were demolished to provide space; the castle's position made it strategically important in safeguarding the Midlands against rebellion. During the 12th century, King Henry I was suspicious of 2nd Earl of Warwick. To counter the earl's influence, Henry bestowed Geoffrey de Clinton with a position of power rivalling that of the earl; the lands he was given included Kenilworth – a castle of comparable size and importance, founded by Clinton –, about 8 kilometres to the north. Warwick Castle is about 1.6 kilometres from Warwick railway station and less than 3.2 kilometres from junction 15 of the M40 motorway. An Anglo-Saxon burh was established on the site in 914; the burh she established was one of ten. Its position allowed it to dominate the Fosse Way, as well as the river valley and the crossing over the River Avon. Though the motte to the south-west of the present castle is now called "Ethelfleda's Mound", it is in fact part of the Norman fortifications, not of Anglo-Saxon origin.
It was at this time that what is now Warwick School was founded in the castle - making it arguably the oldest boys' school in the country. It still resides just over the river Avon, but a stone's throw away, visible from all of the castle's towers. After the Norman conquest of England, William the Conqueror established a motte-and-bailey castle at Warwick in 1068 to maintain control of the Midlands as he advanced northwards. Building a castle in a pre-existing settlement could require demolishing properties on the intended site. In the case of Warwick, the least recorded of the 11 urban castles in the 1086 survey, four houses were torn down to make way for the castle. A motte-and-bailey castle consists of a mound – on which stands a keep or tower – and a bailey, an enclosed courtyard. William appointed Henry de Beaumont, the son of a powerful Norman family, as constable of the castle. In 1088, Henry de Beaumont was made the first Earl of Warwick, he founded the Church of All Saints within the castle walls by 1119.
In 1153, the wife of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick, was tricked into believing that her husband was dead, surrendered control of the castle to the invading army of Henry of Anjou King Henry II of England. According to the Gesta Regis Stephani, a 12th-century historical text, Roger de Beaumont died upon hearing the news that his wife had handed over the castle. King Henry II returned the castle to the Earls of Warwick, as they had been supporters of his mother, Empress Matilda, in The Anarchy of 1135–1154. During the reign of King Henry II, the motte-and-bailey was replaced with a stone keep castle; this new phase took the form of a shell keep with all the buildings constructed against the curtain wall. During the Barons' Rebellion of 1173–74, the Earl of Warwick remained loyal to King Henry II, the castle was used to store provisions; the castle and the lands associated with the earldom passed down to the Beaumont family until 1242. When Thomas de Beaumont, 6th Earl of Warwick died, the castle and lands passed to his sister, Margaret de Beaumont, 7th Countess of Warwick in her own right.
Her first husband, John Marshal, died soon after, while she looked for a suitable husband, the castle was in the ownership of King Henry III of England. When she married John du Plessis in December 1242, the castle was returned to her. During the Second Barons' War of 1264–67, William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick, was a supporter of King Henry III; the castle was taken in a surprise attack by the forces of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, from Kenilworth Castle in 1264. According to 15th-century chronicler John Rous, the walls along the northeastern side of Warwick Castle were slighted, so "that it should be no strength to the king". Maudit and his countess were held there until a ransom was paid. After the death of William Maudit in 1267, the title and castle passed to his nephew, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Following William's death, Warwick Castle passed through seven generations of the Beauchamp family, over t
Íñigo Joaquín de la Serna Hernáiz is a Spanish politician and civil engineer. He was the Mayor of Santander between 2007 and 2016 and served as Minister of Public Works from November 4, 2016 to June 1, 2018. Although born in Bilbao, he has been a resident of Santander during all of his life. An only child, he attended the San Agustín College in the Cantabrian capital and spend his COU year in Ohio, United States as an exchange student, before joining the University of Cantabria School of Civil Engineering, where he graduated as civil engineer, he worked in the Apia XXI engineering office. His career in politics began in 1999 when he was named chief of the cabinet of the Councilor of Environment of the Government of Cantabria, José Luis Gil. In 2003 he took the office of the Department of Environment and Beaches in the City Council of Santander. In 2004, he was elected Deputy Secretary of the People's Party of Cantabria, contested the municipal elections of 2007. Íñigo de la Serna was elected Mayor of Santander.
When he was elected, he became the second youngest mayor of a provincial capital of Spain after Agustín Conde, since he was only 36 years old. He obtained an absolute majority with 52% of the votes, this was the first time that this had happened. In the municipal elections of 2011, he revalidated an absolute majority, more broadly, obtaining 18 of the 27 councilors, he became the fourth most voted mayor of Spain obtaining the highest record of his party in the city with 56% of the votes. As mayor, thanks to the implementation of the European project SmartSantander, he opted to turn Santander into a referent within the so-called smart cities. In this sense, he advocated from his position as President of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions to promote technological interoperability between the different cities of the European Union that would allow the sharing of information and projects in the field of smart cities. In June 2012, he was elected president of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities.
In the municipal elections of 2015, he lost the absolute majority and remained with 13 aldermans and the 40% of the votes, the best result in a provincial capital for the PP after the fate suffered by the party across Spain. He was reelected mayor thanks to an agreement with the two aldermans from Citizens and that causes all the opposition to vote to its own candidates in the vote of investiture, ruling in minority; the rest of the corporation was made up of 5 PSC-PSOE councilors, 4 from the Regionalist Party of Cantabria, 1 from Ganemos Santander, 1 from United Left and 1 independent. From July 23, 2012 to September 19, 2015, he held the position of President of the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces, following the voluntary resignation of the former President, Juan Ignacio Zoido, being unanimously elected by the members belonging to all the political parties that form the Territorial Council of the same. On September 19, 2015, the presidency of the FEMP was left in the hands of the Socialist, Abel Caballero.
He was at the helm of the Spanish Network of Smart Cities since its foundation in 2012 until May 2016. He has held the presidency of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions; as mayor he supported the construction of the Botín Center of Art and Culture in a central zone of the city. After several years of delay. On November 4, 2016, he was appointed Minister of Public Works of the Government of Spain. 35 days after losing the absolute majority and being mayor of Santander, he supported the creation of a parliamentary commission of investigation on the accident of the Alvia. After 132 days at the helm of the ministry, he was the third minister to have a Royal Decree-Law rejected by the Cortes, the first in a normal functioning state of government. After supporting María José Sainz de Buruaga in the party's regional congress of Cantabria, the biggest political crisis in the 21st century of the PP of Cantabria took place, he has been identified as a possible responsible for the taxi/Uber/Cabify conflict.
In August 2017, less than 2 months before the date of the referendum of independence of Catalonia, he announced the presence of the Civil Guard in the security control of the Barcelona Airport after a labor dispute that caused a strike by the security guards. Politics of Cantabria Santander, Spain Government of Spain Council of European Municipalities and Regions Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces
Dillenia alata known as red beech or golden guinea tree, is a rainforest tree in the Dilleniaceae family, found in northern Australia, New Guinea and nearby islands. It is a medium-sized tree with reddish-brown papery bark; the leaves are 11–23 mm long and 6–13 mm wide and connected to the stem by a stem-clasping winged petiole. The five-petalled yellow flowers have a cluster of pink or red styles and staminoides at the centre; the species was formally described in 1817 and given the name Wormia alata based on plant material collected by Joseph Banks at Point Lookout, Endeavour River, during Lieutenant James Cook's first voyage of discovery in 1770. The species was transferred to the genus Dillenia by Italian botanist Ugolino Martelli in 1886; the species epithet, means "winged" and refers to the winged leaf-stalks. Dillenia alata Occurrence data from the Australasian Virtual Herbarium