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Warwickshire

Warwickshire is a county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, the largest town is Nuneaton; the county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare. The county is divided into five districts of North Warwickshire and Bedworth, Rugby and Stratford-on-Avon; the current county boundaries were set in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972. The historic county boundaries include Coventry, Sutton Coldfield and Solihull, as well as much of Birmingham; the county is bordered by Leicestershire to the northeast, Staffordshire to the northwest and the West Midlands to the west, Northamptonshire to the east and southeast, Gloucestershire to the southwest and Oxfordshire to the south. The northern tip of the county is only 3 miles from the Derbyshire border. An average-sized English county covering an area of 2,000 km2, it runs some 60 miles north to south. Equivalently it extends as far north as Shrewsbury in Shropshire and as far south as Banbury in north Oxfordshire.

The majority of Warwickshire's population live in the centre of the county. The market towns of northern and eastern Warwickshire were industrialised in the 19th century, include Atherstone, Bedworth and Rugby. Of these, Atherstone has retained most of its original character. Major industries included coal mining, textiles and cement production, but heavy industry is in decline, being replaced by distribution centres, light to medium industry and services. Of the northern and eastern towns, only Nuneaton and Rugby are well known outside of Warwickshire; the prosperous towns of central and western Warwickshire including Royal Leamington Spa, Stratford-upon-Avon, Alcester and Wellesbourne harbour light to medium industries and tourism as major employment sectors. The north of the county, bordering Staffordshire and Leicestershire, is mildly undulating countryside and the northernmost village, No Man's Heath, is only 34 miles south of the Peak District National Park's southernmost point; the south of the county is rural and sparsely populated, includes a small area of the Cotswolds, at the border with northeast Gloucestershire.

The plain between the outlying Cotswolds and the Edgehill escarpment is known as the Vale of Red Horse. The only town in the south of Warwickshire is Shipston-on-Stour; the highest point in the county, at 261 m, is Ebrington Hill, again on the border with Gloucestershire, grid reference SP187426 at the county's southwest extremity. There are no cities in Warwickshire since both Coventry and Birmingham were incorporated into the West Midlands county in 1974 and are now metropolitan authorities in themselves; the largest towns in Warwickshire in 2011 were: Nuneaton, Leamington Spa, Warwick and Kenilworth. Much of western Warwickshire, including that area now forming part of Coventry and Birmingham, was covered by the ancient Forest of Arden, thus the names of a number of places in the central-western part of Warwickshire end with the phrase "-in-Arden", such as Henley-in-Arden, Hampton-in-Arden and Tanworth-in-Arden. The remaining area, not part of the forest, was called the Felden – from fielden.

Areas part of Warwickshire include Coventry, Sutton Coldfield, some of Birmingham including Erdington and Edgbaston. These became part of the metropolitan county of West Midlands following local government re-organisation in 1974. In 1986 the West Midlands County Council was abolished and Birmingham and Solihull became effective unitary authorities, however the West Midlands county name has not been altogether abolished, still exists for ceremonial purposes, so the town and two cities remain outside Warwickshire; some organisations, such as Warwickshire County Cricket Club, based in Edgbaston, in Birmingham, still observe the historic county boundaries. The flag of the historic county was registered in October 2016, it is a design of a bear and ragged staff on a red field, long associated with the county. Coventry is in the centre of the Warwickshire area, still has strong ties with the county. Coventry and Warwickshire are sometimes treated as a single area and share a single Chamber of Commerce and BBC Local Radio Station.

Coventry has been a part of Warwickshire for only some of its history. In 1451 Coventry was separated from Warwickshire and made a county corporate in its own right, called the County of the City of Coventry. In 1842 the county of Coventry was abolished and Coventry was remerged with Warwickshire. In recent times, there have been calls to formally re-introduce Coventry into Warwickshire, although nothing has yet come of this; the county's population would increase by more than a third of a million overnight should this occur, Coventry being the UK's 11th largest city. The town of Tamworth was divided between Warwickshire and Staffordshire, but since 1888 has been in Staffordshire. In 1931, Warwickshire gained the town of Shipston-on-Stour from Worcestershire and several villages, including Long Marston and Welford-on-Avon, from Gloucestershire. Warwickshire contains a large expanse of green belt area, surrounding the West Midlands and Coventry conurbations, was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of the belt.

The following towns and villages in Warwickshire rank in the top 20. Warwickshire came into being as a divis

Brdów

Brdów is a big village in the administrative district of Gmina Babiak, within Koło County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in central Poland. It lies 18 km north of Koło, 123 km east of the regional capital Poznań, 76 km south of Toruń and 185 km west of the country capital Warsaw. 3700 BC – The first traces of people in the present Brdów. 1136 – The first written mention about Brdów. 1325 - The first mention about Catholic parish in Brdów. 1399 - The first mention of a brick church. 1436: King of Poland Ladislaus of Varna brought to Brdów the Pauline Fathers Order from Jasna Gora and gave them into the care of church in Brdów. Brdów gained town privileges. 1450 – Built the first school in Brdów. 1476 – City of Brdów became a royal property. 1562 – The renewal of civic rights of Brdów by king of Poland Sigismund II Augustus. 1584 - Built a hospital in Brdów. 1655 – Destruction of the city by the Swedes. 1824 – Construction of the factory in Brdów. 1863 – Battle of Brdów in Nowiny Brdowskie. 1870 – Loss of civic rights.

1893 - In Brdów lived 1 894 people. 1909 – Built a new building of school. 1938 - Built a new building of school. 1939: Destruction of the town by the Germans. Opened the hospital in place of new school. 1983: Coronation of Image of Our Lady of Victories of Brdów by Pope John Paul II. Fire of church. 1999 – Start of international cooperation with Airėnai 2004 – The Society of Friends of the Earth of Brdów. 2007 – Expansion of the school building. 2009 – Construction of new building of kindergarten. 2010 -- In Brdów was a car accident. 2011 – Wind farm built in Brdów. Famous people associated with Brdów: Andrzej Kreutz-Majewski - stage designer Augustyn Kordecki - Pauline monk Bronisław Matyszczyk - Pauline monk Eleonora Kiełczewska - mother of Pola Negri Florian Piskorski - American Polonia activist Jakub Krzyżanowski - grandfather of Frédéric Chopin Jan Skarbek - nobleman Józef Markowski - poet and priest Karol Libelt, senior - philosopher Karol Libelt, junior - insurgent Korneliusz Jemioł - Pauline monk Léon Young de Blankenheim - commander of the insurgent troops Mieczysław Wejman - Rector of the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków Pola Negri - actress Ladislaus of Varna - king of Poland and Lithuanian Grand Duke Zachariasz Jabłoński - journalist and priest Brdów is a local center of religion cult.

Here is a St Adalbert's of Prague Church of a Pauline Fathers in Brdów. The church has existed since 1325. 1777 – 331 people 1827 – 794 people 1859 – 863 people 1902 – 1,894 people 1946 – 700 people 1999 – 818 people 2002 – 850 people 2005 – 900 people 2014 - 950 people

Tom Wintringham

Thomas Henry Wintringham was a British soldier, military historian, poet, Marxist and author. He was a supporter of the Home Guard during the Second World War and was one of the founders of the Common Wealth Party. Tom Wintringham was born 1898 in Lincolnshire, he was educated at Gresham's School and Balliol College, Oxford. In 1915 he was elected to a Brakenbury scholarship in History at Balliol, but during the First World War postponed his university career to join the Royal Flying Corps, serving as a mechanic and motorcycle despatch rider. At the end of the war he was involved in a brief barracks mutiny, one of many minor insurrections which went unnoticed in the period, he returned to Oxford, in a long vacation made a visit of some months to Moscow, after which he returned to England and formed a group of students aiming to establish a British section of the Third International, a Communist party. As the party was formed, Wintringham graduated from Oxford and moved to London, ostensibly to study for the bar at the Temple, but in fact to work full-time in politics.

In 1923, Wintringham joined the formed Communist Party of Great Britain. In 1925, he was one of the twelve CPGB officials imprisoned for seditious libel and incitement to mutiny. In 1930, he helped to found the Communist newspaper, the Daily Worker, was one of the few named writers to publish articles in it. In writing for the Communist party's theoretic journal Labour Monthly, he established himself as the party's military expert. In LM articles and in booklets on the subject, Wintringham formed the arguments against Air Assault and called for air raid precautions several years before the bombing of Guernica, his arguments were the basis for the most successful of the Communist Party's wartime campaigns, that for ARP provision, shaped government policy on the issue in the years leading up to the war. Although at the centre of the CPGB organisation, he was at odds with Party policy, believing in a communism of alliance and co-operation, rather than the dominant Comintern ideology of "class against class".

Wintringham's ideas became party dogma when the Comintern announced the'Popular Front', a form of communism Wintringham was prepared to fight for. In 1934, he became the founder and major contributor of Left Review, the first British literary journal with a stated Marxist intent. Although published by Wintringham and funded by the CPGB, it embraced writers of all shades of socialism, regardless of their party affiliations; the journal established a pattern for. At the start of the Spanish Civil War, Wintringham went to Barcelona as a journalist for the Daily Worker, but he joined and commanded the British Battalion of the International Brigades; some socialist commentators have credited him with the whole idea of "international" brigades. He had an affair with a US journalist, Kitty Bowler, whom he married. In February 1937 he was wounded in the Battle of Jarama. While injured in Spain he became friends with Ernest Hemingway, who based one of his characters upon him, he spent some months as a machine gun instructor.

When he returned to the battalion the next summer he contracted typhoid, was again wounded at Quinto in August 1937 and was repatriated in October. His book English Captain is based on these experiences. In 1938, the Communist Party condemned Kitty Bowler as a Trotskyist spy but he refused to leave her: he quit the party instead, he came to mistrust Comintern. Back in England, Tom Hopkinson recruited him to work for the magazine Picture Post. On returning from Spain, Wintringham began to call for an armed civilian guard to repel any Axis invasion, as early as 1938 he had begun campaigning for what would become the Home Guard, he taught the troops tactics of guerrilla warfare, including a movement known as the'Monkey Crawl'. They were taught how to deal with dive bombers. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Wintringham applied for an army officer's commission but was rejected; when the Communist Party promulgated its policy of staying out of the war due to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, he condemned their policies.

Because of the appeasement policies of prime minister Neville Chamberlain, he regarded the Tories as Nazi sympathizers and wrote that they should be removed from office. He wrote for Picture Post, the Daily Mirror, wrote columns for Tribune and the New Statesman. In May 1940, after the escape from Dunkirk, Wintringham began to write in support of the Local Defence Volunteers, the forerunner of the Home Guard. On 10 July, he opened the private Home Guard training school at London. Wintringham's training methods were based on his experience in Spain, he had veterans who had fought alongside him in Spain who trained volunteers in anti-tank warfare and demolitions. He taught street fighting and guerrilla warfare, he wrote many articles in Picture Post and the Daily Mirror propagating his views about the Home Guard with the motto "a people's war for a people's peace". The British Army still did not dare trust Wintringham because of his communist past. After September 1940, the army began to take charge of the Home Guard training in Osterley and Wintringham and his comrades were sidelined.

Wintringham resigned in April 1941. Despite his activities in support of the Home Guard, Wintringham was never allowed to join the organisation itself because of a policy barring membership to Communists and Fascists. In 1942, Wintringham proceeded to found a Common Wealth Party with Vernon Bartlett, Sir Richard Acland and J. B. Priestley, he received 48 percent of the vote at the Midlothian and Peebles Norther