Steele County, Minnesota
Steele County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 36,576, its county seat is Owatonna. The county was named for a prominent early resident of the state. Steele County comprises MN Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has an area of 432 square miles, of which 430 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. The Straight River flows northward through the county, the Le Sueur River flows through its southwestern corner; the Middle Fork of the Zumbro River rises in NE Steele County. Beaver Lake: in Berlin Township Fosilen Lake: in Berlin Township Lake Kohlmeier: in Owatonna, Owatonna Township Lonergan Lake: in Berlin Township Oak Glen Lake: in Blooming Prairie Township Rice Lake: in Havana Township, but the far eastern edge extends into Dodge County Rickert Lake: in Blooming Prairie Township Swan Lake: in Deerfield Township Interstate 35 – runs north-south through west-central portion of county.
Passes Medford, Clinton Falls, Hope, Ellendale. U. S. Highway 14 – runs east-west through upper central portion of county. Passes Owatonna. U. S. Highway 218 – runs NNW from southeast corner of county to intersection with US-14, southeast of Owatonna. Minnesota State Highway 30 – runs east-west across south part of county. Passes Ellendale; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 33,680 people, 12,846 households, 9,082 families residing in the county. The population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 13,306 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.19% White, 1.07% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.65% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 3.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.6 % were of 18.5 % Norwegian, 5.2 % Czech and 5.1 % Irish ancestry. There were 12,846 households out of which 35.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families.
24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.08. The county population contained 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,106, the median income for a family was $53,981. Males had a median income of $36,366 versus $25,054 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,328. About 4.20% of families and 6.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.10% of those under age 18 and 7.10% of those age 65 or over. Blooming Prairie Ellendale Medford Owatonna Rice Lake National Register of Historic Places listings in Steele County, Minnesota Steele County Historical Society City of Owatonna City of Medford City of Blooming Prairie City Of Ellendale Rice Lake State Park Steele County government’s website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
U.S. Route 14
U. S. Route 14, an east–west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926, it has a length of 1,398 miles, but it had a peak length of 1,429 miles. For much of its length, it runs parallel to Interstate 90; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is in Chicago, Illinois. Its western terminus is the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, with the western terminus of U. S. Route 16 and the western terminus of the eastern segment of U. S. Route 20. U. S. 14 begins at the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park, along with U. S. 16 and the eastern segment of U. S. 20. It travels through the Shoshone National Forest to Cody, where U. S. 14A splits off to the north. Both routes traverse the dry Bighorn Basin, followed by a steep ascent up the Big Horn Mountains and through the Bighorn National Forest, where they rejoin at Burgess Junction; the highway descends the eastern slope of the Bighorns between Burgess Junction and Dayton. U. S. 14 follows I-90 south from Ranchester to Sheridan.
The highway turns east and south to again join I-90 near Gillette. It splits off for a short time to Carlile rejoins I-90 which it follows to the state line; the South Dakota section of U. S. 14, other than a concurrency with Interstate 90, is defined in the South Dakota Codified Laws. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway incorporates U. S. 14 from South Dakota in the west to Rochester, Minnesota, in the east, where the historic roadway continues on U. S. 63. The author moved to De Smet, SD from Walnut Grove, MN via the Chicago and Northwestern, which parallels the highway from the Black Hills to La Crosse, WI. In South Dakota and Minnesota, the road parallels the Rapid City and Eastern Railroad the Dakota and Eastern Railroad. US 14 and US 83 are the only national routes serving Pierre, South Dakota, one of only four state capitals not on the Interstate Highway System. U. S. 14 enters the state from South Dakota west of Lake Benton. It goes east through several small towns such as Balaton, Revere, Lamberton and Sleepy Eye, on a two-lane road until New Ulm, where it is a divided highway.
From New Ulm to Mankato, the highway lies north of the Minnesota River. Shortly before coming to the Mankato/North Mankato area, U. S. 14 becomes a freeway bypass, which becomes an expressway east of Mankato. This section is part of the Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway as it passes through Walnut Grove, it continues east south of Waseca and at Owatonna, it crosses Interstate 35. It heads east towards Rochester, with an expressway segment beginning at Minnesota State Highway 56 and continuing east into Rochester. Once it enters Rochester, it has a concurrency with U. S. Route 52. After the concurrency, it continues through Rochester as a divided highway. After Rochester, the highway parallels Interstate 90 until Winona, where U. S. 14 gets picked up by U. S. Route 61; the two highways run concurrently the rest of the way in Minnesota, cross the Mississippi River at La Crescent over the La Crosse West Channel Bridge. U. S. 14 was extended to a full, limited-access freeway from three miles west of Janesville to Interstate 35 at Owatonna.
Most of the new route is located south of the existing alignment so as to avoid overlapping Interstate 35. The expansion was opened to traffic on August 31, 2012, creating a continuous 4-lane route from North Mankato to Owatonna; the section from Waseca to Janesville has yet to be upgraded to freeway standards. The Minnesota section of U. S. 14 is defined as part of Constitutional Route 7 and Trunk Highways 121 and 122 in the Minnesota Statutes. U. S. 14 enters the state of Wisconsin along with U. S. Route 61 across the Mississippi River into La Crosse. Running through rural southern Wisconsin, the route passes through Madison and the village square of Walworth. U. S. 14 exits into Illinois at Big Foot Prairie. In the state of Illinois, U. S. 14 runs southeast from north of Harvard to Chicago via Woodstock and the northwest suburbs. Southeast of Route 47, U. S. 14 has four lanes. Continuing southeastward from just after the overpass above Route 31, U. S. 14 passes beneath and closely parallels the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad's Harvard Subdivision.
Through the northwest suburbs of Chicago, this route is referred to as "Northwest Highway" and is a busy thoroughfare. East of Des Plaines, U. S. 14 becomes Dempster Street until its intersection with Waukegan Road. From here, U. S. 14 follows Waukegan Road, Caldwell Avenue, Peterson Avenue, Ridge Avenue to its eastern end, at the corner of Broadway and U. S. 41. At an earlier point, U. S. 14 extended south on Lake Shore Drive onto Michigan Avenue. U. S. 14 was the "Black and Yellow Trail", so named as it connected Minnesota with the Black Hills and Yellowstone National Park. In Chicago's Northwest Suburbs, it is known as Northwest Highway due to its direction as well as it paralleling the old Chicago and North Western railroad It was called the Northwest Highway from Chicago to New Ulm and some street signs in New Ulm and towns in between still show the old designation. From Ucross west to Sheridan, Wyoming, US 14 was designated U. S. Route 116 in 1926. US 116 was extended west to Cody in 1933, absorbing the Deaver-Cody US 420.
The next year, US 116 became an extension of US 14. Part of this extension, including all of US 420, is now US 14A. Wyoming US 16 / US 20 at the East Entrance to Yellowstone National Park, southeast of Pahaska Tepee; the highways travel concurrently to Greybull. US 310 west-northwest of Greybull I‑90 / US 87 northe
Faribault County, Minnesota
Faribault County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 14,553, its county seat is Blue Earth. The county was founded in 1855, it was named for a settler and French fur trader among the Sioux Indians. Faribault County lies on the south side of Minnesota, its southern border abuts the north border of the state of Iowa. The Blue Earth River flows northerly through the west-central part of the county, it is joined by East Branch near the city of Blue Earth, thence flows northward into Blue Earth County. The Maple River flows west-northwestward through the upper central part of the county, entering from Freeborn County and exiting to Blue Earth County; the Cobb River flows through the NE part of the county, from Freeborn to Blue Earth county. The county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills, devoted to agriculture; the SE portion is a glacial moraine near Kiester, is known as the Kiester Moraine. The county has an area of 722 square miles, of which 712 square miles is land and 9.4 square miles is water.
Walnut Lake State Wildlife Management Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 16,181 people, 6,652 households, 4,476 families in the county. The population density was 22.7/sqmi. There were 7,247 housing units at an average density of 10.2/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.11% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 3.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 45.5% were of German, 21.2% Norwegian and 5.1% Irish ancestry. There were 6,652 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 6.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 29.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 24.40% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 22.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,440, the median income for a family was $41,793. Males had a median income of $28,990 versus $20,224 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,193. About 5.50% of families and 8.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.40% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Faribault County has supported Republican Party candidates in presidential elections throughout its history. Only six times since 1892 has a Republican candidate failed to win the county in a presidential election, most Bob Dole in 1996. National Register of Historic Places listings in Faribault County MN Faribault County Government's website Faribault County info at Rootsweb
Minnesota State Highway 13
Minnesota State Highway 13 is a highway in Minnesota that runs from its intersection with U. S. Highway 65 in Albert Lea to its northern terminus at its intersection with State Highway 149 at the West St. Paul / Saint Paul city boundary line. Highway 13 is 112 miles in length. State Highway 13 serves as a north–south route between Albert Lea, Prior Lake, Burnsville, Mendota Heights, West St. Paul, the "West Side" neighborhood of Saint Paul; the southern terminus of the route is at the intersection of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in the city of Albert Lea. The northern terminus of Highway 13 is at the intersection of Annapolis Street and Smith Avenue at the West St. Paul / Saint Paul city boundary line. Highway 13 is built as a divided highway between Savage and Eagan; this portion of the route is a busy metro area corridor paralleling the Minnesota River. At the junction with CSAH 101 in Savage, leading to US 169, Highway 13 turns east; this junction is a hybrid: traffic moving from CSAH 101 toward Highway 13 is grade separated, with through traffic connecting to Highway 13 north, with exit and entrance ramps connecting to Highway 13 south.
Highway 13 is built as a divided highway in Mendota Heights between I-494 to State Highway 55. The section of Highway 13 north of State Highway 55 at Mendota is far less busy. Highway 13 is known as Sibley Memorial Highway in Lilydale and Eagan; the Sibley House Historic Site museum in Mendota, overlooking Fort Snelling, is located north of the junction of Highways 13 and 110. The museum is on Highway 13. Highway 13 is known as Langford Avenue in Spring Lake Township and Cedar Lake Township in Scott County; the route follows 4th Avenue SW in New Prague. Highway 13 follows 4th Street in Montgomery. In the city of Waseca, Highway 13 is known as State Street; the 200MW Bent Tree Wind Farm was scheduled to be built in 2009 along Highway 13 between Manchester and Hartland. The farm being developed by Wind Capital and Alliant Energy would be the biggest wind farm in the state of Minnesota. State Highway 13 was authorized in 1920 from Albert Lea to Jordan. In 1934, the segment between New Prague and Jordan was redesignated Highway 21, Highway 13 moved to the east and extended north through Prior Lake and Burnsville.
From 1934 to 1935, Highway 13 ran from Albert Lea south to the Iowa state line. In 1935, U. S. Highway 69 was extended north into Minnesota; the route was paved by 1940. In the late 1960s, U. S. Highway 16 was decommissioned in the Albert Lea area. Highway 13 was extended east on Main Street in Albert Lea between its intersection with U. S. 69 to its intersection with U. S. 65. US 69 was truncated to the present terminus, MN 13 was extended along US 69's route. In 1994, the nearby Mendota Bridge was rebuilt between Fort Snelling. Highway 13 was rerouted in Mendota Heights at this time so it could intersect with State Highway 55 and State Highway 110; the old alignment of Highway 13 in the southwest corner of Mendota Heights is still under state maintenance and has the unmarked designation of Highway 913-A. Media related to Minnesota State Highway 13 at Wikimedia Commons
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c