Washi is traditional Japanese paper. The word "washi" comes from wa meaning'Japanese' and shi meaning'paper'; the term is used to describe paper that uses local fiber, processed by hand and made in the traditional manner. Washi is made using fibers from the inner bark of the gampi tree, the mitsumata shrub, or the paper mulberry bush; as a Japanese craft, it is registered as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage. Washi is tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, is used in many traditional arts. Origami and Ukiyo-e were all produced using washi. Washi was used to make various everyday goods like clothes, household goods, toys, as well as vestments and ritual objects for Shinto priests and statues of Buddha, it was used to make wreaths that were given to winners in the 1998 Winter Paralympics. Several kinds of washi, referred to collectively as Japanese tissue, are used in the conservation and mending of books. Washi is produced in a way similar to that of ordinary paper, but relies on manual methods.
It involves a long and intricate process, undertaken in the cold weather of winter, as pure, cold running water is essential to the production of washi. Cold inhibits bacteria. Cold makes the fibres contract, producing a crisp feel to the paper, it is traditionally the winter work of a task that supplemented a farmer's income. Kozo, a type of mulberry, is the most used fiber in making Japanese paper; the kozo branches are boiled and stripped of their outer bark, dried. The fibers are boiled with lye to remove the starch and tannin, placed in running water to remove the lye; the fibers are bleached and any remaining impurities in the fibers are picked out by hand. The kozo is beaten. Wet balls of pulp are mixed in a vat with water and a formation aid to help keep the long fibers spread evenly; this is traditionally neri, a mucilaginous material made from the roots of the tororo aoi plant), or PEO, polyethylene oxide. One of two traditional methods of paper making is employed. In both methods, pulp is shaken to spread the fibers evenly.
Nagashi-zuki produces a thinner paper. With enough processing any grass or tree can be made into a washi. Gampi and paper mulberry are three popular sources. Ganpishi – In ancient times, it was called Hishi. Ganpishi is used for books and crafts. Kōzogami – Kōzogami is made from paper mulberry and is the most made type of washi, it has a toughness closer to cloth than to ordinary paper and does not weaken when treated to be water-resistant. Mitsumatagami – Mitsumatagami has an ivory-colored, fine surface and is used for shodō as well as printing, it was used to print paper money in Meiji period. Until the early 20th century, the Japanese used washi in applications where Western style paper or other materials are used; this is because washi was the only type of paper available at that time in Japan, but because the unique characteristics of washi made it a better material. The different uses of washi include: Chiyogami – a method of stenciling or screenprinting paper with traditional Japanese designs Ikebana – the art of flower arrangement known as kadō Inkjet printings Kami-ito – pure-fiber washi paper spun into thread Katazome – a method of dyeing fabrics using a resist paste Kitemaking Mokuhanga – Japanese art of wood printing Nihonga – Japanese paintings Origami – Japanese art of paper folding Printmaking Sculpture Sewing Shibori – several methods of dyeing cloth with a pattern Shifu – washi, spun into yarn and woven into cloth Shodo – Japanese art of calligraphy Sumi-e – Japanese art of Ink wash painting Sumingashi – Japanese art of paper marbling Ukiyo-e – a genre of Japanese woodblock prints Washi eggs – covering eggs with washi paper Chigiri-e – using Washi for "painting" pictures Cosplay Kimono Obi Zōri Tempura Cushion Futon Shoji Bags Bento box Harae-Gushi, the washi whisk used for ritual purification by Shinto priests Japanese banknotes Loudspeaker cones Ofuda for Shinto Plates Scale models Toys Umbrellas Printing Japanese festivals Sumo Fire balloons Gundo gami Awa washi Ecchu washi Echizen washi IseWashi Mino washi Sekisyū washi Sugihara gami Tosa washi Yame washi Uchiyama gami Genkō yōshi Japanese tissue List of Washi Sir Harry Parkes Tissue paper Ukiyo-e Hughes, Sukey.
Washi: the World of Japanese paper. Tokyo: Kodansha International. ISBN 0-87011-318-6. Fukushima, Kurio. Handbook on the Art of Washi. All Japan Handmade Washi Association. "Washi". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Washi
Terri Lea Britt is an American beauty queen and motivational speaker from Arkansas, crowned Miss USA in 1982. As a young woman, Britt was involved in the American Legion Auxiliary Girls State program, she was vice-president of the Cabot High School class of 1980. Britt won her first major pageant title, Miss Arkansas USA, in early 1982, she went on to win the title Miss USA in the nationally televised pageant held in Biloxi, Mississippi in May 1982. She was twenty years old at the time. Britt went on to represent the United States in the Miss Universe pageant in Lima, Peru in July of the same year. In that pageant, she finished as fourth runner-up to Karen Dianne Baldwin of Canada. Britt's most recognizable feature was her short haircut, which differentiated her from the long-haired beauty queens of her generation, she is remembered for her exuberant reaction when she was announced as the new Miss USA, as she had the next-to-lowest preliminary score among the semi-finalists. Britt is the first Miss USA titleholder from Arkansas.
After she won the title, no women from Arkansas placed in the pageant until Jessica Furrer's semi-finalist placement in 2005. Both women are members of Alpha Sigma Tau. Britt was the first Miss Arkansas USA to hail from Cabot, the only winner until Whitney Moore of the same town won the title in 2000. Soon after passing on her title, Britt studied journalism, becoming a writer and field producer for a West Coast news station, she became a spokeswoman for Mazda. Britt worked as a news anchor on Movietime television, which gave her the opportunity to cover such events as the Academy Awards and the Cannes Film Festival. Britt left the entertainment industry to spend time with her husband and family, which included three daughters, her life was adversely affected by the death of her father, which led her to confront the anger issues which she claims affected her role as a wife and mother. She became involved in traditional healing, studied energetic healing and spiritual consulting in Santa Monica, California.
Britt works as a spiritual coach and motivational speaker in Cleveland, GA. She is the award-winning author of "The Enlightened Mom," voted Best Spiritual Book of 2011 at both New York and San Francisco Book Festivals. Official Miss USA website Official Miss Arkansas USA website
The Nonsuch 36 is a Canadian sailboat, designed by Mark Ellis Design and first built in 1983. The Nonsuch 36 is a development of the Nonsuch 30, the first design in the series of Nonsuch sailboats; the design was built by Hinterhoeller Yachts in Canada. A total of 70 examples of the design were completed before production ended; the Nonsuch 36 is a small recreational keelboat, built predominantly of fiberglass. It has a cat rig, an unstayed mast with a wishbone boom, a plumb stem, a vertical transom, an internally-mounted spade-type rudder controlled by a wheel and a fixed fin keel, it carries 6,500 lb of ballast. The boat has a draft of 5.50 ft with the standard keel and 4.42 ft with the optional shoal draft keel. The boat is fitted with a Westerbeke diesel engine of 52 hp; the fuel tank holds 100 U. S. gallons and the fresh water tank has a capacity of 152 U. S. gallons. The design has a hull speed of 7.78 kn. List of sailing boat typesSimilar sailboats Beneteau 361 C&C 36-1 C&C 36R Catalina 36 Columbia 36 Coronado 35 Crealock 37 CS 36 Ericson 36 Frigate 36 Hunter 36 Hunter 36-2 Hunter 36 Legend Hunter 36 Vision Invader 36 Portman 36 S2 11.0 Seidelmann 37 Vancouver 36 Watkins 36 Watkins 36C