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Clothing in India

Clothing in India changes depending on the different ethnicity, geography and cultural traditions of the people of each region of India. Male and female clothing has evolved from simple garments like kaupina, dhoti, sari and loincloths to cover the body into elaborate costumes not only used in daily wear, but on festive occasions, as well as rituals and dance performances. In urban areas, western clothing is uniformly worn by people of all social levels. India has a great diversity in terms of weaves, fibers and material of clothing. Sometimes, color codes are followed in clothing based on the ritual concerned; the clothing in India encompasses the wide variety of Indian embroidery, handwork, styles of wearing cloths. A wide mix of Indian traditional clothing and western styles can be seen in India. India's recorded history of clothing goes back to the 5th millennium BC in the Indus Valley civilization where cotton was spun and dyed. Bone needles and wooden spindles have been unearthed in excavations at the site.

The cotton industry in ancient India was well developed, several of the methods survive until today. Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian described Indian cotton as "a wool exceeding in beauty and goodness that of sheep". Indian cotton clothing was well adapted to the hot summers of the subcontinent; the grand epic Mahabharata, composed by about 400 BC, tells of the god Krishna staving off Draupadi's disrobing by bestowing an unending cheera upon her. Most of the present knowledge of ancient Indian clothing comes from rock sculptures and paintings in cave monuments such as Ellora; these images show dancers and goddesses wearing what appears to be a dhoti wrap, a predecessor to the modern sari. The upper castes dressed themselves in fine muslin and wore gold ornaments The Indus civilisation knew the process of silk production. Recent analysis of Harappan silk fibres in beads have shown that silk was made by the process of reeling, a process known only to China until the early centuries AD. Kimkhwāb is an Indian brocade woven of silver thread.

Word kimkhwāb, derived from the Persian, means “a little dream,” Kimkhwāb, known in India from ancient times, was called hiraṇya, or cloth of gold, in Vedic literature. In the Gupta period it was known as cloth with woven flowers. During the Mughal period, when kimkhwāb was popular with the rich, the great centres of brocade weaving were Benares, Ahmādābād, Aurangābād. Benares is now the most important centre of kimkhwāb production; when Alexander invaded Gandhara in 327 BC, block-printed textiles from India were noticed. According to the Greek historian Arrian: "The Indians use linen clothing, as says Nearchus, made from the flax taken from the trees, about which I have spoken, and this flax is either whiter in colour than any other flax, or the people being black make the flax appear whiter. They have a linen frock reaching down halfway between the knee and the ankle, a garment, thrown round the shoulders and rolled round the head; the Indians who are well-off wear earrings of ivory. Nearchus says.

Those who are of any rank have umbrellas held over them in the summer. They wear shoes of white leather, elaborately worked, the soles of their shoes are many-coloured and raised high, in order that they may appear taller." Evidence from the 1st century AD shows the Buddhas were portrayed as wearing saṃghāti that forms a part of the Kasaya of Buddhist monks. During the Maurya and Gupta period, the people wore both non-stitched clothing; the main items of clothing were the Antariya made of white cotton or muslin, tied to the waist by a sash called Kayabandh and a scarf called the Uttariya used to drape the top half of the body. New trade routes, both overland and overseas, created a cultural exchange with Central Asia and Europe. Romans bought indigo for cotton cloth as articles of clothing. Trade with China via the Silk road introduced silk textiles using domesticated silkworms. Chanakya's treatise on public administration, the Arthashastra written around 3rd century BC describes the norms followed in silk weaving.

A variety of weaving techniques were employed in ancient India, many of which survive to the present day. Silk and cotton were woven into various designs and motifs, each region developing its distinct style and technique. Famous among these weaving styles were the Jamdani, Kasika vastra of Varanasi and the Ilkal saree. Brocades of silk were woven with silver threads; the Mughals played a vital role in the enhancement of the art, the paisley and Latifa Buti are fine examples of Mughal influenceDyeing of clothes in ancient India was practised as an art form. Five primary colours were identified and complex colours were categorised by their many hues. Sensitivity was shown to the most subtlest of shades; the used dyes were indigo, madder red and safflower. The technique of mordant dyeing was prevalent in India since the second millennium BC. Resist dyeing and Kalamkari techniques were hugely popular and such textiles were the chief exports. Integral to the history of Indian clothing is the Kashmiri shawl.

Kashmiri shawl varieties include the Shahtoosh, popularly known as the'ring shawl'

Bridge (Speed album)

Bridge is an album by J-pop girlband Speed, released on November 27, 2003. This album was released as part of the "Save the Children" charity project in 2003, it contains their new singles Be My Walking In the Rain/Stars to Shine Again. The album is unique in that it is produced by different artists, not just their main producer: this leads some people to believe it doesn't sound like an album: however, not many people are aware it is produced by different top performers and producers. "Be My Love" "Stars to Shine Again" Produced by Tommy february6. "Cryin'" "Walking in the Rain" Produced by The Gospellers. "Need Your Hands Tonight" "Way To Go!" Produced by Tsunku. "Bridge to Heaven" "Kiss": Produced by Chara. "Kimi to mata aeru hi wo" "Still Blowing:" "Hana" "Yotsuba no clover" "With..."


The Theban Tomb TT164 is located in Dra' Abu el-Naga', part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. TT164 is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian Intef, a scribe of recruits during the reign of Tuthmosis III in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Intef's time as a scribe of recruits may have overlapped with that of Tjanuny; the tomb consists of a hall. Intef is depicted on the facade with a hymn. In the hall sons are shown bringing offerings to his wife. A stela with a hymn dedicated to Re-Harakhti was found. Intef is depicted spearing hippopotamus and in another scene he is shown fishing and fowling

The Mahogany Murderers

The Mahogany Murderers is a Big Finish Productions audiobook based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. The Companion Chronicles "talking books" are each narrated by one of the Doctor's companions and feature a second, guest-star voice along with music and sound effects. In Victorian London, two old friends stand together against the alien threats to the British Empire. Pathologist, Professor George Litefoot and Alhambra Theatre master of ceremonies, Henry Gordon Jago. Henry Gordon Jago - Christopher Benjamin Professor George Litefoot- an "eminient pathologist" who gives advice to police - Trevor Baxter Ellie - Lisa Bowerman Jago & Lifefoot were popular characters who appeared in the TV story The Talons of Weng Chiang; this is the first Companion Chronicles to be narrated by a character, not considered a companion. The previous stories featured characters who have either traveled in the TARDIS or appeared in multiple TV stories; this is the first Companion Chronicles story to feature three credited separate actors, as director Lisa Bowerman has a small role.

Bowermen had played uncredited parts in previous Companion Chronicles. This is the only Companion Chronicles story in which the Doctor does not participate; this story has become a sort of pilot episode, spawning its own full-cast spin-off series, entitled Jago & Litefoot. In it, Lisa Bowerman reprises her role as Ellie. Doctor Tulp returns, now played by Toby Longworth. Conrad Asquith reprises his role as Constable Quick from The Talons of Weng-Chiang. Big Finish - The Mahogany Murderers

Price V. Fishback

Price V. Fishback is an economic historian, he is a professor of Economics at the University of Arizona and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His research on American economic history has included employment and labor in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the coal industry, government programs of the New Deal, his work has been recognised by the Cliometric Society via their awarding him a Clio Can in recognition of his "exceptional support of cliometrics". Prior to arriving to the University of Arizona, Fishback was an Assistant and Associate Professor at the University of Georgia. Fishback received a B. A. with honors in Mathematics and Economics from Butler University in 1977. He received his M. A. and Ph. D. from the University of Washington in 1979 and 1983, respectively. His Ph. D. Thesis was entitled "Employment Conditions of Blacks in the Coal Industry, 1900-1930." His advisor was Robert Higgs. Fishback, P. V.. Prelude to the Welfare State: The Origins of Workers' Compensation.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fishback, P. V.. Soft Coal, Hard Choices: The Economic Welfare of Bituminous Coal Miners, 1890 to 1930. New York: Oxford University Press. Well Worth Saving: How the New Deal Safeguarded Home Ownership, with Jonathan Rose and Kenneth Snowden. 2013. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. "The Newest on the New Deal" Essays in Economic & Business History 36 covers distribution and impact of spending and lending programs.