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Wasp

A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita, neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita form a clade; the most known wasps, such as yellowjackets and hornets, are in the family Vespidae and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality is favoured by the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally related to each other. However, the majority of wasp species are solitary, with each adult female living and breeding independently. Females have an ovipositor for laying eggs in or near a food source for the larvae, though in the Aculeata the ovipositor is modified instead into a sting used for defense or prey capture. Wasps play many ecological roles; some are pollinators, whether to feed themselves or to provision their nests. Many, notably the cuckoo wasps, are kleptoparasites. Many of the solitary wasps are parasitoidal, meaning they lay eggs on or in other insects and provision their own nests with such hosts.

Unlike true parasites, the wasp larvae kill their hosts. Solitary wasps parasitize every pest insect, making wasps valuable in horticulture for biological pest control of species such as whitefly in tomatoes and other crops. Wasps first appeared in the fossil record in the Jurassic, diversified into many surviving superfamilies by the Cretaceous, they are a diverse group of insects with tens of thousands of described species. The largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, at up to 5 centimetres in length; the smallest wasps are solitary chalcid wasps in the family Mymaridae, including the world's smallest known insect, with a body length of only 0.139 mm, the smallest known flying insect, only 0.15 mm long. Wasps have appeared in literature from Classical times, as the eponymous chorus of old men in Aristophanes' 422 BC comedy Σφῆκες, The Wasps, in science fiction from H. G. Wells's 1904 novel The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth, featuring giant wasps with three-inch-long stings.

The name "Wasp" has been used for other military equipment. The wasps are a cosmopolitan paraphyletic grouping of hundreds of thousands of species, consisting of the narrow-waisted Apocrita without the ants and bees; the Hymenoptera contain the somewhat wasplike but unwaisted Symphyta, the sawflies. The term wasp is sometimes used more narrowly for members of the Vespidae, which includes several eusocial wasp lineages, such as yellowjackets and members of the subfamily Polistinae. Hymenoptera in the form of Symphyta first appeared in the fossil record in the Lower Triassic. Apocrita, wasps in the broad sense, appeared in the Jurassic, had diversified into many of the extant superfamilies by the Cretaceous. Fig wasps with modern anatomical features first appeared in the Lower Cretaceous of the Crato Formation in Brazil, some 65 million years before the first fig trees; the Vespidae include the extinct genus Palaeovespa, seven species of which are known from the Eocene rocks of the Florissant fossil beds of Colorado and from fossilised Baltic amber in Europe.

Found in Baltic amber are crown wasps of the genus Electrostephanus. Wasps are a diverse group, estimated at over a hundred thousand described species around the world, a great many more as yet undescribed. For example, there are over 800 species of fig trees in the tropics, all of these has its own specific fig wasp to effect pollination. Many wasp species are parasitoids; some larvae start off as parasitoids, but convert at a stage to consuming the plant tissues that their host is feeding on. In other species, the eggs are laid directly into plant tissues and form galls, which protect the developing larvae from predators but not from other parasitic wasps. In some species, the larvae are predatory themselves; the largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, at up to 5 centimetres in length. The various tarantula hawk wasps are of a similar size and can overpower a spider many times its own weight, move it to its burrow, with a sting, excruciatingly painful to humans; the solitary giant scoliid, Megascolia procer, with a wingspan of 11.5 cm, has subspecies in Sumatra and Java.

The female giant ichneumon wasp Megarhyssa macrurus is 12.5 centimetres long including its long but slender ovipositor, used for boring into wood and inserting eggs. The smallest wasps are solitary chalcid wasps in the family Mymaridae, including the world's smallest known insect, Dicopomorpha echmepterygis and Kikiki huna with a body length of only 158 micrometres, the smallest known flying insect. There are estimated to be 100,000 species of ichneumonoid wasps in the families Braconidae and Ichneumonidae; these are exclusively parasitoids utilising other insects as hosts. Another family, the Pompilidae, is a specialist parasito

Birmingham Architectural Association

The Birmingham Architectural Association, known between 1933 and 1967 as the Birmingham and Five Counties Architectural Association, is a professional association of architects based in Birmingham and affiliated to the West Midlands Region of the Royal Institute of British Architects. The association was formed through the amalgamation of two earlier groupings; the Birmingham Architectural Society was founded in 1851 with the aim of holding regular meetings between senior local members of the profession and providing an architectural library. The Birmingham and District Architectural Association was formed in 1874 for younger members of the profession; the two were related, with a member of the senior society being elected as the President of the junior grouping, by 1895 the two had combined into a single organisation under the Birmingham Architectural Association name. The Birmingham School of Architecture can trace its origins to a series of classes held by the association in 1908. By 1933 membership had expanded to include architects from the area surrounding the city.

In that year the name of the association was changed to the Birmingham and Five Counties Architectural Association to reflect its representation in the counties of Warwickshire, Shropshire and Herefordshire - the area of the modern West Midlands Region. Chapters were set up throughout the district and studentships were awarded for the first time. In 1968 the Royal Institute of British Architects reorganised into a comprehensive regional structure; the regional role of the Birmingham association was taken over by the new West Midlands Region of the RIBA, the BAA returned to its original name and role representing the architects of the city, as the largest of the new region's six affiliated societies. John Jones Bateman - founder and first president Official website Twitter Page LinkedIn Page Instagram Page

A Smile Like Yours

A Smile Like Yours is a 1997 American romantic comedy film directed by Keith Samples and starring Greg Kinnear and Lauren Holly. The film centers on a couple; the film was released by Paramount Pictures. The title song was performed by Natalie Cole. Danny Robertson and his wife, are married, except for one major issue—he is doubtful about having children, she wants to have a baby; when Jennifer stops using birth control and doesn't tell Danny, it puts a strain on their relationship after she discovers that they have fertility problems. Soon both Danny and Jennifer are tempted to stray from their marriage as their baby conception woes mount. Greg Kinnear as Danny Robertson Lauren Holly as Jennifer Robertson Joan Cusack as Nancy Tellen Jay Thomas as Steve Harris Jill Hennessy as Lindsay Hamilton Christopher McDonald as Richard Halstrom Donald Moffat as Dr. Felber A Smile Like Yours was panned by film critics. Review aggregate Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a 6% rating based on 35 reviews, with an average score of 3.2/10.

The site's critical consensus said: "Flat and unfocused, A Smile Like Yours aims for romantic comedy but settles for tired sitcom formula." John Hartl of The Seattle Times criticized Samples for his direction and scripting of both his cast and comedic scenes coming across as flat and unfunny, saying that he "systematically takes each comic opportunity and drains the laughs out of it." Lisa Alspector of the Chicago Reader felt that both Kinnear and Holly's characters were written to have charm and display "every cliched behaviour" about their problems in a film that acts as an "incredibly naive attempt at schmaltz." Dave Kehr, writing for the New York Daily News, said that despite both Kinnear and Hennessy's best efforts with the material given, the film suffers from "witless sex jokes", melodramatic tonal changes and lacking the sweetness found in the comedy Barefoot in the Park. Conversely, Kevin Thomas from the Los Angeles Times gave praise to the cast for their performances and both director Samples and co-writer Meyer for adding wit and "affectionate humor" to the film's infertility plot, despite having an unfulfilling conclusion, calling it "an uncommonly thoughtful and intelligent mainstream entertainment and stylish in every aspect."

Lauren Holly earned a Razzie Award nomination for Worst Actress for her work in the film and Turbulence, but lost the award to Demi Moore for G. I. Jane. A Smile Like Yours on IMDb A Smile Like Yours at Rotten Tomatoes