The water buffalo or domestic water buffalo is a large bovid originating in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, China. Today, it is found in Europe, North America, South America and some African countries; the wild water buffalo native to Southeast Asia is considered a different species, but most represents the ancestor of the domestic water buffalo. Two extant types of water buffalo are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of the Indian subcontinent and further west to the Balkans and Italy, the swamp buffalo, found from Assam in the west through Southeast Asia to the Yangtze valley of China in the east; the origins of the water buffalo types are debated, although results of a phylogenetic study indicate that the swamp-type may have originated in China and was domesticated about 4,000 years ago, while the river-type may have originated in India and was domesticated about 5,000 years ago. After the domestication of the water buffalo in Southeast Asia, the swamp buffalo dispersed up to the Yangtze River valley between 3,000 and 7,000 years ago.
Water buffaloes were traded from the Indus Valley Civilisation to Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, 2500 BC by the Meluhhas. The seal of a scribe employed by an Akkadian king shows the sacrifice of water buffaloes. At least 130 million water buffaloes exist, more people depend on them than on any other domestic animal, they are suitable for tilling rice fields, their milk is richer in fat and protein than that of dairy cattle. A large feral population became established in northern Australia in the late 19th century, there are smaller feral herds in Papua New Guinea and northeastern Argentina. Feral herds are present in New Britain, New Ireland, Irian Jaya, Guyana, Suriname and Uruguay; the skin of the river buffalo is black. Swamp buffaloes become slate blue later. Albinoids are present in some populations. River buffaloes have comparatively longer faces, smaller girths, bigger limbs than swamp buffaloes, their dorsal ridges extend further taper off more gradually. Their horns grow downward and backward curve upward in a spiral.
Swamp buffaloes are stockily built. The forehead is flat, the eyes prominent, the face short, the muzzle wide; the neck is comparatively long, the withers and croup are prominent. A dorsal ridge ends abruptly just before the end of the chest, their horns grow outward, curve in a semicircle, but always remain more or less on the plane of the forehead. The tail is short, reaching only to the hocks. Height at the withers is 129–133 cm for males, 120–127 cm for females, they range in weight from 300–550 kg, but weights of over 1,000 kg have been observed. Tedong bonga is a piebald water buffalo featuring a unique black and white colouration, favoured by the Toraja of Sulawesi; the swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes. The two types do not interbreed, but fertile offspring can occur. Water buffalo-cattle hybrids have not been observed to occur, but the embryos of such hybrids reach maturity in laboratory experiments, albeit at lower rates than non-hybrids; the rumen of the water buffalo has important differences from that of other ruminants.
It contains a larger population of bacteria the cellulolytic bacteria, lower protozoa, higher fungi zoospores. In addition, higher rumen ammonia nitrogen and higher pH have been found, compared to those in cattle. River buffaloes prefer deep water. Swamp buffaloes prefer to wallow in mudholes. During wallowing, they acquire a thick coating of mud. Both are well-adapted to a hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging from 0 °C in the winter to 30 °C and greater in the summer. Water availability is important in hot climates, since they need wallows, rivers, or splashing water to assist in thermoregulation; some water buffalo breeds are adapted to saline sandy terrain. Water buffaloes thrive on many aquatic plants. During floods, they will graze submerged, raising their heads above the water and carrying quantities of edible plants. Water buffaloes eat reeds, Arundo donax, a kind of Cyperaceae, Eichhornia crassipes, Juncaceae; some of these plants are of great value to local peoples. Others, such as E. crassipes, are a major problem in some tropical valleys and by eating them, the water buffaloes may help to keep waterways clear.
Green fodders are used for intensive milk production and for fattening. Many fodder crops are chaffed, or pulped. Fodders include alfalfa, the leaves, stems or trimmings of banana, Mangelwurzel, Leucaena leucocephala and kenaf, oats, peanut, soybean, sugarcane and turnips. Citrus pulp and pineapple wastes have been fed safely to buffalo. In Egypt, whole sun-dried dates are fed to milk buffalo up to 25% of the standard feed mixture. Swamp buffaloes become reproductive at an older age than river breeds. Young males in Egypt and Pakistan are first mated at about 3.0–3.5 years of age, but in Italy they may be used as early as 2 years of age. Successful mating behaviour may continue until the animal is 12 years or older. A good river buffalo male can impregnate 100 females in a year. A strong seasonal influence on mating occurs. Heat stress reduces libido. Although water buffaloes are polyoestrous, their reproductive efficiency shows wide variation throughout the year. Water buffalo cows exhibit a distinct
JSC Sarajishvili is one of the oldest manufacturers of liquor in Georgia. It was founded in 1884 by a Georgian aristocrat David Sarajishvili. After nationalization of the company by the communists, the name was changed to Tbilisi Cognac Factory. In 1994, the company was privatized; the company specializes in production of high-quality brandy and vodka, exporting the produce to cities such as Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kiev, Baku, Vladikavkaz, Feodosia, Petrovsk and Türkmenabat
The Mzingwane River known Umzingwane River as or Umzingwani River is a major left-bank tributary of the Limpopo River in Zimbabwe. It rises near Fort Usher, Matobo District, south of Bulawayo and flows into the Limpopo River near Beitbridge, downstream of the mouth of the Shashe River and upstream of the mouth of the Bubye River; the Mzingwane River is an ephemeral river with flow restricted to the months when rain takes place, with most flow recorded between December and February, except where it has been modified by dam operations. The river contributes 9.3% of the mean annual runoff of the Limpopo Basin, making it the third largest tributary to the Limpopo basin. Major tributaries of the Mzingwane River include the Insiza, Ncema and Mtetengwe Rivers; the lower Mzingwane River is a sand filled channel, with extensive alluvial aquifers in the river channel and below the alluvial plains. Estimated water resources potential of these aquifers ranges between 175,000 m3 and 5,430,0003 in the channels and between 80,000 m3 and 6,920,0003 in the plains.
Some of these aquifers are being used to provide water for domestic use, livestock watering and dip tanks, commercial irrigation and market gardening. The settlements below are ordered from the beginning of the river to its end: Mbalabala village Gwanda town West Nicholson village Beitbridge town is located about 6 km ESE of the confluence of the Bubye River and the Limpopo on the border with South Africa, it was established in 1929. There are four main bridges over the Mzingwane River: Bridge on main Bulawayo - Beitbridge road, between Esigodini and Mbalabala, downstream of Mzingwane Dam. There is a rail bridge. Bridge on main Mbalabala - Masvingo road. Bridge on main Bulawayo - Beitbridge road at West Nicholson, downstream of confluence with Insiza River. There is a rail bridge. Bertie Knott Bridge, on the road from Beitbridge to Shashe Irrigation Scheme, near the mouth. There are a number of fords, including: Two fords upstream of West Nicholson on Silalabuhwa and Mosholomoshe roads. Doddieburn ford, downstream of West Nicholson.
Gems Drift, near Beitbridge. Fulton's Drift, near Beitbridge. In addition to a number of small weirs, there are two major dams on the Mzingwane River: Mzingwane Dam, built in 1962, with a full supply capacity of 42 MCM, it is located near the source of the river and supplies water to the city of Bulawayo. Zhovhe Dam, built in 1995, with a full supply capacity of 136 MCM, it is located near the confluence with the Limpopo River and supplies water for irrigation to BeitbridgeAdditional dam sites have been identified at Glassblock and Oakley Block, but development is not scheduled. A project is underway to construct a pipeline from the upper Mtshabezi River to Mzingwane Dam
Johann Friedrich Hohenberger OAM known as John Friedrich, was executive director of the National Safety Council of Australia during the 1980s. He was the subject of Victoria's biggest fraud case and known as "Australia's greatest conman". Hohenberger was a West German national. In August 1972, he began working as an independent contractor with the German road construction company Strassen und Teerbau. Around July 1974, he forged road building orders from distant mountain towns and used them to order Strassen und Teerbau to build roads. No roads were built, no earthworks or materials were bought. Hohenberger embezzled DM200,000 from the company. Hohenberger was on a skiing holiday in Italy at the time German police issued a warrant for his arrest, he never returned to Germany. Having gone out onto the slopes and not returned, it was thought. Although German police were sceptical of his disappearance, believing that somebody had tipped him off to the investigation, the discovery of his bags over a year reinforced the theory that he had either had an accident or committed suicide.
On 20 January 1975, Hohenberger arrived in Melbourne on a flight from New Zealand. According to Department of Immigration records, Hohenberger left Australia on a flight to Singapore on 22 January, it is thought he tricked Australian Customs into believing he had boarded a plane but remained in Australia. Using the name John Friedrich and fake qualifications, Hohenberger obtained a contract with construction company Codelfa Cogefar, working on part of the Melbourne underground rail loop, he subsequently worked for the Board of Ecumenical Missions and Relations, a Uniting Church in Australia organisation responsible for the Church's Aboriginal missions. He was offered the position of community adviser at Ernabella in South Australia, where he was to assist the Aboriginal community with its development and to supervise civil works. While working in Ernabella, Friedrich became ill with a serious infection and was treated by nurse Shirley Manning. Friedrich and Manning became married on 10 February 1976 in Sydney.
They moved to the BOEMAR mission on Mornington Island, where Shirley was to work as a nursing sister and John as the manager. During his time on Mornington, Friedrich was responsible to the Australian Government as well as to the Church. While the Church was only concerned with the day-to-day running of the island, as an agent of the government, Friedrich acted as a coastal watcher for the Royal Australian Navy, a fisheries officer, a licensee for the government-owned pub, an agent for a shipping company and the airline that serviced the island, a reporting officer for the Department of Civil Aviation. Friedrich began studying again while at Mornington, working on an external master's degree in engineering science with the University of Queensland; the Friedrichs resigned from BOEMAR in late 1976 but stayed to oversee relief opportunities until January 1977 after Cyclone Ted destroyed 90 per cent of all buildings on the island. In November 1976, the Friedrichs had taken a holiday to Victoria.
While there, having seen an advertisement in The Age, Friedrich applied for the position of safety engineer with the National Safety Council of Australia Victorian Division, to be based at the State Electricity Commission of Victoria Yallourn power station in the Latrobe Valley. Upon returning to Mornington, Friedrich was informed that the job at Yallourn was his if he wanted it. Friedrich began working for the NSCA in January 1977. Friedrich became executive director of NSCA in 1982 and began to transform it into a national search and rescue organisation, he built up the company with loans in which 27 banks agreed to lend millions of dollars with little more surety than Friedrich's word. McGregor-Lowndes attributes this lack of probity to the halo effect of Friedrich himself. In 1988, he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia "in recognition of service to the community in the area of industrial safety and search and rescue services". Following the financial collapse of NSCA in 1989, Friedrich went into hiding.
After a nationwide and international manhunt, involving all Australian police forces and Interpol, he was arrested in Perth, Western Australia on 6 April 1989. He was charged with one count of obtaining financial advantage by deception. On 1 November, he was charged on a further 91 counts of obtaining property by deception. In subsequent investigations, it was discovered that Friedrich was not an Australian citizen, did not possess any valid birth certificate, did not appear on any electoral roll; this caused considerable embarrassment to the Department of Defence, which had given him a security clearance and unlimited access to Royal Australian Air Force bases. The Friedrichs lived with Shirley's brother in Sydney until the start of the trial. On 23 July 1991, Friedrich appeared in court for fraud involving $296,662,436.99. On 27 July 1991, Friedrich was found dead on his farm near Sale, Victoria with a single gunshot wound to the head in a wide-open muddy field. A helicopter was seen flying low over this area prior to the discovery of the body.
His death was ruled to be suicide. Friedrich was writing an autobiography with the assistance of Richard Flanagan at the time of his death, it was published posthumously. In it, he claimed to have been born in South Australia in 1945 to German parents, attended boarding school in West Germany and studied engineering at the Technische Hochschule. Friedrich claimed that, while working for an American construction company, he was recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency and, under the codename "Iago", worked in Laos, Egypt, New Zealand and West Germany against far lef
Tina Monshipour Foster is an Iranian-American lawyer and director of the International Justice Network. Prior to working in the field of human rights, Foster worked at Clifford Chance LLP in New York City, she worked for the Center for Constitutional Rights on Guantanamo Bay cases and is one of the plaintiffs in CCR v. Bush, filed on July 9, 2007. Four other individuals filed this suit. Foster and her colleagues sued the US government objecting to the government's interception of their mail and phone calls. In 2006 Foster started International Justice Network placing focus on detainees held without charge, incommunicado in Bagram Prison in Afghanistan. Foster submitted a writ of habeas corpus Ruzatullah v. Robert Gates -- 06-CV-01707 on behalf of Ruzatullah a captive held in the Bagram Theater internment facility; the Washington Post reported on June 29, 2008 on comments Foster made about Jawed Ahmad's detention in Bagram. It provides a convenient place to hold people who you might not want the world to know you are holding.
On July 20, 2008, Reuters reported the outrage Human Rights organizations are expressing over the seizing of journalists in Afghanistan and elsewhere in the "War on Terror". Foster was quoted as saying "there were no charges against Jawed, wounded while serving with U. S. Special Forces, he has not been accused of any crime either under U. S. law, Afghan law or international law," adding that "Jawed, like other detainees held by U. S. was regarded by Washington as an "enemy combatant". Foster, executive director for International Justice Network, said there were no charges against Jawed, wounded while serving with U. S. Special Forces. On September 12, 2009 it was reported that unnamed officials told Eric Schmitt of the New York Times that the Obama administration was going to introduce new procedures that would allow the captives held in Bagram, elsewhere in Afghanistan, to have their detention reviewed. Josh Gerstein, of Politico, reported that Foster, who represents four Bagram captives, was critical of the new rules: These sound exactly like the rules the Bush Administration crafted for Guanatmamo that were struck down by the Supreme Court or at least found to be an inadequate substitute for judicial review.
They're adopting this thing that his lot dreamt up out of whole cloth. To adopt Gitmo-like procedures seems to me like sliding in the wrong direction. On December 15, 2014, the Washington Post published an op-ed by Foster after the United States Senate Intelligence Committee published a 600-page unclassified summary of its classified report on the CIA's use of torture. Foster described how the report devoted a whole section to the CIA's torture of one of her clients, Redha al-Najar, she listed all the torture techniques the CIA used on him, asserted that the CIA tortured him for nearly 700 days
The Ursuline Convent riots occurred August 11 and 12, 1834, in Charlestown, near Boston, in what is now Somerville, Massachusetts. During the riot, a convent of Roman Catholic Ursuline nuns was burned down by a Protestant mob; the event was triggered by reported abuse of a member of the order, was fueled by the rebirth of extreme anti-Catholic sentiment in antebellum New England. Massachusetts, founded in the 17th century, had a long history of intolerance toward Roman Catholicism. From its inception, little tolerance was exhibited by the Puritan leadership of the colony toward Protestant views that did not accord with theirs; when the Province of Massachusetts Bay was established in 1692, its charter enshrined tolerance for other Protestant sects, but excluded political benefits for Roman Catholics. After American independence, there was a broadening of tolerance in the nation, but this tolerance did not take hold in Massachusetts; the arrival of many Catholic Irish immigrants ignited sectarian tensions, which were abetted by the Protestant religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening.
The idea of establishing an Ursuline school in Boston originated with Father John Thayer, a Massachusetts native who converted to Roman Catholicism after a transformative experience in Rome in 1793. Thayer died in 1815, having recruited several nuns in Ireland for the project, donated his estate to the cause. In 1820, the Most Reverend Jean-Louis Lefebvre de Cheverus, bishop of the newly created diocese of Boston, oversaw the opening of the convent in the rectory of the Boston cathedral. A school for girls was set up in the convent, intended to educate the area's poor. 100 students were enrolled. The early years of the school were plagued by tuberculosis, which claimed the lives of the convent's first mother superior and several of the sisters. A new leader, Mother Mary Edmond St. George, was recruited from the Ursuline convent in Trois Rivieres, where the Boston nuns had trained. Mother St. George and Bishop Benedict Fenwick envisioned a larger convent and school property, in a country setting, that would cater to Boston's wealthy upper class, who would thus fund the expansion of the Catholic mission in the area.
In 1826, the Ursulines purchased land on Ploughed Hill, in a section of Charlestown, now in Somerville. A fine brick convent and school were built, with the sisters moving into the facility in 1827, classes beginning in 1828. By 1834 there were only six of whom were Catholic. According to Jenny Franchot, the author of a history of the riots, the lower classes of Boston, predominantly conservative Trinitarian Protestants, came to see the convent school as representing a union between two classes of people - upper class and Catholics - both of which they distrusted; the antipathy toward Catholics was fanned by anti-Catholic publications and by prominent preachers, including Lyman Beecher. Anti-Catholic violence occurred in Boston at a low level in the 1820s, with attacks on the homes of Irish Catholic laborers taking place in 1823, 1826, 1828. Boston's mayor was petitioned in 1832 to take steps against the recurring violence. Charlestown separate from Boston, was not immune to the sectarian violence, seeing several attacks on Irish Catholics in 1833.
Its population of about 10,000 was predominantly lower class Protestant laborers. Specific acts of violence committed against the convent and the Catholic establishment in Charlestown included the killing of one of its dogs in 1829, the burning of its stable in 1830, the destruction of an Irish bar in 1833 by Protestant rioters. There was simmering hostility over the establishment of a Catholic cemetery on nearby Bunker Hill, with local Protestants agitating that it be closed; these tensions were further heightened by a court case concerning the cemetery, in which the district court ruled in 1833 in favor of the diocese and against a restrictive law enacted by Charlestown selectmen. Roman Catholic institutions convents, were rumored by anti-Catholics to be dens of immorality and corruption, the Charlestown facility in particular was seen by the lower class Protestants as a place where Catholics and wealthy Unitarians conspired against them. A Boston newspaper in 1830 published a false story of a Protestant orphan spirited into the facility after manipulating a large sum of money from its caretakers.
The story of Rebecca Reed, a young Episcopalian woman from Boston who attended the school in 1831 further inflamed resentment against the institution. She attended the school as a charity scholar: a day student for whom the convent waived tuition fees. In 1832, she declared her intent to enter the Ursuline novitiate, but left the convent after six months as a postulant. At some time after her departure, she began writing a manuscript entitled Six Months in a Convent, in which she suggested the nuns tried to force her into adopting their religion; this work would be published in 1835, but her story was known in Charlestown, where she was sheltered after her departure. On the evening of July 28, 1834, Sister Mary John, a nun teaching at the convent, made her way to a sympathetic family that lived nearby, escorted by Edward Cutter and John Runey, two anti-Catholic residents of Charlestown, she was convinced to return to the convent the next day by Bishop Fenwick. This episode prompted rumors that she was being held against her will and tortured at the convent.
Local newspapers, on hearing of the story, began publishing accounts of a "mysterious woman" kept against her will in the convent. As the accounts spread