The Antilocapridae are a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids with which they comprise the superfamily Giraffoidea. Only one species, the pronghorn, is living today; the living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope. In most respects, antilocaprids resemble other ruminants, they have a complex, four-chambered stomach for digesting tough plant matter, cloven hooves, small, forked horns. Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, uniquely, they are shed outside the breeding season, subsequently regrown, their lateral toes are further diminished than in bovids, with the digits themselves being lost, only the cannon bones remaining. Antilocaprids have the same dental formula as most other ruminants: 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. The antilocaprids evolved in North America, where they filled a niche similar to that of the bovids that evolved in the Old World. During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species.
Some had horns with bizarre shapes, or had four, or six, horns. Examples include Osbornoceros, with smooth curved horns, with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, with fan-shaped horns, Hayoceros, with four horns. Subfamily Antilocaprinae Tribe Antilocaprini Genus Antilocapra Antilocapra americana - pronghorn A. a. americana - Common pronghorn A. a. mexicana - Mexican pronghorn A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn A. a. sonoriensis - Sonoran pronghorn A. a. oregona - Oregon pronghorn Antilocapra maquinensis Antilocapra pacifica Genus †Texoceros Texoceros altidens Texoceros edensis Texoceros guymonensis Texoceros minorei Texoceros texanus Texoceros vaughani Tribe †Ilingoceratini Genus †Ilingoceros Ilingoceros alexandrae Ilingoceros schizoceros Genus †Ottoceros Ottoceros peacevalleyensis Genus †Plioceros Plioceros blicki Plioceros dehlini Plioceros floblairi Genus †Sphenophalos Sphenophalos garciae Sphenophalos middleswarti Sphenophalos nevadanus Tribe †Proantilocaprini Genus †Proantilocapra Proantilocapra platycornea Genus †Osbornoceros Osbornoceros osborni Tribe Stockoceratini Genus †Capromeryx - Capromeryx arizonensis - Capromeryx furcifer - Capromeryx gidleyi - Capromeryx mexicana - Capromeryx minor - Capromeryx tauntonensis Genus †Ceratomeryx Ceratomeryx prenticei Genus †Hayoceros Hayoceros barbouri Hayoceros falkenbachi Genus †Hexameryx Hexameryx simpsoni Genus †Hexobelomeryx Hexobelomeryx fricki Hexobelomeryx simpsoni Genus †Stockoceros Stockoceros conklingi Genus †Tetrameryx Tetrameryx irvingtonensis Tetrameryx knoxensis Tetrameryx mooseri Tetrameryx shuleri Tetrameryx tacubayensis Subfamily Merycodontinae Genus †Cosoryx Cosoryx agilis Cosoryx cerroensis Cosoryx furcatus Cosoryx ilfonensis Cosoryx trilateralis Genus †Meryceros Meryceros crucensis Merycerus crucianus Meryceros hookwayi Meryceros joraki Meryceros major Meryceros nenzelensis Meryceros warreni Genus †Merycodus Merycodus furcatus Merycodus grandis Merycodus necatus Merycodus prodromus Merycodus sabulonis Genus †Paracosoryx Paracosoryx alticornis Paracosoryx burgensis Paracosoryx dawesensis Paracosoryx furlongi Paracosoryx loxoceros Paracosoryx nevadensis Paracosoryx wilsoni Genus †Ramoceros Ramoceros brevicornis Ramoceros coronatus Ramoceros marthae Ramoceros merriami Ramoceros osborni Ramoceros palmatus Ramoceros ramosus Genus †Submeryceros Submeryceros crucianus Submeryceros minimus Submeryceros minor
John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray, FRS was a British zoologist. He was the elder brother of zoologist George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray; the standard author abbreviation J. E. Gray is used to indicate this person as the author. Or zoological name. Gray was Keeper of Zoology at the British Museum in London from 1840 until Christmas 1874, before the Natural History holdings were split off to the Natural History Museum, he published several catalogues of the museum collections that included comprehensive discussions of animal groups as well as descriptions of new species. He improved the zoological collections to make them amongst the best in the world. Gray was born in Walsall, he assisted his father in writing The Natural Arrangement of British Plants. After being blackballed by the Linnean Society of London, Gray shifted his interest from botany to zoology, he began his zoological career by volunteering to collect insects for the British Museum at age 15. He joined the Zoological Department in 1824 to help John George Children catalog the reptile collection.
In some of his early articles, Gray adopted William Sharp Macleay's quinarian system for classifications of molluscs, echinoderms and mammals. In 1840 he took over Children's position as Keeper of Zoology, which he held for 35 years, publishing well over 1,000 papers, he named many cetacean species, genera and families. During this period he collaborated with Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, the noted natural history artist, in producing Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knowsley; the menagerie at Knowsley Hall, near Liverpool, founded by Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, at the Stanley ancestral seat, was one of the largest private menageries in Victorian England. Gray married Maria Emma Smith in 1826, she helped him with his scientific work with her drawings. In 1833, Gray was a founder of. Gray was a friend of the coleopterist Hamlet Clark, in 1856-57 they voyaged on Gray's yacht Miranda to Spain and Brazil. Gray was an accomplished watercolourist, his landscape paintings illustrate Clark's account of their journeys.
Gray was interested in postage stamps. On 1 May 1840, the day the Penny Black first went on sale, he purchased several with the intent to save them. During his fifty years employed at the British Museum Gray wrote nearly 500 papers, including many descriptions of species new to science; these had been presented to the Museum by collectors from around the world, included all branches of zoology, although Gray left the descriptions of new birds to his younger brother and colleague George. Gray was active in malacology, the study of molluscs. John Edward Gray was buried at Lewisham. Gray was one of the most prolific taxonomists in the history of zoology, he described more than 300 species and subspecies of reptiles, only surpassed by his successors at the British Museum, George A. Boulenger and Albert Günther and American zoologist Edward D. Cope. Gray described and named numerous marine snails including: The genus Lithopoma Gray, 1850 The genus Euthria Gray, 1850Genera named in his honour include: The snake genus Grayia Günther, 1858Species and subspecies named in his honour include: Ardeola grayii – Indian pond heron Mesoplodon grayi von Haast, 1876 – Gray's beaked whale Crocidura grayi Dobson, 1890 – Luzon shrew Ablepharus grayanus Delma grayii A. Smith, 1849 Microlophus grayii Naultinus grayii Bell, 1843 Salvelinus grayi Günther, 1862 Tropidophorus grayi Günther, 1861 Trachemys venusta grayi 1821: "A natural arrangement of Mollusca, according to their internal structure."
London Medical Repository 15: 229–239. 1821: "On the natural arrangement of Vertebrose Animals." London Medical Repository 15: 296–310. 1824: "A revision of the family Equidae." Zool. J. Lond. 1: 241-248 pl. 9. 1824: "On the natural arrangement of the pulmonobranchous Mollusca." Annals of Philosophy, 8: 107–109. 1824: "On the arrangement of the Papilionidae." Annals of Philosophy 8: 119-120. 1825: "A list and description of some species of shells not taken notice of by Lamarck." Annals of Philosophy 9: 407-415. 1825: "A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species." Annals of Philosophy 10: 193-217. 1825: "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of the Mammalia into tribes and families with a list of the genera appertaining to each tribe." Annals of Philosophy 10: 337-344. 1825: "An attempt to divide the Echinida, or sea eggs, into natural families." Annals of Philosophy 10: 423-431. 1826: "Vertebrata. Mammalia.". P. 412-415 in King, P. P. Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia.
Performed between the years 1818 and 1822. With an Appendix, containing various subjects relating to hydrography and natural history. London: J. Murray Vol. 2. 1827: "Synopsis of the species of the class Mammalia." P. 1-391 in Baron Cuvier The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with additional descriptions by Edward Griffith and others.. London: George B. Whittaker Vol. 5. 1828: "Spicilegia Zoologica, or original figures and short systematic descriptions of new and unfigured animals." Pt 1. London: Treuttel, Würtz & Co. 1829: "An attempt to improve the natural arrangement of the genera of bat, from actual examination. Phil. Mag
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Black musk deer
The black musk deer or dusky musk deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Moschidae. It is found in Bhutan, India and Nepal. M. fuscus is, in appearance, a small deer with long, thick hind legs in comparison to the front legs, no antlers. The dusky musk deer has well developed ears and eyes. Males and females are sized, between 70 and 100 cm in length and 10 and 15 kg in weight, have thick brown hair. There is variation in color and vibrancy, evident in spotting. Upper canine teeth in males form sabers. Unlike most cervids, this creature does not have the same facial glands. Mature males have a musk gland between the naval and genitalia, females have two mammae. Black musk deer have mating periods beginning in late November into December, lasting one month, they have mating with more than one female at a time. Breeding occurs in November and December. During mating season, a male excretes scents from scent glands to indicate his territory ( Gestation lasts six months, ending in parturition, which occurs during June or July.
Females give birth to one or two young. The newborns weigh about 500 g, have spots; the young are cared for by their mother after birth for several months. This process takes between three and four months. At six months, the young have reached full adult size. Sexual maturity, does not occur until 18 months. Not much is known about black musk deer parental care. Females are the main caretakers, as they watch their young for 3 to 4 months; the young travel with their mothers throughout this period, during which the mother defends and grooms her young. The role of the father in parental care is unknown. All animals have a certain position on the food web; the black musk deer, although only endangered, its lack of species numbers has a detrimental effect on the environment in which it lives and the food web in which it participates. They are believed to affect the vegetation because they consume grass and other plants; because they are hunted by humans and other animals such as the wolverine and yellow-throated marten, their numbers have been reduced, so they are now on the endangered species list.
With fewer black musk deer around, it has become more difficult for these predators to find food affecting the food web. The musk glands of the full-grown males have been collected for use in perfumes; the deer are hunted by companies looking to make money. At one point in the 1980s, the musk of the adult male deer was worth four times its weight in gold; because of its high demand in the soap and perfume market, the price of the musk was high. Another reason the deer are hunted is due to the belief that the musk of the deer has medicinal purposes. By tradition, they use it as a stimulant. Due to excessive hunting, it has been since placed on the endangered list. Another issue associated with the loss of the deer is habitat loss from deforestation. Not much is being done to save the deer from possible extinction; the black musk deer is nocturnal, most of their activities take place at night and dusk. This species is solitary. An individual of this species is not to live with any other deer, although they have been known to let other females “babysit” their young.
Territoriality is another salient feature for males. Living in the mountainous areas that have gorges and forests, these agile deer possess the ability to climb trees and move even at the dangerous edge of a cliff or in the thick bushes, they are more ferocious than other members in the family Moschidae in the case of males fighting for mates. In addition to low growls, these deers may attack their opponents with their tusks and strong fore hooves. Black musk deer are considerably vigilant, they do not return to the site where they are frightened or attacked before it is in a established “safe” territory. The black musk deer has a number of predators; some studies show. Humans prey on the deer more than all of their natural predators combined, they are caught and killed for their musk glands, which are used as a base for perfumes. Ethical concerns have led to the use of synthetic musk, but this has not prevented the black musk deer from being included on the endangered list
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and facial glands and by possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland. Musk deer live in forested and alpine scrub habitats in the mountains of southern Asia, notably the Himalayas. Moschids, the proper term when referring to this type of deer rather than one/multiple species of musk deer, are Asian in their present distribution, being extinct in Europe where the earliest musk deer are known to have existed from Oligocene deposits. Musk deer resemble small deer with a stocky build, hind legs longer than their front legs, they are about 80 to 100 cm long, 50 to 70 cm high at the shoulder, weigh between 7 and 17 kg. The feet of musk deer are adapted for climbing in rough terrain. Like the Chinese water deer, a cervid, they have no antlers, but the males do have enlarged upper canines, forming sabre-like tusks.
The dental formula is similar to that of true deer: 0.1.3.33.1.3.3 The musk gland is found only in adult males. It lies in a sac located between the genitals and the umbilicus, its secretions are most used to attract mates. Musk deer are herbivores, living in hilly, forested environments far from human habitation. Like true deer, they eat leaves and grasses, with some mosses and lichens, they are solitary animals, maintain well-defined territories, which they scent mark with their caudal glands. Musk deer are shy, either nocturnal, or crepuscular. Males leave their territories during the rutting season, compete for mates, using their tusks as weapons. Female musk deer give birth to a single fawn after about 150–180 days; the newborn young are small, motionless for the first month of their lives, a feature that helps them remain hidden from predators. Musk deer have been hunted for their scent glands, which are used in perfumes; the glands can fetch up to $45,000/kg on the black market. It is rumored that it is an aphrodisiac.
Musk deer may be a surviving representative of the Palaeomerycidae, a family of ruminants, ancestral to deer. They disappeared in the Pliocene. Most species lacked antlers, though some were found in species; the musk deer are, still placed in a separate family. While they have been traditionally classified as members of the deer family and all the species were classified as one species, recent studies have indicated that moschids are more related to bovids; the following taxonomy is after Prothero Moschidae Hydropotopsis Hydropotopsis lemanensis Hispanomeryx Hispanomeryx aragonensis Hispanomeryx daamsi Hispanomeryx duriensis Hispanomeryx andrewsi Oriomeryx Oriomeryx major Oriomeryx willii Friburgomeryx Friburgomeryx wallenriedensis Bedenomeryx Bedenomeryx truyolsi Bedenomeryx milloquensis Bedenomeryx paulhiacensis Dremotheriinae Pomelomeryx Pomelomeryx boulangeri Pomelomeryx gracilis Dremotherium Dremotherium cetinensis Dremotherium guthi Dremotherium quercyi Dremotherium feignouxi Blastomerycinae Pseudoblastomeryx Pseudoblastomeryx advena Machaeromeryx Machaeromeryx tragulus Longirostromeryx Longirostromeryx clarendonensis Longirostromeryx wellsi Problastomeryx Problastomeryx primus Parablastomeryx Parablastomeryx floridanus Parablastomeryx gregorii Blastomeryx Blastomeryx gemmifer Moschinae Micromeryx Micromeryx styriacus Micromeryx flourensianus Micromeryx? eiselei - this species is a proposed member of genus Micromeryx Moschus Moschus moschiferus Moschus anhuiensis Moschus berezovskii Moschus fuscus Moschus chrysogaster Moschus cupreus Moschus leucogaster
The reticulated giraffe known as the Somali giraffe, is a subspecies of giraffe native to the Horn of Africa. It lives in Somalia, southern Ethiopia, northern Kenya. There are 8,500 individuals living in the wild; the reticulated giraffe was described and given its binomial name by British zoologist William Edward de Winton in 1899, however the IUCN recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies. Reticulated giraffes can interbreed with other giraffe species in captivity or if they come into contact with populations of other species in the wild. Together with the Rothschild's giraffe, it is by far the giraffe, most seen in zoos, its coat consists of large, liver-colored spots outlined by a network of bright-white lines. The blocks may sometimes appear deep red and may cover the legs. Giraffes are the tallest mammals in the world; the IUCN recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies, one of, the reticulated giraffe. All living giraffes were classified as one species by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
The subspecies was described and given a binomial name Giraffa reticulata by British zoologist William Edward de Winton in 1899. Reticulated giraffes occurred throughout Northeast Africa, their favored habitats are savannas, seasonal floodplains, rainforests. To save the remaining 9,000, or so, Reticulated giraffes, several conservation organizations have been formed. One of these organizations is San Diego Zoo Global's "Twiga Walinzi" initiative, their work includes hiring and training local Kenyans to monitor 120 trail cameras in Northern Kenya that capture footage of wild giraffes and other Kenyan wildlife. Along with the Rothschild's giraffe, the reticulated giraffe is the most common giraffe found in zoos; the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo in Colorado Springs, Colorado is said to have the largest reticulated giraffe herd in all of North America. Reticulated and Rothschild's giraffes have been bred together in the past; this was done. However, new research, done in 2016 discovered that the separate giraffe populations do not interbreed.
Few zoos reticulated giraffe herds. The San Diego Zoo Safari Park, Bronx Zoo, Chester Zoo have herds of just Rothschild's giraffe. Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Busch Gardens Tampa, The Maryland Zoo, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo all have reticulated giraffe herds. However, some zoos still breed Rothschild's giraffe and reticulated giraffes. At Utah's Hogle Zoo, their giraffe herd consists of male Riley, a reticulated giraffe, females Kipenzi, a reticulated giraffe, Pogo, a Rothschild's giraffe. In early 2016, Willow was born to Pogo. According to the new research discovered in 2016, Willow would be a hybrid; the trend of exhibiting only reticulated giraffe or only Rothschild's giraffe is becoming more popular. Cheyenne Mountain Zoo Giraffe Cam Saint Louis Zoo, Reticulated Giraffe The BIG zoo Saint Louis Zoo Article
The Java mouse-deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the family Tragulidae. When it reaches maturity it is about the size of a rabbit, it is found in forests in Java and Bali, although sightings there have not been verified. The Java mouse-deer's common scientific name is Tragulus javanicus, although other classification names for it exist, including Tragulus javanica, Cervus javanicus, the heterotypic synonym Tragulus fuscatus; the Java mouse-deer is known by many common names, including Javan chevrotain, Javan mousdeer, or Java Mousedeer. The taxonomic status of the Java mouse-deer is questionable, but recent craniometric analyses have begun to shed light on the taxonomic discrepancies; the Java mouse-deer, Tragulus javanicus, was thought to represent the wider class of large chevrotains, but it was found that these, unlike the Java mouse-deer, do not reside on Java. Three species groups of Tragulus have been identified based on craniometric skull analyses and coat coloration patterns.
These three species groups are Tragulus javanicus, Tragulus napu, Tragulus versicolor. Based upon these craniometric analyses, Tragulus javanicus was further separated based on the organisms’ known geographic locations: Tragulus williamsoni, Tragulus kanchil, Tragulus javanicus. Thus, because of its uniqueness to the island of Java, the Java mouse-deer is now considered a distinct species, although this fact has not affected its current classification. Mouse-deer possess a triangular-shaped head, arched back, round body with elevated rear quarters; the thin, short legs which support the mouse-deer are about the diameter of an average pencil. Although Java mouse-deer do not possess antlers or horns like regular deer, male Java mouse-deer have elongated, tusk-like upper canines which protrude downward from the upper jaw along the sides of their mouth. Males use these "tusks" to their mates against rivals. Females can be distinguished from males because they lack these prominent canines, they are smaller than the males.
Java mouse-deer can furthermore be distinguished by their lack of upper incisors. The coat coloration of the Java mouse-deer is reddish-brown with a white underside. Pale white spots or vertical markings are present on the animal's neck. With an average length of 45 cm and an average height of 30 cm, the Java mouse-deer is the smallest extant ungulate or hoofed mammal, as well as the smallest extant even-toed ungulate; the weight of the Java mouse-deer ranges from 1 to 2 kilograms, with males being heavier than females. It has an average tail length of about 5 cm. Mouse-deer are thought to be the most primitive ruminants based on their behaviour and the fossil record, thus they are the living link between ruminants and non-ruminants; the Java mouse-deer is endothermic and homoeothermic, has an average basal metabolic rate of about 4.883 watts. It has the smallest red blood cells of any mammal, about 12.8% of the cells have pits on them. The pits range in diameter from 68 to 390 nanometres. Red blood cells with pits are unique and have not been reported before either physiologically or pathologically.
Tragulus javanicus is considered to be endemic to Java, Indonesia. There have been unverified reports of sightings on Bali; the Java mouse-deer prefers habitats of higher elevations and the tropical forest regions of Java, although it does appear at lower elevations between 400–700 metres above sea level. During the day, Java mouse-deer can be seen roaming in crown-gap areas with dense undergrowth of creeping bamboo, through which they make tunnels through the thick vegetation which lead to resting places and feeding areas. At night, the Java mouse-deer moves to drier ridge areas, it has been argued that Java mouse-deer are an “edge” species, favoring areas of dense vegetation along riverbanks. Additionally, Java mouse-deer have been found to be more prevalent in logged areas than in the more mature forests, their densities tended to decrease proportionately as the logged forests matured. Java mouse-deer are herbivores, although in captivity they have been observed to eat insects as well as foliage.
Their diet consists of that which they find on the ground in the dense vegetation they inhabit, they prefer the plants of the faster-growing gap species over the closed forest understory species due to the increased richness of secondary protective compounds which the gap species provide. They are classified as folivores, eating leaves, shoots and fungi, in addition to fruits which have fallen from trees; the fruits which Java mouse-deer consume range from 1–5 grams, while the seeds range from 0.01–0.5 g. Groups of Java mouse-deer are referred to as “herds,” while females are termed “does,” “hinds,” or “cows.” Males are referred to as either “bucks,” “stags,” or “bulls,” and their young are called “fawns,” or “asses”. It was believed that Java mouse-deer were nocturnal, but more recent studies have shown that they are neither nocturnal nor diurnal, but instead crepuscular, meaning they prefer to be active during the dim light of dawn and dusk; this behavior has been observed in both captive Java mouse-deer.
Although Java mouse-deer form monogamous family groups, they are shy, solitary animals. They are usually silent.