Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Cromford is a village and civil parish in Derbyshire, England, in the valley of the River Derwent between Wirksworth and Matlock. It is first mentioned in the 11th-century Domesday Book as a berewick of Wirksworth and this remained the case throughout the Middle Ages; the population at the 2011 Census was 1,433. It is principally known for its historical connection with Richard Arkwright, the nearby Cromford Mill which he built outside the village in 1771. Cromford is in the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage site; the River Derwent, with its sources on Bleaklow in the Dark Peak, flows southward to Derby and to the River Trent. The geology of this section in the Derbyshire Dales is that of limestone; the fast flowing river has cut a deep valley. The A6 trunk road, the main road between London and Manchester in former times; the Via Gellia valley joins the Derwent at Cromford, the stream which runs through that valley is the Ivonbrook and the valley was called the Ivonbrook Valley. The Via Gellia is the name of the road which runs along it, named after the Gell family who owned many mines in the area.
The A6 passes to the north of the village of Cromford. It is 27 kilometres north of Derby, 3 kilometres south of Matlock and 1 kilometre south of Matlock Bath. Trains operate from Cromford Station, on the north bank of the Derwent to Nottingham, it is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution. Here, Richard Arkwright built his cotton mill to make use of the water frame; the Gell family, who were local Hopton landowners involved in the nearby Wirksworth lead mining district, had the Via Gellia built to connect Cromford and Grangemill in the late 18th century. Some cottages and farm buildings pre-date Arkwright's time, but a large part of the village was built to house the mill workers, they were provided with shops, chapels and a school. The 20th century saw the development of council and private housing. Dene quarry operated by Tarmac Ltd for the production of aggregates and roadstone, was excavated to the south west of the village from 1942 onwards. In December 2001 a 15 miles corridor from Masson Mill in Matlock Bath to the Silk Mill in Derby and including the mills in Cromford, Milford and Darley Abbey was declared the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site.
The 1931 novel Saturday Night at the Greyhound by John Hampson takes place over the course of one evening in the bar at the Greyhound Hotel, Cromford. In late 2006, Anand Tucker used certain parts of Cromford, including its historic bookshop, for his film And When Did You Last See Your Father?, based on the autobiographical memoir by poet Blake Morrison. Colin Firth plays the adult Blake, with Jim Broadbent cast as his dying father. An industrial site in the German town of Ratingen is named Textilfabrik Cromford after Cromford, as this is where the industrial pioneer Johann Gottfried Brügelmann in 1783 erected the first factory outside England, using Arkwright's factory as an archetype; the factory today forms part of the Rheinisches Industriemuseum. Cromford railway station is located on the Matlock–Derby Derwent Valley Line and can be seen on the cover of the 1995 Oasis single "Some Might Say". Cromford was part of the Wirksworth Wapentake or Hundred, this administrative area known as the Soke of Wirksworth became, in due course, West Derbyshire Council and is now called Derbyshire Dales District Council.
The village is run locally by the Cromford Parish Council. The Cromford Mill buildings and accommodation for workers to staff the factories form part of the Derwent Valley Mills, recognised as a World Heritage Site for its importance. North Street, constructed by Arkwright, is important as a early purpose-built industrial workers' housing, was rescued from dereliction in the 1970s by the Ancient Monument Society who have since sold off the houses. One house in the street is now a Landmark Trust holiday cottage. Masson Mill is on the northern fringe of the village. Willersley Castle dominates the hill on the east side of the river, with commanding views of Masson Mill, the village, the road from Derby. Commissioned by Richard Arkwright, building work began in 1790, but was delayed by a fire in 1791. Richard Arkwright died in 1792, the building was occupied by his son Richard in 1796; the Arkwright family moved out in 1922, the building was acquired by some Methodist businessmen, opened to guests as a Methodist Guild hotel in 1928.
During World War II, the building was used as a maternity hospital by the Salvation Army while evacuated from their hospital in the East End of London. St Mary's Cromford built between 1792 and 1797 by Richard Arkwright; the Cromford Canal – built to service the mills – is now in disuse, but has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The canal tow-path can be followed from Cromford Wharf to High Peak Junction, on to Whatstandwell and Ambergate; the Cromford and High Peak Railway, completed in 1831, ran from High Peak Junction to the Peak Forest Canal at Whaley Bridge. Its trackbed now forms the High Peak Trail, a walk and cycle route, joined by the Tissington Trail at Parsley Hay. Francis Hurt, Tory politician and member of Parliament who represented a constituency in South Derbyshire George Turner, landscape artist, was born here. Alison Uttley, was born nearby at Castle Top Farm. Richard Arkwright Cromford Mill Masson Mill Arkwright Society Cromford home page Christian
Twist per inch
TPI is a term used in the textile industry. It measures how much twist a yarn has, can be calculated by counting the number of twists in an inch of yarn. Twist is needed in yarn to hold the fibres together, is added in the spinning and plying processes; the amount of twist varies depending on the fibre, thickness of yarn, preparation of fibre, manner of spinning, the desired result. Fine wool and silk use more twist than coarse wool, short staples more than long, thin more than thick, short drawn more than long drawn; the amount of twist in a yarn helps to define the style of yarn – a yarn with a lot of air such as a woollen-spun yarn will have much less twist than a yarn with little air such as a worsted-spun yarn. The amount of twist affects the yarn in terms of stretchiness, strength and many other attributes. Filling or weft yarns have fewer twists per inch because strength is not as important as with warp yarns, twisted yarns are, in general, stronger. Warp yarns have to be stronger. Filament fibers, such as silk, or many synthetics, need only be twisted to create a yarn.
Handspinners use the number of twists per inch often. Because the amount of twist defines a lot about a yarn, the number of twists per inch is an important measure to recreate a yarn; as a spinner spins, they will stop every few minutes to check to see that the number of twists per inch is the same throughout the yarn, as well as that the number of wraps per inch is the same. Measuring the number of twists per inch while spinning singles helps the spinner create a balanced yarn when plying. Yarns that have few twists per inch tend to have a softer hand but are not as strong as yarns with more twists per inch, such as medium twist or hard twist yarns. Yarns that have a hard twist, enough so that the yarn will double back onto itself when released from tension, are called crepe-twist yarns; the number of twists per inch can, in plied yarns, be determined by counting the number of bumps in one inch, dividing that number by the number of singles. If the adjacent picture, for example, was of an inch of two ply yarn the number of twists per inch would be 6 divided by 2, or three, as there are six bumps, it is a two ply.
While this method works well with plied yarns, singles don't have bumps to count. One way to determine the tpi for a single is to add a contrasting color fibre when spinning it, count the number of times the contrasting fibre has wrapped around the yarn. Another method is to measure an inch of yarn and untwist it, counting how many full revolutions it takes until there is no twist left; this can be done by inserting two paper-clips into the yarn, at an inch apart, thus making it easier to count a full revolution. A less precise method is to allow the single to ply against itself: the resulting two ply yarn is about half the number of twists per inch of the single, thus one can find the number of twists per inch for the single, or one can use the doubled back yarn as a measure. With a thick-and-thin yarn, it is best to count the twist over several inches and average the results; this is because the number of twists per inch will tend to vary between the thick sections. In the industry the number of twists per inch is calculated as: T P I = T M × c o u n t where T M is the Twist Multiplier known as K or the Twist Factor.
This Twist Multiplier is an empirical parameter, established by experiments and practice that the maximum strength of a yarn is obtained for a definite value of K. In the case of ring spun cotton yarns, for example, the following values of K have been found to give the best results. Warp yarns, 35's and less 4.75 Warp yarns, 35's to 80's 4.50 Warp yarns, 80's to 110's 4.25 Filling yarns, medium numbers 3.50 Spinning Weaving Yarn
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing, it breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and aligns the individual fibers to be parallel with each other. In preparing wool fibre for spinning, carding is the step; the word is derived from the Latin carduus meaning thistle or teasel, as dried vegetable teasels were first used to comb the raw wool. These ordered fibres can be passed on to other processes that are specific to the desired end use of the fibre: Cotton, felt, woollen or worsted yarn, etc. Carding can be used to create blends of different fibres or different colours; when blending, the carding process combines the different fibres into a homogeneous mix. Commercial cards have rollers and systems designed to remove some vegetable matter contaminants from the wool. Common to all carders is card clothing.
Card clothing is made from a sturdy flexible backing in which spaced wire pins are embedded. The shape, length and spacing of these wire pins are dictated by the card designer and the particular requirements of the application where the card cloth will be used. A version of the card clothing product developed during the latter half of the 19th century and found only on commercial carding machines, whereby a single piece of serrated wire was wrapped around a roller, became known as metallic card clothing. Carding machines are known as cards. Fibre may be carded by hand for hand spinning. Science historian Joseph Needham ascribes the invention of bow-instruments used in textile technology to India; the earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India. These carding devices, called kaman and dhunaki, would loosen the texture of the fibre by the means of a vibrating string. At the turn of the eighteenth century, wool in England was being carded using pairs of hand cards, it was a two-stage process:'working' with the cards opposed and'stripping' where they are in parallel.
In 1748 Lewis Paul of Birmingham, invented two hand driven carding machines. The first used a coat of wires on a flat table moved by foot pedals; this failed. On the second, a coat of wire slips was placed around a card, wrapped around a cylinder. Daniel Bourn obtained a similar patent in the same year, used it in his spinning mill at Leominster, but this burnt down in 1754; the invention was developed and improved by Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton. Arkwright's second patent for his carding machine was subsequently declared invalid because it lacked originality. From the 1780s, the carding machines were set up in mills in the north of mid-Wales. Priority was given to cotton but woollen fibres were being carded in Yorkshire in 1780. With woollen, two carding machines were used: the first or the scribbler opened and mixed the fibres, the second or the condenser mixed and formed the web; the first in Wales was in a factory at Dolobran near Meifod in 1789. These carding mills produced yarn for the Welsh flannel industry.
In 1834 James Walton invented the first practical machines to use a wire card. He patented this machine and a new form of card with layers of cloth and rubber; the combination of these two inventions became the standard for the carding industry, using machines first built by Parr and Walton in Ancoats, from 1857 by Jams Walton & Sons at Haughton Dale. By 1838, the Spen Valley, centred on Cleckheaton had at least 11 card clothing factories and by 1893, it was accepted as the card cloth capital of the world, though by 2008 only two manufacturers of metallic and flexible card clothing remained in England, Garnett Wire Ltd. dating back to 1851 and Joseph Sellers & Son Ltd established in 1840. Baird from Scotland took carding to Massachusetts in the 1780s. In the 1890s, the town produced one-third of all machine cards in North America. John and Arthur Slater, from Saddleworth went over to work with Slater in 1793. A 1780s scribbling mill would be driven by a water wheel. There were 170 scribbling mills around Leeds at that time.
Each scribbler would require 15–45 horsepower to operate. Modern machines are driven by belting from an overhead shaft via two pulleys. Carding: the fibres are separated and assembled into a loose strand at the conclusion of this stage; the cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, is taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin; the carding machine consists of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered with small teeth, as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer; the cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver. In a wider sense carding can refer to the four processes of willowing, lapping and drawing. In willowing the fibers are loosened. In lapping the dust is removed to create a flat lap of fibres. In drawing a drawing frame combines 4 slivers into one. Repeated drawing increases the quality of the sliver allowing for finer counts to be spun; each sliver will have thin and thick spots, by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached.
Since combining several slivers produces a thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being
The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Lancashire in England; the device reduced the amount of work needed to produce cloth, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120; the yarn produced by the jenny was not strong until Richard Arkwright invented the water-powered'water frame', which produced yarn harder and stronger than that of the initial spinning jenny. It started the factory system; the spinning jenny was invented by James Hargreaves. He was born in Oswaldtwistle, near Blackburn, around 1720. Blackburn was a town with a population of about 5,000, known for the production of "Blackburn greys," cloths of linen warp and cotton weft imported from India, they were sent to London to be printed. At the time, cotton production could not keep up with demand of the textile industry, Hargreaves spent some time considering how to improve the process.
The flying shuttle had increased yarn demand by the weavers by doubling their productivity, now the spinning jenny could supply that demand by increasing the spinners' productivity more. The machine produced coarse thread; the idea was developed by Hargreaves as a metal frame with eight wooden spindles at one end. A set of eight rovings was attached to a beam on that frame; the rovings when extended passed through two horizontal bars of wood. These bars could be drawn along the top of the frame by the spinner's left hand thus extending the thread; the spinner used his right hand to turn a wheel which caused all the spindles to revolve, the thread to be spun. When the bars were returned, the thread wound onto the spindle. A pressing wire was used to guide the threads onto the right place on the spindle. In the 17th century, England was famous for its worsted cloth; that industry was centred in the east and south in towns such as Norwich which jealously protected their product. Cotton processing was tiny: in 1701 only 1,985,868 pounds of cotton-wool was imported into England, by 1730 this had fallen to 1,545,472 pounds.
This was due to commercial legislation to protect the woollen industry. Cheap calico prints, imported by the East India Company from "Hindustan", became popular. In 1700 an Act of Parliament was passed to prevent the importation of dyed or printed calicoes from India, China or Persia; this caused grey cloth to be imported instead, these were printed in southern England with popular patterns. Lancashire businessmen produced grey cloth with linen warp and cotton weft, which they sent to London to be finished. Cotton-wool imports recovered and by 1720 were back to 1701 levels. Again the woollen manufacturers claimed. Another law was passed, to fine anyone caught wearing stained calico, it was this exemption. The use of coloured cotton weft, with linen warp was permitted in the 1736 Manchester Act. There now was an artificial demand for woven cloth. In 1764, 3,870,392 pounds of cotton-wool was imported. In England, before canals, before the turnpikes, the only way to transport goods such as calicos, broadcloth or cotton-wool was by packhorse.
Strings of packhorses travelled along a network of bridle paths. A merchant would be away from home most of the year, carrying his takings in cash in his saddlebag. A series of chapmen would work for the merchant, taking wares to wholesalers and clients in other towns, with them would go sample books. Before 1720, the handloom weaver spent part of each day visiting neighbours buying any weft they had. Carding and spinning could be the only income for that household, or part of it; the family might farm a few acres and card and weave wool and cotton. It took three carders to provide the roving for one spinner, up to three spinners to provide the yarn for one weaver; the process was continuous, done by both sexes, from the youngest to the oldest. The weaver would offer them for sale. A change came about 1740 when fustian masters gave out raw cotton and warps to the weavers and returned to collect the finished cloth; the weaver organised the carding and weaving to the master's specification. The master dyed or printed the grey cloth, took it to shopkeepers.
Ten years this had changed and the fustian masters were middle men, who collected the grey cloth and took it to market in Manchester where it was sold to merchants who organised the finishing. To handweave a 12-pound piece of eighteenpenny weft took 14 days and paid 36 shillings in all. Of this nine shillings was paid for spinning, nine for carding. So by 1750, a rudimentary manufacturing system feeding into a marketing system emerged. In 1738 John Kay started to improve the loom, he improved the reed, invented the raceboard, the shuttleboxes and the picker which together allowed one weaver to double his output. This invention is called the fly-shuttle, it met with violent opposition and he fled from Lancashire to Leeds. Though the workers thought this was a threat to their jobs, it was adopted and the pressure was on to speed up carding and spinning; the shortage of spinning capacity to feed the more efficient looms provided the motivation to develop more productive spinning techniques such as the spinning jenny, triggered the start of the Industrial Revolution.
The spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres. They were used extensively from the late 18th to the early 20th century in the mills of Lancashire and elsewhere. Mules were worked in pairs by a minder, with the help of two boys: the little piecer and the big or side piecer; the carriage carried up to 1,320 spindles and could be 150 feet long, would move forward and back a distance of 5 feet four times a minute. It was invented between 1779 by Samuel Crompton; the self-acting mule was patented by Richard Roberts in 1825. At its peak there were 50,000,000 mule spindles in Lancashire alone. Modern versions are still in niche production and are used to spin woollen yarns from noble fibres such as cashmere, ultra-fine merino and alpaca for the knitware market; the spinning mule spins textile fibres into yarn by an intermittent process. In the draw stroke, the roving is twisted, its rival, the throstle frame or ring frame uses a continuous process, where the roving is drawn and wrapped in one action.
The mule was the most common spinning machine from 1790 until about 1900 and was still used for fine yarns until the early 1980s. In 1890, a typical cotton mill would have over 60 mules, each with 1,320 spindles, which would operate 4 times a minute for 56 hours a week. Before the 1770s, textile production was a cottage industry using wool. Weaving was a family activity; the children and women would card the fibre — break up and clean the disorganized fluff into long bundles. The women would spin these rough rovings into yarn wound on a spindle; the male weaver would use a frame loom to weave this into cloth. This was tentered in the sun to bleach it; the invention by John Kay of the flying shuttle made the loom twice as productive, causing the demand for cotton yarn to vastly exceed what traditional spinners could supply. There were two types of spinning wheel: the Simple Wheel, which uses an intermittent process, the more refined Saxony wheel, which drives a differential spindle and flyer with a heck in a continuous process.
These two wheels became the starting point of technological development. Businessmen such as Richard Arkwright employed inventors to find solutions that would increase the amount of yarn spun took out the relevant patents; the spinning jenny allowed a group of eight spindles to be operated together. It mirrored the simple wheel. A wheel was turned as the frame was pushed back, the spindles rotated, twisting the rovings into yarn and collecting it on the spindles; the spinning jenny was effective and could be operated by hand, but it produced weaker thread that could only be used for the weft part of cloth. The throstle and the water frame pulled the rovings through a set of attenuating rollers. Spinning at differing speeds, these pulled the thread continuously while other parts twisted it as it wound onto the heavy spindles; this produced thread suitable for warp, but the multiple rollers required much more energy input and demanded that the device be driven by a water wheel. The early water frame, had only a single spindle.
Combining ideas from these two system inspired the spinning mule. The increased supply of muslin inspired developments in loom design such as Edmund Cartwright's power loom; some spinners and handloom weavers opposed the perceived threat to their livelihood: there were frame-breaking riots and, in 1811–13, the Luddite riots. The preparatory and associated tasks allowed many children to be employed; the hand-operated mule was a breakthrough in yarn production and the machines were copied by Samuel Slater, who founded the cotton industry in Rhode Island. Development over the next century and a half led to an automatic mule and to finer and stronger yarn; the ring frame, originating in New England in the 1820s, was little used in Lancashire until the 1890s. It could not produce the finest counts. Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule in 1779, so called because it is a hybrid of Arkwright's water frame and James Hargreaves' spinning jenny in the same way that mule is the product of crossbreeding a female horse with a male donkey.
The spinning mule has a fixed frame with a creel of cylindrical bobbins to hold the roving, connected through the headstock to a parallel carriage with the spindles. On the outward motion, the rovings are twisted. On the return, the roving is clamped and the spindles reversed to take up the newly spun thread. Crompton built his mule from wood. Although he used Hargreaves' ideas of spinning multiple threads and of attenuating the roving with rollers, it was he who put the spindles on the carriage and fixed a creel of roving bobbins on the frame. Both the rollers and the outward motion of the carriage remove irregularities from the rove before it is wound on the spindle; when Arkwright's patents expired, the mule was developed by several manufacturers. Crompton's first mule could produce 1 pound of 60s thread a day; this demanded a spindle speed of 1,700 rpm, a power input of 1⁄16 horsepower. The mule produced thin yarn, suitable for any kind of textile, warp or weft, it was first used to spin cotton other fibres.
Samuel Crompton could not afford to patent his invention. He returned to weaving. Dale profited from it. Crompton's machi