The water organ or hydraulic organ is a type of pipe organ blown by air, where the power source pushing the air is derived by water from a natural source or by a manual pump. The water organ lacks a bellows, blower, or compressor; the hydraulic organ is confused with the hydraulis. The hydraulis is the name of a Greek instrument created by Ctesibius of Alexandria; the hydraulis has a reservoir of air, inserted into a cistern of water. The air is pushed into the reservoir with hand pumps, exits the reservoir as pressurized air to blow through the pipes; the reservoir is open on the bottom, allowing water to maintain the pressure on the air as the air supply fluctuates from either the pumps pushing more air in, or the pipes letting air out. On the water organ, since the 15th century, the water is used as a source of power to drive a mechanism similar to that of the barrel organ, which has a pinned barrel that contains a specific song to be played; the hydraulis in ancient Greek is imagined as an automatic organ, but there is no source evidence for it.
A hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water into air pressure to drive the pipes. Hence its name hydraulis "water pipe." It is attributed to the Hellenistic scientist Ctesibius of Alexandria, an engineer of the 3rd century BC. The hydraulis was the world's first keyboard instrument and was the predecessor of the modern church organ. Unlike the instrument of the Renaissance period, the main subject of the article on the pipe organ, the ancient hydraulis was played by hand, not automatically by the water-flow. Water is supplied from some height above the instrument through a pipe, air is introduced into the water stream by aspiration into the main pipe from a side-pipe holding its top above the water source. Both water and air arrive together in the camera aeolis. Here and air separate and the compressed air is driven into a wind-trunk on top of the camera aeolis, to blow the organ pipes. Two perforated ‘splash plates’ or ‘diaphragms’ prevent water spray from getting into the organ pipes.
The water, having been separated from the air, leaves the camera aeolis at the same rate as it enters. It drives a water wheel, which in turn drives the musical cylinder and the movements attached. To start the organ, the tap above the entry pipe is turned on and, given a continuous flow of water, the organ plays until the tap is closed again. Many water organs had simple water-pressure regulating devices. At the Palazzo del Quirinale, the water flows from a hilltop spring, coursing through the palace itself into a stabilizing ‘room’ some 18 metres above the camera aeolis in the organ grotto; this drop provides sufficient wind to power the restored six-stop instrument. Among Renaissance writers on the water organ, Salomon de Caus was informative, his book of 1615 includes a short treatise on making water organs, advice on tuning and registration, many fine engravings showing the instruments, their mechanisms and scenes in which they were used. It includes an example of suitable music for water organ, the madrigal Chi farà fed' al cielo by Alessandro Striggio, arranged by Peter Philips.
Water organs were described in the numerous writings of the famous Ctesibius, Philo of Byzantium and Hero of Alexandria. Like the water clocks of Plato's time, they were not regarded as playthings but might have had a particular significance in Greek philosophy, which made use of models and simulacra of this type. Hydraulically blown organ pipes were used to imitate birdsong, musicologists Susi Jeans and Arthur W. J. G. Ord-Hume have suggested. For the latter, solar heat was used to syphon water from one closed tank into another, thereby producing compressed air for sounding the pipes. Characteristics of the hydraulis have been inferred from mosaics, literary references, partial remains. In 1931, the remains of a hydraulis were discovered in Hungary, with an inscription dating it to 228 AD; the leather and wood of the instrument had decomposed, but the surviving metal parts made it possible to reconstruct a working replica now in the Aquincum Museum in Budapest. The exact mechanism of wind production is debated, nothing is known about the music played on the hydraulis, but the tone of the pipes can be studied.
The Talmud mentions the instrument as not appropriate for the Jerusalem Temple. After its invention by the Greeks, the hydraulis continued to be used through antiquity in the Roman world. In the Middle Ages, Eastern Roman and Muslim inventors developed, among other pieces, an automatic hydraulic organ, a'musical tree' at the palace of Khalif al-Muqtadir, a long-distance hydraulic organ that could be heard from sixty miles away. By the end of the 13th century hydraulic automata had reached Ita
In the Faroe Islands, there are four Scout and Guiding associations forming the Føroya Skótaráð. They work under the same basic rules; the council is a member of Fællesrådet for Danmarks Drengespejdere and has observer status with Pigespejdernes Fællesråd Danmark. Known as The Yellow Scouts, the organization was founded in 1926. There are five Scout groups in the country; the groups are not connected to religious organizations, have both girls and boys as members. The uniform is a khaki shirt. There are just under 300 members; the Salvation Army Scouts or FH-Scouts were founded in 1939. There is only one small group in the country; the group, connected to the Salvation Army, has girl members. The uniform is a gray shirt. In 1994, there were 24 members throughout the country; the Skótalið Frelsunarhersins logo is based on the historic logos of the Salvation Army Life-Saving Scouts and Life-Saving Guards and is except for the text identical to the logo of the Norwegian Salvation Army Scouts. It shows in red a lifebuoy with in the centre the letters FH for Frelsens Hær and on the lifebuoy the motto "To Save and to Serve" written in Faroese language.
The symbols in the loops are: bible for caring for the soul, lamp for caring for others, eye for caring for the mind and gymmnastics clubs for caring for the body. The Faroese YWCA Scouts, the local Girl Scouts, were founded in 1928. There are five groups in the country, connected to the Lutheran Church. In most places, there are only female members; the uniform is a green shirt. In 1994, there were 269 members. Cub Scouts – ages 6-11 Scouts – ages 11 to 16 Venture Scouts – ages 16 to 18 Rover Scouts – ages 18 and older The Faroese YMCA Scouts were founded in 1939. There are 7 groups in the country, the organization is connected to the Lutheran Church; the uniform is a green shirt and members are both male and female. In 1994, there were 998 members in the country. Cub Scouts – ages 7 to 11 Scouts – ages 11 to 16 Venture Scouts – ages 16 to 18 Rover Scouts – ages 18 and olderAll sections are for both boys and girls; the four associations use different versions of the Scout Law. The Scout Motto is Ver til reiðar, Be Prepared.
All the Love is the seventh studio album by American deathrock band Christian Death, released through Jungle Records in 1989. It is the first part of the two-part series All the Love and All the Hate, the next being All the Hate; the album was released on CD and vinyl. The vinyl release of the album was available on regular black vinyl, limited edition pink marble vinyl. One single was released from the album, "We Fall Like Love", on twelve-inch vinyl. All songs written by Valor Kand, except where noted Appollyon"Live Love Together" – 3:20 "We Fall Like Love" – 5:03 "Love Don't Let Me Down" – 8:48 "Suivre la Trace de Quelqu'un" – 4:33 Birth"Love is Like a Itchin' in My Heart" – 4:46 "I'm Using You" – 6:04 "Deviate Love" – 3:14 "Angel" – 4:45 "Woman to Mother Earth" – 4:36 All the Love at Discogs
The Plow That Broke the Plains: documentary film of Pare Lorentz on the Dust Bowl. Report for the early date! The War Game: docu-fiction of Peter Watkins showing the consequences after a nuclear attack; the film portrays issues surrounding on the Amazon rainforest. Plogoff, des pierres contre des fusils: on the Anti-nuclear movement. Anima mundi: of Godfrey Reggio. For the WWF; the World According to Monsanto: of Marie-Monique Robin, one of the most controversial business of contemporaneous history. Environmental organizations investigated in the film include Greenpeace, Sierra Club, Surfrider Foundation, Rainforest Action Network, it is a companion project of the book This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate by Naomi Klein.
The Birmingham News is the principal newspaper for Birmingham, United States. The paper is owned by Advance Publications, was a daily newspaper from its founding through September 30, 2012. After that day, the News and its two sister Alabama newspapers, the Press-Register in Mobile and The Huntsville Times, moved to a thrice-weekly print-edition publication schedule; the Times-Picayune of New Orleans an Advance newspaper went to thrice-weekly on the same day. The Birmingham News was launched on March 14, 1888, by Rufus N. Rhodes as The Evening News, a four-page paper with two reporters and $800 of operating capital. At the time, the city of Birmingham was only 17 years old, but was an booming industrial city and a beacon of the "New South" still recovering from the aftermath of the American Civil War and Reconstruction. Newspapers joined with industrial tycoons and real-estate speculators in relentless boosterism of the new city. Prior to starting the paper, Rhodes worked as editor of the city's Daily Herald.
However, he and the publisher had a falling out over a proposed public works project. Rhodes supported construction of a viaduct across "Railroad Reservation" dividing north and south Birmingham; the Herald's publisher opposed the project. The dispute ended with Rhodes leaving to launch the News with the slogan "Great is Birmingham and The News is its Prophet!" The "News Bridge" was dedicated on July 4, 1891, which Rhodes' paper hailed as the "grandest of all municipal achievements of great and glorious Birmingham." The News circulation grew from 628 in 1888 to more than 7,000 in 1891, when it became the largest daily in Alabama and won the contract to publish the General Laws of Alabama. The name changed first to The Evening News The Daily News, and, in 1895, The Birmingham News; the newspaper continued to grow, reaching a circulation of 17,000 in 1909. Staunchly progressive in its political stance, the News supported a straight-ticket Democrat platform in election seasons and championed progressive causes such as prohibition.
The News led the drumbeat for the "Greater Birmingham" movement to annex suburban communities. The successful campaign caused the population of the City of Birmingham to grow from 40,000 in 1900 to 138,685 in 1910, at which time Birmingham was the third largest city in the South; that same year, Rhodes died and was succeeded by his vice-president and general manager, Victor H. Hanson. Hanson, only 33 years old, was an accomplished newspaperman, having at age 11 founded the City Item in Macon, which he sold four years for $2,500. Hanson helped modernize the newspaper's format and operations and oversaw an increase in subscriptions from 18,000 in 1910 to 40,000 in 1914, when he boldly claimed the title of "The South's Greatest Newspaper". In 1912, the evening paper launched a Sunday edition in direct competition with the morning Age-Herald. By 1920, the News dominated the lucrative Sunday market, its edition had a circulation of 48,055, compared to 29,795 for the Age-Herald. In 1917 the News moved to a new six-story Jacobean-style office building on the corner of 4th Avenue North and 22nd Street.
At the time of the move, the News published this opinion: "The News is proud of its new home and believes it to be the handsomest and best equipped in the entire South. Publishers from other cities have been kind enough to say that nowhere in the land was there a more adequate and efficient newspaper plant. Many thousands of dollars have been expended with that end in view." A year the paper made good use of its new space by purchasing the rival Birmingham Ledger, increasing the size of its staff to 748 and its circulation to 60,000. In 1927 the Birmingham Age-Herald was sold to Hanson. In 1950 Scripps-Howard, which owned the Birmingham Post, bought the Age-Herald but entered into a joint-operating agreement that moved the new Birmingham Post-Herald into the Birmingham News building; the News press printed both papers and handled advertising and subscriptions sales while the editorial and reporting staffs remained independent. The agreement lasted until the Post-Herald ceased publication in September 2005, leaving the News as Birmingham's only daily newspaper.
In 1956, the Hanson family sold the News to S. I. Newhouse Sr.'s Advance Publications in New York for $18 million, the largest sum, paid at the time for a daily newspaper. The held Advance continues to own the News as well as The Huntsville Times and Mobile's Press-Register, the three largest newspapers in Alabama, as well as their shared website, al.com. In 1997, the News Company switched the morning and evening publications, making the News the morning paper and the Post-Herald the evening paper; this move reinforced the News's preeminent role. On August 10, 2006 the News cut the ribbon on their new headquarters building across 4th Avenue from their 1917 plant; the $25 million, 4-story, 110,000-square-foot brick and limestone building, designed by Williams-Blackstock Architects, borrows several details from the older building and is bisected by a glass atrium. The 1917 building was demolished in 2008 in order to make room for a surface parking lot serving employees of the paper; the lot is between the facility that houses The Birmingham News presses.
On January 22, 2013, Alabama Media Group announced it was selling the building, saying the high-tech and open facility was not conducive to its digital-first, print-last operations. In 2009, Advance Publications' three Alabama newspapers were organized into the Advance Alabama Group, headed by Ricky Mathews, publisher of the Mobile newspaper
The United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri is the federal judicial district encompassing 66 counties in the western half of the State of Missouri. The Court is based in the Charles Evans Whittaker Courthouse in Kansas City; the current United States Attorney is Timothy A. Garrison. Missouri was admitted as a state on August 10, 1821, the United States Congress established the United States District Court for the District of Missouri on March 16, 1822; the District was assigned to the Eighth Circuit on March 3, 1837. Congress subdivided it into Eastern and Western Districts on March 3, 1857. and has since made only small adjustments to the boundaries of that subdivision. The division was prompted by a substantial increase in the number of admiralty cases arising from traffic on the Mississippi River, which had followed an act of Congress passed in 1845 and upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 1851, extending federal admiralty jurisdiction to inland waterways.
These disputes involved "contracts of affreightment, mariners' wages, other causes of admiralty jurisdiction", litigants of matters arising in St. Louis found it inconvenient to travel to Jefferson City for their cases to be tried; when the District of Missouri was subdivided, Robert William Wells was the sole judge serving the District of Missouri. Wells was reassigned to serve only the Western District; the district is divided into five divisions: Western, Southern, St. Joseph. There are divisional clerk's Offices in Jefferson City and Springfield in addition to the primary office in Kansas City. New cases and pleadings in the District Court may be filed in the clerk's offices in Kansas City, Jefferson City, Springfield; the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit across Missouri in St. Louis has jurisdiction over decisions appealed from the Western District of Missouri; the five court divisions each cover the following counties: The Western Division covers Bates, Cass, Henry, Johnson, Ray, St. Clair, Saline counties.
The Central Division covers Benton, Callaway, Cole, Hickory, Miller, Morgan and Pettis counties. The Southern Division covers Cedar, Dade, Douglas, Howell, Oregon, Polk, Taney, Texas and Wright counties; the St. Joseph Division covers Andrew, Buchanan, Clinton, Daviess, DeKalb, Grundy, Holt, Mercer, Platte, Putnam and Worth counties; the Southwestern Division covers Barry, Jasper, Lawrence, McDonald, Newton and Vernon counties. As of January 3, 2019: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Recent, former U. S. attorneys for the district Mary Elizabeth Phillips Todd Graves Bradley Schlozman Tammy Dickinson Timothy A. Garrison Courts of Missouri List of current United States District Judges List of United States federal courthouses in Missouri Official website