Sewage is a water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as domestic or municipal wastewater, it is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition and toxic constituents and it consists mostly of greywater, blackwater and detergents, and toilet paper. Whether it contains surface runoff depends on the design of sewer system, all sewage ends up back in the environment, by any of several routes. A basic distinction in its route is whether it undergoes sewage treatment to mitigate its effect on the environment before arriving there, Sewage usually travels from a buildings plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility. Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design, before the 20th century, sewers usually discharged into a body of water such as a stream, lake, bay, or ocean. There was no treatment, so the breakdown of the waste was left to the ecosystem.
Today, the goal is that sewers route their contents to a treatment plant rather than directly to a body of water. In many countries, this is the norm, in developing countries. Thus other goals of modern sewage routing include handling surface runoff separately from sewage, handling greywater separately from toilet waste, proper collection and safe, nuisance-free disposal of the liquid wastes of a community are legally recognized as a necessity in an urbanized, industrialized society. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only, the term sewage is nowadays regarded as an older term and is being more and more replaced by wastewater. In general American English usage, the sewage and sewerage mean the same thing. Both words are descended from Old French assewer, derived from the Latin exaquare, in American technical and professional English usage, sewerage refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage.
Wastes that result from an industrial processes such as the production or manufacture of goods are classed as industrial wastewater, surface runoff, known as storm flow or overland flow, is that portion of precipitation that runs rapidly over the ground surface to a defined channel. Sewage is a mixture of chemicals, with many distinctive chemical characteristics. These include high concentrations of ammonium, phosphorus, high conductivity, high alkalinity, the organic matter of sewage is measured by determining its biological oxygen demand or the chemical oxygen demand. Sewage contains the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, Sewage can be monitored for both disease-causing and benign organisms with a variety of techniques. Traditional techniques involve filtering and examining samples under a microscope, sequencing DNA from an environmental sample is known as metagenomics. Sewage has analyzed to determine relative rates of use of prescription
In an economics context, land development is sometimes advertised as land improvement or land amelioration. It refers to investments making land more usable by humans, for accounting purposes it refers to any variety of projects that increase the value of the property. Most are depreciable, but some improvements are not able to be depreciated because a useful life cannot be determined. Home building and containment are two of the most common and the oldest types of development and this profit enhancement means identifying and developing the best scheme for the local marketplace, whilst satisfying the local planning process. Development Analysis puts development prospects and the development process itself under the microscope, development analysis can add significantly to the value of land and development, and as such is a crucial tool for landowners and developers. It is a step in Kevin A. Lynchs 1960 book The Image of the City. The landowner can share in additional planning gain via an awareness of the development potential.
This is done via a residual development appraisal or residual valuation, the residual appraisal calculates the sale value of the end product, and hypothetically deducts costs, including planning and construction costs, finance costs and developers profit. The residue, or leftover proportion, represents the land value, therefore, in maximising the GDV, land value is concurrently enhanced. Land value is highly sensitive to supply and demand, build costs and affordable housing contributions, understanding the intricacies of the development system and the effect of value drivers can result in massive differences in the landowners sale value. Land improvement in the economic sense can often lead to degradation from the ecological perspective. Land development and the change in land value does not usually take into account changes in the ecology of the developed area, new creation of farmland will rely on the conversion and development of previous forests, savannas or grassland. Recreation of farmland from wasteland, deserts or previous impervious surfaces is considerably less frequent because of the degraded or missing fertile soil in the latter, starting from forests, land is made arable by assarting or slash-and-burn.
Agricultural development furthermore includes, Hydrological measures Soil improvement, road construction Because the newly created farmland is more prone to erosion than soil stabilized by tree roots, such a conversion may mean irreversible crossing of an ecological threshold. The resulting deforestation is not easily compensated for by reforestation or afforestation. Examples of land restoration/land rehabilitation counted as land development in the strict sense are still rare, renaturation, stream restoration may all contribute to a healthier environment and quality of life, especially in densely populated regions. The same is true for planned vegetation like parks and gardens, but restoration plays a particular role, because it reverses previous conversions to built and agricultural areas
Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus. Sources of nutrient pollution include surface runoff from fields and pastures, discharges from septic tanks and feedlots. TMDL reports identify pollutant levels and strategies to accomplish pollutant reduction goals, EPA has described TMDLs as establishing a pollutant budget allocating portions of the overall budget to the pollutants sources. For many coastal water bodies, the main pollutant issue is excess nutrients, a TMDL can prescribe the minimum level of Dissolved Oxygen available in a body of water, which is directly related to nutrient levels. In 2010,18 percent of TMDLs nationwide were related to nutrient levels including organic enrichment/oxygen depletion, noxious plants, algal growth, Nutrient remediation is a form of environmental remediation, but concerns only biologically active nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.
“Remediation” refers to the removal of pollution or contaminants, generally for the protection of human health, in environmental remediation nutrient removal technologies include biofiltration, which uses living material to capture and biologically degrade pollutants. Examples include green belts, riparian areas and constructed wetlands and these areas most commonly capture anthropogenic discharges such as wastewater, stormwater runoff, or sewage treatment, for land reclamation after mining, refinery activity, or land development. Biofiltration utilizes biological assimilation to capture and eventually incorporate the pollutants into living tissue, another form of nutrient removal is bioremediation, which uses microrganisms to remove pollutants. Bioremediation can occur on its own as natural attenuation or intrinsic bioremediation or can be encouraged by the addition of fertilizers, Nutrient bioextraction is bioremediation involving cultured plants and animals. Nutrient bioextraction or bioharvesting is the practice of farming and harvesting shellfish and seaweed for the purpose of removing nitrogen and it has been suggested that nitrogen removal by oyster reefs could generate net benefits for sources facing nitrogen emission restrictions, similar to other nutrient trading scenarios.
Several studies have shown that oysters and mussels have the capacity to dramatically impact nitrogen levels in estuaries, in 1998, a Policy for a National Nutrient Strategy was created with a focus on developing nutrient criteria. Between 2000-2010 criteria for Rivers/Streams, Lakes/Reservoirs, Wetlands, in 2007, EPA reiterated EPA’s expectations for numeric criteria and committed EPA to support state efforts. After the EPA had introduced watershed-based NPDES permitting in 2007, interest in nutrient removal, Nutrient trading is a type of water quality trading, a market-based policy instrument used to improve or maintain water quality. Water quality trading arose around 2005 and is based on the fact that different pollution sources in a watershed can face very different costs to control the same pollutant, the underlying principle is “polluter pays”, usually linked with a regulatory driver for participating is the trading program. As of 2013, payments were overwhelmingly initiated by public good payers like governments, part of the manure nutrient management section of the Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center
Buffalo Creek flood
The resulting flood unleashed approximately 132,000,000 US gallons of black waste water, cresting over 30 ft high, upon the residents of 16 coal towns along Buffalo Creek Hollow. Out of a population of 5,000 people,125 were killed,1,121 were injured,507 houses were destroyed, in addition to forty-four mobile homes and 30 businesses. The disaster destroyed or damaged homes in Saunders, Lorado, Lundale, Crites, Robinette, Becco, Braeholm, Accoville and Kistler. In its legal filings, Pittston Coal referred to the accident as an Act of God, Dam #3, constructed of coarse mining refuse dumped into the Middle Fork of Buffalo Creek starting in 1968, failed first, following heavy rains. The water from Dam #3 overwhelmed Dams #2 and #1, Dam #3 had been built on top of coal slurry sediment that had collected behind dams #1 and #2, instead of on solid bedrock. Dam #3 was approximately 260 feet above the town of Saunders when it failed, the Governors Commission of Inquiry report called for new legislation and further inquiry by the local prosecutor.
The Citizens Commission report concluded that the Buffalo Creek-Pittston Coal Company was guilty of murdering at least 124 men and children, Moore, Jr. three days before he left office in 1977. The lawyers for the plaintiffs, Arnold & Porter of Washington, west Virginia has yet to build the center, though the center was promised by Governor Moore in May 1972. Gerald M. Stern, an attorney with Arnold & Porter, sociologist Kai T. Eriksons book won the 1977 Sorokin Award, granted by the American Sociological Association for an outstanding contribution to the progress of sociology. Dennis Prince and some 625 survivors of the flood sued the Pittston Coal Company and they settled in June 1974 for $13.5 million, or approximately $13,000 for each individual after legal costs. A second suit was filed by 348 child survivors, who sought $225 million, kerry Albright became known as the miracle baby of the disaster. Running from the edge of the water, his mother threw him just above the flood level moments before she drowned.
He survived with few ill effects, and was raised by his father and his survival gave hope and inspiration to other survivors. In the NCIS episode Corporal Punishment, Dr. Mallard references the Buffalo Creek Disaster when discussing PTSD in a soldier returning from the Iraq War, on their 2004 release, the band American Minor includes a song titled Buffalo Creek that was written about the Buffalo Creek disaster. Aberfan disaster Coal slurry impoundment Martin County coal slurry spill Sludge The Buffalo Creek Flood, west Virginia Division of Culture and History. Guide to the Council of Southern Mountains Records includes documents pertaining to Buffalo Creek interviews, berea College Special Collections and Archives
Hinkley groundwater contamination
PG&E used chromium 6—one of the cheapest and most efficient commercially available rust suppressors—in their compressor station for natural gas transmission pipelines. These cooling waters were disposed of adjacent to the compressor stations, although the dumping took place from 1952 to 1966 when Hinkley was a remote desert community united by a single school and a general store. PG&E did not inform the local board of the contamination until December 7,1987. In 1993, Erin Brockovich, a clerk to lawyer Edward L. Masry. In 1996 after arbitrators awarded $130.5 million in the first 39 cases, PG&E decided to settle for $333 million, in 1997, an article was published in which Zhang allegedly retracted his 1987 research. It was published under Zhangs name—who was a retired Chinese government health officer, in spite of his written objection—and a second Chinese scientist, according to Peter Waldman, Zhang’s son was outraged at the idea that his father would willingly have invalidated his earlier award-winning work.
In contrast to the article, the new one concluded that chromium wasn’t the likely culprit. The revised study — which did not reveal the involvement of PG&E or its scientists — helped persuade California health officials to delay new drinking water standards for chromium, in 2000, the lawsuit became an international cause célèbre, when Erin Brockovich, the blockbuster movie was released. In 1985 he opened the Washington, D. C. office for McCutchen and he was appointed as member of the PG&E Board of Directors from 2000 until his death in 2013. Andrews had expertise in law and co-founded MetaJure Inc. which focused on high-tech solutions for the legal industry. He was on the board during the tenure of PG&E Corporation Chairman, CEO, in response to public attention in March,2001, the CalEPA asked the University of California, Berkeley to name a panel of blue-ribbon experts to form the Chromate Toxicity Review Committee. A public meeting was held on July 25,2001 to get input on the review of scientific questions regarding the potential of chromium 6+ to cause cancer when ingested.
The panel was selected by Jerold A, Last with Dennis Paustenbach as Vice President and included Mark Schrenker, Silvio De Flora and John Froines as panelists. Paustenbach, De Flora and Froines resigned from the committee and were replaced, on August 31,2001 the Chromate Toxicity Review Committee—which included Russell Flegal, Jerold Last, Ernest E. Their report cited both the 1987 Zhang article and the retracted 1997 version.5 parts per billion, in 2001, the firm of Engstron and Lack had filed a follow-up lawsuit which is known as Aguayo vs. PG&E on behalf of 900 people stemming from contamination with chromium in both Hinkley and Kettleman and they were waiving the blue-ribbon report—the blue-ribbon panel report—like a flag. They said to the judge, The State of California has spoken and it has said that chromium VI does not cause cancer by ingestion, and they wanted to amend their paperwork, their motions, their declarations, and move to dismiss our case. And they got permission to do that
Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction. Effective erosion controls handle surface runoff and are important techniques in preventing water pollution, soil loss, wildlife habitat loss, erosion controls are used in natural areas, agricultural settings or urban environments. In urban areas erosion controls are part of stormwater runoff management programs required by local governments. The controls often involve the creation of a barrier, such as vegetation or rock. They involve building and maintaining storm drains, on construction sites they are often implemented in conjunction with sediment controls such as sediment basins and silt fences. Bank erosion is a process, without it, rivers would not meander. However, land management patterns that change the hydrograph and/or vegetation cover can act to increase or decrease channel migration rates, in many places, whether or not the banks are unstable due to human activities, people try to keep a river in a single place.
This can be done for environmental reclamation or to prevent a river from changing course into land that is being used by people, one way that this is done is by placing riprap or gabions along the bank. These models have addressed both gully and sheet erosion, earliest models were a simple set of linked equations which could be employed by manual calculation. By the 1970s the models had expanded to complex computer models addressing nonpoint source pollution with thousands of lines of computer code, the more complex models were able to address nuances in micrometerology, soil particle size distributions and micro-terrain variation
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds, Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels. It has been suggested that pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases. An estimated 580 people in India die of water related illness every day. About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted, as of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water. In addition to the problems of water pollution in developing countries. The head of Chinas national development agency said in 2007 that one quarter the length of Chinas seven main rivers were so poisoned the water harmed the skin.
Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms and earthquakes cause changes in water quality. Although interrelated, surface water and groundwater have often studied and managed as separate resources. Surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater, groundwater can feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two based on their origin. Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. The U. S. Clean Water Act defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes, the CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites. Nonpoint source pollution refers to contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area, a common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands.
Nutrient runoff in storm water from sheet flow over a field or a forest are cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots and highways, because this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters, it becomes a point source
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
The pollution may come from a variety of sources, ranging from point source pollution to more diffuse, landscape-level causes, known as non-point source pollution. Management practices play a role in the amount and impact of these pollutants. Management techniques range from animal management and housing to the spread of pesticides and herbicides are applied to agricultural land to control pests that disrupt crop production. Soil contamination can occur when pesticides persist and accumulate in soils, which can alter microbial processes, increase plant uptake of the chemical, and cause toxicity to soil organisms. The extent to which the pesticides and herbicides persist depends on the unique chemistry. Pesticides can accumulate in animals that eat contaminated pests and soil organisms, in addition, pesticides can be more harmful to beneficial insects, such as pollinators, and to natural enemies of pests than they are to the target pests themselves. Pesticide leaching occurs when pesticides mix with water and move through the soil, the amount of leaching is correlated with particular soil and pesticide characteristics and the degree of rainfall and irrigation.
Leaching may not only originate from treated fields, but from pesticide mixing areas, pesticide application machinery washing sites, only a fraction of the nitrogen-based fertilizers is converted to produce and other plant matter. The remainder accumulates in the soil or lost as runoff, the excessive use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is particularly damaging, as much of the nitrogen that is not taken up by plants is transformed into nitrate which is easily leached. Nitrate levels above 10 mg/L in groundwater can cause blue baby syndrome, the nutrients, especially nitrates, in fertilizers can cause problems for natural habitats and for human health if they are washed off soil into watercourses or leached through soil into groundwater. Cadmium The concentration of cadmium in phosphorus-containing fertilizers varies considerably and can be problematic, for example, mono-ammonium phosphate fertilizer may have a cadmium content of as low as 0.14 mg/kg or as high as 50.9 mg/kg. This is because the rock used in their manufacture can contain as much as 188 mg/kg cadmium.
Continuous use of fertilizer can contaminate soil and plants. Limits to the content of phosphate fertilizers has been considered by the European Commission. Producers of phosphorus-containing fertilizers now select phosphate rock based on the cadmium content, fluoride Phosphate rocks contain high levels of fluoride. Consequently, the use of phosphate fertilizers has increased soil fluoride concentrations. Also of possible concern are the effects of fluoride on soil microorganisms, radioactive elements The radioactive content of the fertilizers varies considerably and depends both on their concentrations in the parent mineral and on the fertilizer production process. Uranium-238 concentrations range can range from 7 to 100 pCi/g in phosphate rock, where high annual rates of phosphorus fertilizer are used, this can result in uranium-238 concentrations in soils and drainage waters that are several times greater than are normally present
A building or edifice is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures, Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a division of the human habitat. Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings. The word building is both a noun and a verb an adverb, the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a building is a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place, there was a building on the corner. In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not necessarily have walls.
Structure is more likely to be used for a fence, as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level, depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included, the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200000 to 400000 years ago have called into question. There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18000 BC, Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most often called houses or homes, residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex, apartment building to differentiate them from individual houses. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents, houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters, they may be converted to another use e. g. an office or a shop.
Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people, increasing settlement density in buildings is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone, if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison, or in group housing like barracks or dormitories
Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, freeways, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a function as urban space easement. Modern roads are normally smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel, historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. In the United Kingdom there is ambiguity between the terms highway and road. The Highway code details rules for road users and this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, and road and driveways on private land and many car parks. Vehicle Excise Duty, a use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway, in the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, and private roads, which are privately controlled.
The assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted, others believe that some roads originated from following animal trails. The Icknield Way is given as an example of type of road origination. By about 10,000 BC, rough roads/pathways were used by human travelers, the worlds oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone-paved streets are found in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC, corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in Glastonbury, England. The Sweet Track, a timber causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, tree-ring dating enabled very precise dating and it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6, 000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets were used in India as early as 3000 BC, in 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for Persia, including the Royal Road, which was one of the finest highways of its time.
The road remained in use after Roman times, a hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, at its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire, the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved with tar
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. It has become popular among power stations, which switch from coal to biomass to comply with the law. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, as an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are classified into, chemical. Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time people began burning wood to make fire. Even today, biomass is the source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon and oxygen, the estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 petagrams of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today, examples include forest residues, yard clippings, wood chips, wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass as fuel.
Harvested wood may be used directly as a fuel or collected from waste streams to be processed into pellet fuel or other forms of fuels. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or black liquor, in the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories, first-generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, a fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food-based resources for production only aggravates the food shortage problem. Second-generation biofuels, on the hand, utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as agriculture. These biofuels mostly consist of lignocellulosic biomass, which is not edible and is a waste for many industries.
Despite being the alternative, economical production of second-generation biofuel is not yet achieved due to technological issues. These issues arise due to chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocellulosic biomass. Plant energy is produced by crops grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy