Water skiing is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski. The sport requires sufficient area on a smooth stretch of water, one or two skis, a tow boat with tow rope, three people, a personal flotation device. In addition, the skier must have adequate upper and lower body strength, muscular endurance, good balance. There are water ski participants around the world, in Asia and Australia, Europe and the Americas. In the United States alone, there are 11 million water skiers and over 900 sanctioned water ski competitions every year. Australia boasts 1.3 million water skiers. There are many options for competitive water skiers; these include speed skiing, trick skiing, show skiing, jumping, barefoot skiing and wakeski. Similar, related sports are wakeboarding, discing and sit-down hydrofoil. Water skiers can start their ski set in one of two ways: wet is the most common, but dry is possible.
Water skiing begins with a deep-water start. The skier enters the water with their skis on or they jump in without the skis on their feet, have the skis floated to them, put them on while in the water. Most times it can be easier to put the skis on. Once the skier has their skis on they will be thrown a tow rope from the boat, which they position between their skis. In the deep-water start, the skier crouches down in the water while holding onto the ski rope; the skier can perform a "dry start" by standing on the shore or a pier. When the skier is ready, the driver accelerates the boat; as the boat accelerates and takes up the slack on the rope, the skier allows the boat to pull them out of the water by applying some muscle strength to get them! into an upright body position. By leaning back and keeping the legs bent, the skis will plane out and the skier will start to glide over the water; the skier turns by shifting weight right. The skier's body weight should be balanced between the balls of the heels.
While being towed, the skier's arms should be relaxed but still extended so as to reduce stress on the arms. The handle can be held vertically or horizontally, depending on whichever position is more comfortable for the skier. In addition to the driver and the skier, a third person known as the spotter or the observer should be present; the spotter's job is to inform the driver if the skier falls. The spotter sits in a chair on the boat facing backwards to see the skier; the skier and the boat's occupants communicate using hand signals. Water skiing can take place on any type of water – such as a river, lake, or ocean – but calmer waters are ideal for recreational skiing. There should be a 60-metre-wide skiing space and the water should be at least 1.5 to 1.8 metres deep. There must be enough space for the water skier to safely "get up", or be in the upright skiing position. Skiers and their boat drivers must have sufficient room to avoid hazards. Younger skiers start out on children's skis, which consist of two skis tied together at their back and front.
These connections mean. Sometimes these skis can come with a handle to help balance the skier as well. Children's skis are short – 110–150 centimetres long – reflecting the skier's smaller size. Once a person is strong enough to hold the skis together themselves there are various options depending upon their skill level and weight. Water skiers can use one ski; the heavier the person, the bigger the skis will be. Length will vary based on the type of water skiing being performed. A trick ski is around 40 inches long and wider than combo skis. Again the skier rides it with her dominant foot in front, it has no fins. Competition skiing uses designed towboats. Most towboats have a small hull and a flat bottom to minimize wake. A true tournament ski boat will have a direct drive motor shaft that centers the weight in the boat for an optimal wake shape. However, some recreational ski boats will have the motor placed in the back of the boat, which creates a bigger wake. Permitted towboats used for tournament water skiing are the Mastercraft ProStar 197, MasterCraft ProStar 190, Nautique 200, Malibu Response TXi, Centurion Carbon Pro.
These boats have ability to pull skiers for trick skiing and slalom. Recreational boats can serve as water skiing platforms as well as other purposes such as cruising and fishing. Popular boat types include bowriders, cuddy cabins, jetboats; the towboat must be capable of maintaining the proper speed. Speeds vary with the skier's weight, experience level, comfort level, type of skiing. For example, a child on two skis would require speeds of 21–26 km/h, whereas an adult on one ski might require as high as 58 km/h. Barefoot skiing requires speeds of 72 km/h. Competition spee
Chongqing Football Club or Chongqing F. C. was a Chinese professional football club based in Chongqing. The club last played in the China League One before dissolution. Chongqing F. C. the second club of Chongqing, was established by Chongqing Football Management Center on December 30, 2010. The club plays in the China League Two at season 2011. In their search for first head coach, Pei Encai attracted Chongqing's attention. Pei was the manager of Chinese Super League club Jiangsu Sainty F. C. who had ended the Season 2010 on 11th place. Chongqing F. C. signed Pei Encai along with some of his players at Jiangsu, Di You, Zhi Yaqi, Wang Yang and Wang Xiang. Following a poor run of results, Pei stood down as head coach of Chongqing F. C. and replaced by Zhao Faqing at June 21, 2011. The club signed some former Chinese Super League players like Zheng Wei, Ma Xiaolei and Guo Mingyue in summer transfer window. At last, they coming second in the South Division of 2011 China League Two and qualification to the Play-offs stage.
They went on to win both their legs of the quarter finals against Shandong Youth and after brushing aside Dongguan Topship Chemical. They progressed through to the final but lost in penalty shoot-out however they were still promoted to 2012 China League One along with the winners Harbin Yiteng F. C.. The club has been dissolved due to the relegation and are short in funds in December, 2013; as of the end of 2013 seasonAll-time League Rankings Pei Encai Zhao Faqing Zhao Changhong Wei Xin Manuel Cajuda
Black Book, Black book or Blackbook may refer to: Black Book, a 2006 Dutch thriller film by director Paul Verhoeven Black Book, soundtrack of the 2006 film The Black Book, a 1929 American drama film serial The Black Book, alternative name for the 1949 American drama film Reign of Terror, set in the French Revolution The Black Book, a 2018 Portuguese film directed by Valeria Sarmiento The Black Book, the list of people to be arrested by the Gestapo following a planned Nazi invasion of Britain in the Second World War The Black Book of Polish Jewry, a 1943 statement of the Association of Jewish Refugees and Immigrants from Poland on the Holocaust of Polish Jews The Black Book of Poland, a 1942 summary of the Nazi German atrocities in occupied Poland published by the Polish Ministry of Information The Black Book of Soviet Jewry, a compilation of documentary reports about the actions of Nazis against Jews in Eastern Europe during the Holocaust The Black Book: Imbalance of Power and Wealth in the Sudan, a 2000 dissident publication The Black Book of Capitalism, a book that assigns blame for what it argues are historic repressions to capitalism The Black Book of Colonialism, a book documenting evils that it attributs to colonialism The Black Book of English Canada, a 2001 book detailing the history of Canada's crimes against ethnic minorities The Black Book of Communism, a 1999 book that catalogs crimes that it argues resulted from the pursuit of communism Berlin Black Book owned by Prince of Albania, compiled during World War I by Germany and containing long list of British perverts, described in the 1918 article by Harold Spencer published by Noel Pemberton-Billing The Black Book, a 1938 novel by Lawrence Durrell The Black Book, a 1990 novel by Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk The Black Book, a 1993 novel by Scottish writer Ian Rankin Black Book, a 2006 novel derived from the 2006 film Black Book The Black Book, a 2017 novel by James Patterson and David Ellis BlackBook, an arts and culture magazine Black Book of Carmarthen, one of the earliest surviving manuscripts written in Welsh Yazidi Black Book, one of the two holy books of the Yazidi religion Black Book of Clanranald, on Clan history and poems "The Black Book", a 1989 episode of Garfield and Friends "The Black Book", a 2006 episode in the Inspector Rebus series Black Books, a British sitcom Black Book, a Clearwater, FL-based market research company focusing on the healthcare industry Black Book, a vehicle appraisal service Black Book, a nickname for a list of individuals blacklisted from casinos Black Book Black books of hours, Flemish illuminated manuscripts, created on black dyed vellum.
Black Book, an upcoming adventure role-playing video game An informal term for a black MacBook, a notebook computer produced by Apple Inc. A traditional or Wiccan name for a grimoire, the personal guide book to ritual kept by every practicing witch, or other text instructing in magic Black book, a slang term for a graffiti artist's notebook or sketchbook Black books, records of Lincoln's Inn, a barristers association in London The Black Book Black Book of the Admiralty, a collection of medieval maritime law Book of Negroes, a 1783 list of the Black Loyalists, those African Americans who fought for the British Crown Liber Niger, Latin for "Black Book" Little black book