Water tower

A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system for the distribution of potable water, to provide emergency storage for fire protection. In some places, the term standpipe is used interchangeably to refer to a water tower. Water towers operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used. Other types of water towers may only store raw water for fire protection or industrial purposes, may not be connected to a public water supply. Water towers are able to supply water during power outages, because they rely on hydrostatic pressure produced by elevation of water to push the water into domestic and industrial water distribution systems. A water tower serves as a reservoir to help with water needs during peak usage times; the water level in the tower falls during the peak usage hours of the day, a pump fills it back up during the night.

This process keeps the water from freezing in cold weather, since the tower is being drained and refilled. Although the use of elevated water storage tanks has existed since ancient times in various forms, the modern use of water towers for pressurized public water systems developed during the mid-19th century, as steam-pumping became more common, better pipes that could handle higher pressures were developed. In the United Kingdom, standpipes consisted of tall, exposed, n-shaped pipes, used for pressure relief and to provide a fixed elevation for steam-driven pumping engines which tended to produce a pulsing flow, while the pressurized water distribution system required constant pressure. Standpipes provided a convenient fixed location to measure flow rates. Designers enclosed the riser pipes in decorative masonry or wooden structures. By the late 19th-Century, standpipes grew to include storage tanks to meet the ever-increasing demands of growing cities. Many early water towers are now considered significant and have been included in various heritage listings around the world.

Some are converted to exclusive penthouses. In certain areas, such as New York City in the United States, smaller water towers are constructed for individual buildings. In California and some other states, domestic water towers enclosed by siding were once built to supply individual homes. Water towers were used to supply water stops for steam locomotives on railroad lines. Early steam locomotives required water stops every 7 to 10 miles. A variety of materials can be used to construct a typical water tower; the reservoir in the tower may be spherical, cylindrical, or an ellipsoid, with a minimum height of 6 metres and a minimum of 4 m in diameter. A standard water tower has a height of 40 m. Pressurization occurs through the hydrostatic pressure of the elevation of water. 30 m of elevation produces 300 kPa, enough pressure to operate and provide for most domestic water pressure and distribution system requirements. The height of the tower provides the pressure for the water supply system, it may be supplemented with a pump.

The volume of the reservoir and diameter of the piping sustain flow rate. However, relying on a pump to provide pressure is expensive. During periods of low demand, jockey pumps are used to meet these lower water flow requirements; the water tower reduces the need for electrical consumption of cycling pumps and thus the need for an expensive pump control system, as this system would have to be sized sufficiently to give the same pressure at high flow rates. High volumes and flow rates are needed when fighting fires. With a water tower present, pumps can be sized for average demand, not peak demand. Using wireless sensor networks to monitor water levels inside the tower allows municipalities to automatically monitor and control pumps without installing and maintaining expensive data cables. Water towers can be surrounded by ornate coverings including fancy brickwork, a large ivy-covered trellis or they can be painted; some city water towers have the name of the city painted in large letters on the roof, as a navigational aid to aviators and motorists.

Sometimes the decoration can be humorous. An example of this are water towers built side by side, labeled HOT and COLD. Cities in the United States possessing side-by-side water towers labeled HOT and COLD include Granger, Iowa; when a third water tower was built next to the Okemah, Oklahoma set of Hot and Cold towers, the town considered naming it "Running", but decided to use "Home of Woody Guthrie". The House in the Clouds in Thorpeness, located in the English county of Suffolk, was built to resemble a house in order to disguise the eyesore, whilst the lower floors were used for accommod

Sveti Florijan nad Ċ kofjo Loko

Sveti Florijan nad Škofjo Loko is a small settlement in the Municipality of Škofja Loka in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. The church of Saint Florian on a hill above the village, though belonging to the neighbouring village of Sopotnica, gave its name to the settlement; the name of the settlement was changed from Sveti Florjan to Florjan na Zmincem in 1955. The name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia's postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms; the name was changed again in 2002 to Sveti Florijan nad Škofjo Loko. In the past the German name was Sankt Florian. Sveti Florijan nad Škofjo Loko at Geopedia


Glenmoriston or Glen Moriston is a river glen in the Scottish Highlands, that runs from Loch Ness, at the village of Invermoriston, westwards to Loch Cluanie, where it meets with Glen Shiel. The A887 and A87 roads pass through Glenmoriston; the Glen is dominated by the River Moriston, which in Gaelic might mean "river of the waterfalls". The river is a big attraction for fishers, but for birdwatchers who come to see osprey and eagles fishing on the river; the river crashes over waterfalls at Invermoriston into Loch Ness, passing under an original Thomas Telford bridge, built in 1813. About five miles along the glen from Invermoriston is Loch Dundreggan, "Dundreggan" being of Gaelic origin and meaning "Dragon Haugh". Here the natural force of the river is tapped through a hydro-electric dam, which supplies power to the area. Water is let out of the dam on Tuesdays, making it a popular attraction for white water rafting and canoeing. After a feasibility study in Glen Affric, wild boar were re-introduced by the charity Trees for Life to a large fenced area of the Dundreggan Estate in November 2009.

Not far east of Torgoyle Bridge are the Glenmoriston Footprints. From the bridge, head towards Invermoriston. About a quarter of a mile beyond a cluster of houses on the right is a short stone wall on the right where the verge widens enough to park a car. Opposite this is a path leading in about thirty yards to a stone cairn. Behind this are two "footprints", bare patches of earth about the size and shape of footprints, they are said to be the footprints of Finlay Munro, otherwise known as the Highland Evangelist, a native of Tain. After a productive ministry on the Isle of Lewis, he made a tour of the southern Highlands during which he preached in Glenmoriston in 1827, his sermon, on the text "Prepare to meet thy God, O Israel", was well received but some Catholics from Glengarry heckled him, calling him "a cheat and a liar" Munro is supposed to have closed his Bible and retorted that the ground on which he stood would bear witness to the truth of what he said until the Day of Judgement comes.

Thus the marks on the ground are said to be his footprints. The glen is steeped in Jacobite history. After the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the pretender to the Scottish throne, Bonnie Prince Charlie escaped to safety through Glenmoriston. Here the Prince took refuge in a cave up in the hills, he was famously protected in spite of a £ 30,000 reward. By the side of the road is Roderick Mackenzie's cairn, a tribute to a loyal supporter of the Stuart Prince who pretended to be Charlie and allowed himself to be captured and killed by the soldiers pursuing the young pretender – giving the real man time to escape to safety. Glenmoriston is misspelled as Glenmorriston in history books. Census data from 2001 as applied to the IV63 7 postcode district Population - 264. Born in England - 37% Born in Scotland – 55% Retired - 24.4% Average age - 45.6 Percentage of households with children - 22% Percentage of children - 17.5%. In good health - 68% Households as second or holiday homes - 58% Percentage of households rented from council - 4.4% Amount of rented housing decrease 1991-2001 - 50%.

Achlain Mackay, William and Glenmoriston, Olden Times in a Highland Parish, Inverness: The Northern Counties Newspaper and Printing and Publishing Company, Limited, p. 587