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Water vapor

Water vapor, water vapour or aqueous vapor is the gaseous phase of water. It is one state of water within the hydrosphere. Water vapor can be produced from the evaporation or boiling of liquid water or from the sublimation of ice. Water vapor is transparent, like most constituents of the atmosphere. Under typical atmospheric conditions, water vapor is continuously generated by evaporation and removed by condensation, it is less dense than most of the other constituents of air and triggers convection currents that can lead to clouds. Being a component of Earth's hydrosphere and hydrologic cycle, it is abundant in Earth's atmosphere where it is a potent greenhouse gas along with other gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Use of water vapor, as steam, has been important to humans for cooking and as a major component in energy production and transport systems since the industrial revolution. Water vapor is a common atmospheric constituent, present in the solar atmosphere as well as every planet in the Solar System and many astronomical objects including natural satellites and large asteroids.

The detection of extrasolar water vapor would indicate a similar distribution in other planetary systems. Water vapor is significant in that it can be indirect evidence supporting the presence of extraterrestrial liquid water in the case of some planetary mass objects. Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface and diffuses into a surrounding gas, it is said to have evaporated; each individual water molecule which transitions between a more associated and a less associated state does so through the absorption or release of kinetic energy. The aggregate measurement of this kinetic energy transfer is defined as thermal energy and occurs only when there is differential in the temperature of the water molecules. Liquid water that becomes water vapor takes a parcel of heat with it, in a process called evaporative cooling; the amount of water vapor in the air determines how molecules will return to the surface. When a net evaporation occurs, the body of water will undergo a net cooling directly related to the loss of water.

In the US, the National Weather Service measures the actual rate of evaporation from a standardized "pan" open water surface outdoors, at various locations nationwide. Others do around the world; the US data is compiled into an annual evaporation map. The measurements range from under 30 to over 120 inches per year. Formulas can be used for calculating the rate of evaporation from a water surface such as a swimming pool. In some countries, the evaporation rate far exceeds the precipitation rate. Evaporative cooling is restricted by atmospheric conditions. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air; the vapor content of air is measured with devices known as hygrometers. The measurements are expressed as specific humidity or percent relative humidity; the temperatures of the atmosphere and the water surface determine the equilibrium vapor pressure. This condition is referred to as complete saturation. Humidity ranges from 0 gram per cubic metre in dry air to 30 grams per cubic metre when the vapor is saturated at 30 °C.

Sublimation is when water molecules directly leave the surface of ice without first becoming liquid water. Sublimation accounts for the slow mid-winter disappearance of ice and snow at temperatures too low to cause melting. Antarctica shows this effect to a unique degree because it is by far the continent with the lowest rate of precipitation on Earth; as a result, there are large areas where millennial layers of snow have sublimed, leaving behind whatever non-volatile materials they had contained. This is valuable to certain scientific disciplines, a dramatic example being the collection of meteorites that are left exposed in unparalleled numbers and excellent states of preservation. Sublimation is important in the preparation of certain classes of biological specimens for scanning electron microscopy; the specimens are prepared by cryofixation and freeze-fracture, after which the broken surface is freeze-etched, being eroded by exposure to vacuum till it shows the required level of detail.

This technique can display protein molecules, organelle structures and lipid bilayers with low degrees of distortion. Water vapour will only condense onto another surface when that surface is cooler than the dew point temperature, or when the water vapour equilibrium in air has been exceeded; when water vapour condenses onto a surface, a net warming occurs on that surface. The water molecule brings heat energy with it. In turn, the temperature of the atmosphere drops slightly. In the atmosphere, condensation produces clouds and precipitation; the dew point of an air parcel is the temperature to which it must cool before water vapour in the air begins to condense concluding water vapour is a type of water or rain. A net condensation of water vapour occurs on surfaces when the temperature of the surface is at or below the dew point temperature of the atmosphere. Deposition is a phase transition separate from condensation which leads to the direct formation of ice from water vapour. Frost and snow are examples of deposition.

There are many mechanism of cooling by which condensation occurs loss of heat known as radiation cooling. 2.cooling with upliftment of air known as adiabatic cooling. There are 4 types of upliftment of air: a. orographic upliftment- mountains work as barrier for upliftment of air b. convectional upliftment- upliftment of air due to pressure difference c. frontal upliftment- upliftment of air

Richard Lipinski

Robert Richard Lipinski was a German unionist and writer active in Germany's Social Democratic Party. Lipinski was born in Danzig, the third of four children of the bar-cutter and model champion Heinrich Johann Lipinski and Christina Charlotte Henriette nee Schroeder. Early on, Richard had to contribute to the livelihood of his family; the separation of his parents and the early death of the father as well as material poverty overshadowed his youth. As a child he worked in a shipyard, did not receive an education after elementary school. Lipinski the primary school at Danzig attended from 1874 to 1881. At the age of 14 he was offered a short-term contract as gardener, followed by the end of 1881 as a shop assistant in a teaching material goods store with an associated liquor store. Lipinski broke off the apprenticeship in early 1882 because of maltreatment by his instructor. In April 1882 he moved with his mother to Leipzig, where he started a job in the distilling business, worked as a bookkeeper in the mirror and frame factory of his brother.

From September 1882 to 1894 he was a rapporteur for the Socialist Leipziger Zeitung. During this period he was convicted several times for offenses against the press legal regulations, receiving fines and imprisonment. In 1886, he joined the union and four years the Social Democratic Party. In the following years he co-founded several smaller unions: the Free Association of Merchants in 1890, the Association of Commercial Employees in 1897, the Association of Workers Press in 1900, the Association of Modern Labour Movement Staff in 1901. In 1900 he was co-founder of the association of the workers' press. A year he was co-founder of the "Association of the support on the floor of the modern labor movement staff." From 1894 to 1901 he worked for "passing" as editor of the newspaper Leipziger Volkszeitung. Lipinski married nee Böttger, in Kleinmiltiz, they had eight children. His daughter Margaret married socialist politician Stanislaw Trabalski in 1921. Wolfgang Stärcke, "Lipinski, Richard", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 14, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 643–644 Manfred Hötzel, Karsten Rudolph: Richard Lipinski.

Democratic socialist organizer and political power. In: Helga Grebing, Hans Mommsen, Karsten Rudolph: Democracy and Emancipation between the Elbe and Saale. Contributions to the History of the Social Democratic Labour Movement till 1933. Essen 1993, pp. 237–262. Michael Rudloff, Adam Thomas: Leipzig. Cradle of German social democracy. Leipzig 1996, pp. 72 ff. Mike Schmeitzner, Michael Rudloff: History of Social Democracy in the Saxon parliament. Presentation and documentation 1877-1997. Pp. 204 ff. Jesko Bird: The Social Democratic Party district of Leipzig in the Weimar Republic. Saxon democratic tradition. Two volumes. Hamburg 2006th Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Reichstag, seconded database BIOSOP-Online der Uni Köln The interior minister of Saxony at a Glance The places where the Social Democrats in Germany

Methionine sulfoximine

Methionine sulfoximine is an irreversible glutamine synthetase inhibitor. It is the sulfoximine derivative of methionine with convulsant effects. Methionine Sulfoximine is composed of two different diastereomers, which are L-S-Methionine Sulfoximine and L-R-Methionine Sulfoximine; these affect the longevity of the model mouse for Lou Gehrig's disease. Overproduction of glutamate results to excitotoxicity. Since methionine sulfoximine inhibits glutamate production in the brain, it prevents excitotoxicity. Thus, increasing the longevity of the mice. MSO is phosphorylated by glutamine synthetase; the resulting product acts as a transition state analog that irreversibly binds to the glutamine synthetase, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. Glutamine synthetase Buthionine sulfoximine Glufosinate


KBER is a radio station broadcasting a mainstream rock format. Licensed to Ogden, United States, the station serves the Salt Lake City metropolitan area; the station is owned by Cumulus Media. The station's studios are located in South Salt Lake. Prior to March 1986, KBER was known as KDAB, was licensed to Ogden, it was known as "B101". KBER began on 106.5, but moved to its current dial position in March 1990. It was purchased by Citadel Broadcasting during that time, it morphed into "101 The Bear". The station employed a number of on-air talent including "Uncle Nasty". Uncle Nasty's irreverent style translated into an instant following with Men 18-34. Uncle Nasty was on air 7pm to 12am moved to morning drive a year later. In 1998 the station reverted to the more familiar "KBER 101" slogan of its earlier years and is a top rated mainstream rock station in Salt Lake City Utah. By 2008, the station's sister station KHTB became a modern rock station, carrying newer rock. KBER began to change its playlist to include more classic rock songs, although it has since returned to a mainstream rock format.

On, Mediabase & Nielsen BDS began reporting KBER on the mainstream rock panel. Citadel merged with Cumulus Media on September 16, 2011; the station arrived as one of the leading FM radio stations in the market with on air personalities Street and Katherine, Tom Collins, Kevin Lewis, John Edwards, Mark Christiansen and Jay "J-bear" Stevens to name a few. The early to mid 90's were the wild days with Cory "Porn Master" Draper, Casey "The Night Rocker" Baird, Kevin "Easy" Eason, Alan "Dr. Rock" Bain, Mark "Erection" Erickson, "Young Hung" Brandon Young, Ron Harrison, Allen "My Wife has me by the Balls" Handy, Helmut "No longer a part timer" Von Schmidt, Chris Howey "Opie Asswipe", Jamie "Hymie Escalante" Valle'e, the screaming weather man, Patrick "Skye Bleu" Burton, Michael Hayes, Nate "The Hitman" and others; those were the days of Mike Marble's wildly successful KBER-RAFTERS Showcase Concert Series. The Ron & Allen Morning Show was wildly popular and they had their own television show called "Rock Utah" which aired on local channel 30.

Some of the more memorable events the morning show perpetrated were the "Heterosexual Pride Parade", a wrestling match between Ron and the "Punisher" against Allen and Hymie, which raised money for the MDA, Hymie taking the morn show and some listeners skydiving and Hymie driving a top fuel dragster at Bonneville Raceway, a hoax which had listeners believing that Allen Handy had been arrested by the Secret Service. The show was every bit as wild as anything being done at the time in the largest markets, including Howard Stern in New York City. After Ron Harrison was summarily dismissed for an on-air stunt, Allen Handy and Michael Hayes took over as "Handy & Hayes" for several months carrying on the tradition of placing within the top 1-2 stations in the 18-34 demographic within Salt Lake City's market. Darby hosted the midday show prior to Kelly Hammer taking over in 2008. Prior to Darby, the midday shift was hosted by Helen Powers, who went on to work for a number of other radio stations.

Mornings during the week on KBER featured the syndicated "Bob and Tom Show". The morning show is now handled by Victor Cade along with co-host Rebecca Cade. Marci Wiser is the mid-day rock diva. Mick and Allen's "Freak Show" is followed by Helmut Radio. Mick and Allen returned to KBER in 2005. Weekends are hosted by Alan Bain, Casey Baird and Victor Cade. "The Jimbo Show" airs Saturday nights 7 - midnight. Jimbo is on Mick & Allen's "Freakshow". At 8 PM on Sunday nights, "Corky" hosts the "Salt Lake Soundcheck,", one of only a handful of shows that airs local talent on Utah radio. Mitch is on Sunday nights following the "Salt Lake Soundcheck" as well as some weekday over-nights. Weekday overnights are hosted by radio veteran Michael Cain. Along with regular shows, the station does live broadcasts during business or station promotions at various events; every year, KBER hosts an event known as "The North Pole Express", a take on the story The Polar Express and is an event co-hosted by the Make-A-Wish Foundation.

It is held at Soldier Hollow, outside of Utah. KBER broadcasts an HD signal along with analog on 101.1 MHz. Its transmitter is located 18 miles southwest of Salt Lake City on Farnsworth Peak; as with its sister FM stations, the station has an ERP of 25,000 watts. This, along with the characteristics and elevation of Farnsworth Peak allow KBER to be received in most of northern Utah the Wasatch Front. KBER official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KBER Radio-Locator information on KBER Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KBER


T-Force was the operational arm of a joint US Army-British Army mission to secure designated German scientific and industrial technology targets before they could be destroyed by retreating enemy forces or looters during the final stages of World War II and its immediate aftermath. Key personnel were to be seized, targets of opportunity exploited when encountered; the effort was a business and technology-oriented parallel of sorts to the Monuments Men pursuit of art and financial treasure. The program was designed to loot the defeated Germany's intellectual assets and impede its ability to compete in the postwar political and economic spheres while giving a boost to the nations conducting it. Though unacknowledged at the time, the T-Force mission included preventing advanced Nazi technology from falling into the hands of the Soviet Union—destroying whatever could not be seized and hauled away before Soviet troops arrived; as such, T-Force activities can be seen as the beginning of the Cold War.

Operations in Germany were heavy-handed, sometimes amounted to kidnapping. Publicly available information on the unit's activities remains scarce. Comprising some 3,000 "investigators" plus thousands more in entire attached battalions of infantry and combat engineers, T-Force activities were among the largest Allied "exploitation operations". T-Force was tasked with preventing damage to infrastructure such as telephone exchanges that would be useful to occupying forces and in the rebuilding of Germany. T-Force was established in connection with the Operation Overlord Allied invasion of Europe. "During the planning for the invasion SHAEF set up the T Sub-Division in G-2 to plan for intelligence exploitation of scientific and industrial targets. It was at first composed of five US and three British officers and thirteen enlisted men and women. In February 1945, on the eve of the advance into Germany, SHAEF created the Special Sections Subdivision to co-ordinate the operations of the T Subdivision and several other G-2 sections and subdivisions with related missions.

T Subdivision, had acquired a field element, the 6800 T Force, which would reach a 1,700-man strength in April and, with the addition of the GOLDCUP ministerial control parties, went well over 2,000. During May and June, the force put another 1,000 investigators into the field." T-Forces were ordered to "identify, secure and exploit valuable and special information, including documents and persons of value to the Allied armies". T-Force units were attached to the three army groups on the Western Front; the targets of the T-Force were selected and recommended by the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee. T-Force units were armed and mobile. British troops included two companies of the 1st Buckinghamshire Battalion, a territorial army battalion of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, along with the 5th Battalion King's Regiment. American units included both infantry and combat engineers, including the 1269th Engineer Combat Battalion. T-Force units accompanied combat units when capturing industrial plants, or arrived soon afterward to take control of them.

They had to prevent any looting or sabotaging in the plants, were responsible for ensuring that key personnel did not escape and no documents were removed. Once the T-Force took control of a plant, CIOS would be informed of it, investigators were sent there immediately. In practice, their methods were characteristically heavy-handed: "Their methods had echoes of the Gestapo: kidnapping at night by state officials who offered no evidence of identity." What couldn't be carried off was destroyed. An unknown number of victims were taken in the waning weeks of the war. Among the key activities of T-Force units was the Alsos Mission set up to seize key elements of the German nuclear energy project in southwestern Germany in the waning stages of World War II. A working experimental nuclear reactor, uranium ingots, heavy water, several dozen top atomic scientists and their staffs were seized, including Werner Heisenberg. On 5 May 1945, to deny the Soviet Union a warm-water port, a T-Force unit went into territory designated for conquest by the Red Army and seized Kiel.

By that time, in accordance with the terms of a surrender of German forces at Lüneburg Heath, Allied troops had been ordered not to move north past Bad Segeberg. Not knowing that this permission had been given in error, the T-Force moved into the city unopposed and took control of their assigned targets. A strong German force present in the city was reluctant to surrender when asked by the T-Force, until Admiral Karl Dönitz instructed them to do so. Aggressive actions such as Hibbert's on behalf of T-Force and the preemptive bombing of the Auergesellschaft atomic materials processing plant in Oranienburg can be seen as the beginning of the Cold War, which together with the scope and nature of how operations were carried out account for the continued scarcity of publicly available information on its role. In postwar Germany, T-Force was tasked with carrying out abductions of German scientists and businessmen. In addition, in a related program German businessmen are alleged to have been forced to travel to post-war Britain to be questioned by their commercial rivals, being interned if they refused to reveal trade secrets.

Such abductions not only helped cripple the German recovery and enabled Britain to use German technological knowledge in building up the British economy after the war, they denied

Bank Julius Baer v. WikiLeaks

Bank Julius Baer & Co. v. WikiLeaks, 535 F. Supp. 2d 980, was a lawsuit filed by Bank Julius Baer against the website WikiLeaks. In early February 2008, Judge Jeffrey White of the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California forced Dynadot, the domain registrar of, to disassociate the site's domain name records with its servers, preventing use of the domain name to reach the site. The bank only wanted the documents to be removed; the judge's actions roused media and cyber-liberties groups to defend WikiLeaks' rights under the First Amendment and brought renewed scrutiny to the documents the bank hoped to shield. The judge lifted the injunction and the bank dropped the case on 5 March 2008. In 2002, the bank learned that records pertaining to the arrangement of anonymizing trusts in the Cayman Islands for clients from 1997 to 2002 had been leaked, they interviewed the local employees with a polygraph as per company policy. The bank was unsatisfied with the answers of Cayman unit COO Rudolf Elmer, terminated his employment.

In June 2005, the leak was reported by the Swiss financial weekly Cash and the Wall Street Journal, though details of individual accounts were not reported on. In December 2007, Elmer released documents related to WikiLeaks regarding surveillance of him and his family; the next month, some of the leaked account data began appearing on WikiLeaks. Contributors to WikiLeaks allege that these provide evidence of asset hiding, money laundering and tax evasion. Ten account holders in the United States, Peru, Greece, Hong Kong, Switzerland have been identified so far on WikiLeaks. According to Daniel Schmitt's analysis for WikiLeaks, leaked account data exists from after the date that Elmer left the Caymans. On 16 January 2011, Elmer announced he would hand over offshore account details of 2,000 "high-net-worth individuals" to WikiLeaks, he would return to Switzerland from exile to face trial. Julius Baer says Elmer falsified the documents; the law firm representing Baer was Singer. The law firm representing Baer works in the entertainment industry in Los Angeles.

They got the injunction at a court in San Francisco - 450 miles from Los Angeles. They claimed to be acting, in part, to protect Baer's customers from having information about the customers become public, but one of the documents filed in court by Lavely and Singer identified one of the customers of interest by name as well as giving his street address. In January, Bank Julius Baer began sending cease & desist letters to WikiLeaks and its domain registrar, for the domain name, citing the DMCA. On 18 February 2008, Judge Jeffrey White of the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California issued a permanent injunction against Dynadot forcing it to "lock the domain name". Mirror sites, such as, were not affected. The text of the posted injunction stated that "immediate harm will result to Plaintiffs in the absence of injunctive relief", as is required for injunctions to be granted; the general assumption is that some leaked documents were alleged by the bank to be libellous, trade secrets, copyrighted, or otherwise prohibited for distribution, in a manner that would cause harm to it.

WikiLeaks had not sent a representative to the hearing. According to an editorial on the WikiLeaks website, Julius Baer had some communication with WikiLeaks before going to court to get the injunction, but did not inform WikiLeaks in which city it would seek the injunction and did not present to the court these email communications. A coincidental fire at the hosting company used by WikiLeaks, PRQ, centered in a high power supply regulator serving the majority of the data center, shut down and destroyed some sections of the specific DNS and dedicated hosting server racks used by WikiLeaks the same week; the Julius Baer lawsuit drew a great deal more negative attention than would the leaks alone, due to the Streisand effect. Julius Baer had got an injunction against WikiLeaks, prohibiting WikiLeaks from circulating the documents that Julius Baer wanted to suppress, without attracting significant attention from news media, but Julius Baer drew a huge amount of attention to itself by seeking and getting a second injunction imposing a measure that would suppress not only the information that Julius Baer considered embarrassing, but the entire WikiLeaks website consisting of all manner of documents presented as evidence of all manner of crimes - both in corporations and in governments, including human rights abuses - by many alleged criminals worldwide in cases having nothing to do with Julius Baer.

For example, the site has given exposure to evidence of human rights abuses in China and political corruption in Kenya. The WikiLeaks website claims to have 1.2 million documents that users have posted anonymously to provide evidence of incidents of wrongdoing that deserve public scrutiny. Only 14 of these documents were pertinent to the Julius Baer case; as well as backfiring in terms of the attention it attracted, the injunction could not be effective in suppressing the website anyway in that the alternate WikiLeaks domains were unaffected, WikiLeaks was still available directly by its IP address, To shut down these access methods, it would be necessary to pursue injunctions in the jurisdictions where they are registered, or where the servers reside, which are deliberately scattered to make this difficult. After the injunction was granted, it was challenged in a joint action by the following intervenors: Electronic Frontier Foundation American Civil Liberties Union Project on Government Ove