Watercolor or watercolour aquarelle, is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution. Watercolor refers to the resulting artwork. Aquarelles painted with water-soluble colored ink instead of modern water colors are called "aquarellum atramento" by experts. However, this term has been more passing out of use; the traditional and most common support—material to which the paint is applied—for watercolor paintings is paper. Other supports include papyrus, bark papers, vellum, fabric and canvas. Watercolor paper is made or with cotton; this gives the surface the appropriate texture and minimizes distortion when wet. Watercolors are translucent, appear luminous because the pigments are laid down in a pure form with few fillers obscuring the pigment colors. Watercolors can be made opaque by adding Chinese white. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to scroll painting. In Chinese and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium in monochrome black or browns using inkstick or other pigments.
India and other countries have long watercolor painting traditions as well. American artists in the early 19th century seemed to regard watercolor as a sketching tool in preparation for the "finished" work in oil or engraving. Watercolor painting is old, dating to the cave paintings of paleolithic Europe, has been used for manuscript illustration since at least Egyptian times but in the European Middle Ages. However, its continuous history as an art medium begins with the Renaissance; the German Northern Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer, who painted several fine botanical and landscape watercolors, is considered among the earliest exponents of watercolor. An important school of watercolor painting in Germany was led by Hans Bol as part of the Dürer Renaissance. Despite this early start, watercolors were used by Baroque easel painters only for sketches, copies or cartoons. Notable early practitioners of watercolor painting were Van Dyck, Claude Lorrain, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, many Dutch and Flemish artists.
However, botanical illustration and wildlife illustration form the oldest and most important traditions in watercolor painting. Botanical illustrations became popular during the Renaissance, both as hand-tinted woodblock illustrations in books or broadsheets and as tinted ink drawings on vellum or paper. Botanical artists have traditionally been some of the most exacting and accomplished watercolor painters, today, watercolors—with their unique ability to summarize and idealize in full color—are used to illustrate scientific and museum publications. Wildlife illustration reached its peak in the 19th century with artists such as John James Audubon, today many naturalist field guides are still illustrated with watercolor paintings. Several factors contributed to the spread of watercolor painting during the 18th century in England. Among the elite and aristocratic classes, watercolor painting was one of the incidental adornments of a good education. Watercolor artists were brought with the geological or archaeological expeditions, funded by the Society of Dilettanti, to document discoveries in the Mediterranean and the New World.
These expeditions stimulated the demand for topographical painters, who churned out memento paintings of famous sites along the Grand Tour to Italy, undertaken by every fashionable young man of the time. In the late 18th century, the English cleric William Gilpin wrote a series of hugely popular books describing his picturesque journeys throughout rural England, illustrated them with self-made sentimentalized monochrome watercolors of river valleys, ancient castles, abandoned churches; this example popularized watercolors as a form of personal tourist journal. The confluence of these cultural, scientific and amateur interests culminated in the celebration and promotion of watercolor as a distinctly English "national art". William Blake published several books of hand-tinted engraved poetry, provided illustrations to Dante's Inferno, he experimented with large monotype works in watercolor. Among the many other significant watercolorists of this period were Thomas Gainsborough, John Robert Cozens, Francis Towne, Michael Angelo Rooker, William Pars, Thomas Hearne, John Warwick Smith.
From the late 18th century through the 19th century, the market for printed books and domestic art contributed to the growth of the medium. Watercolors were used as the basic document from which collectible landscape or tourist engravings were developed, hand-painted watercolor originals or copies of famous paintings contributed to many upper class art portfolios. Satirical broadsides by Thomas Rowlandson, many published by Rudolph Ackermann, were extremely popular; the three English artists credited with establishing watercolor as an independent, mature painting medium are Paul Sandby called the "father of the English watercolor".
Ouxpo is an acronym for "Ouvroir d'X Potentielle". It is an umbrella group for Oulipo, Outrapo, etc; the term'ouvroir' used in conjunction with works of charity, was reused by Raymond Queneau for a blend of'ouvroir' and'œuvre' and corresponds to the English'workshop'. The term'potentiel' is used in the sense of that "which is possible, or realisable if one follows certain rules". Created within the Collège de'Pataphysique in 1960, Oulipo is now better known than the college itself and has survived the decline of the college. In accordance with the wishes of François Le Lionnais and Raymond Queneau, other Ouvroirs d'X Potentielle have been spun off from Oulipo for all the arts; each ouvroir is dedicated to some field'X'. It analyses the pre-existing constraints, investigates new forms of potential creations within the field; the job of coordinating the ouvroirs was given first to François Le Lionnais Noël Arnaud, Milie von Bariter. After 1960-11-24 when Oulipo was created, thirteen years passed before the appearance of Oulipopo in 1973, twenty years before Oupeinpo in 1980, 31 years before Outrapo in 1991, the first ouvroir to be created without François Le Lionnais.
Since a new ouvroir has arisen every year. A list of some Ouxpo groups: Oubapo, Oumapo, Oulipo, Oulipolipo, Ou'inpo, Oupypo, Oupolpot, Oucarpo and Oucipo were created early, but the dates are uncertain and these ouvroirs experienced multiple births. In fact, many Oumupo seem to co-exist. Oucuipo was created from a fringe activity of Oulipo. Ougrapo wants to remain independent of Ouxpo; some lists mention both an Oupornpo. Others, some parodies of ouvroirs, include Outyppo, Oumapo, Oupipo, Ouecopo — but these do not appear to be either authentic or members of Ou-X-Po. There exists an Oucopo, an Ougéopo, an Oujapo, an Ououpo; the notion of an Ouflarfpo has recently been theorized as a means of resolving some of the aesthetic and political tensions between flarf and conceptual poetry. Interview with Milie von Bariter Outrapist workplan Oubapo america Oubapo UK Ougrapo websiteThe following are French language sites: Ou-X-Po, OuXPo or Ouxpo. OuAniPo
Harald Quandt was a German industrialist, the son of industrialist Günther Quandt and Magda Behrend Rietschel. His parents divorced and his mother was married to Joseph Goebbels. After World War II, Quandt and his older half-brother Herbert Quandt ran the industrial empire, left to them by their father and that continues today, the family owning a stake in Germany's luxury car manufacturer BMW. Harald Quandt was born in Charlottenburg, the son of industrialist Günther Quandt and Magdalena Behrend Rietschel who had married in 1921. Although the couple divorced in 1929, they remained on friendly terms. Magda married Joseph Goebbels at a property owned by Günther Quandt. Adolf Hitler was Goebbels' best man. After his mother's remarriage, Quandt remained with his father, who became a prominent business leader in Nazi Germany, he paid regular visits to his mother, who had become "the First Lady of the Third Reich", to his stepfather, minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda from 1933. After 1934, he returned to his mother and lived with the Goebbels family until passing his school-leaving examination in 1940.
Residing with his adopted family, he raised several eyebrows by supporting the sloganeering of the Indian politician Subhash Chandra Bose. He served as a lieutenant in the Luftwaffe during World War II, he took part in the Battle of Crete in 1941 and fought in Russia and Italy, where he was injured. In 1944, he was captured by Allied troops in Italy. Magda and Joseph Goebbels committed suicide after killing their six children on 1 May 1945. Harald was the only one of Magda's children to survive. Quandt married Inge Bandekow, the daughter of the company's lawyer and worked as a secretary with her father, at the beginning of the 1950s. In the following 17 years, the couple had five daughters: Katarina Geller, Gabriele Quandt-Langenscheidt, Anette May-Thies, Colleen-Bettina Rosenblat-Mo and Patricia Halterman. However, Quandt had the reputation of being a “committed playboy". After returning to Germany, he first assisted his half-brother in re-building the family firms, from 1949 to 1953 studied mechanical engineering in Hanover and Stuttgart, where his family owned large firms.
His father died in 1954, leaving his empire jointly to Herbert and Harald, making Harald one of the wealthiest men in West Germany. By the Quandt group consisted of more than 200 companies, ranging from the original textile businesses to pharmaceutical company Altana AG; the family holdings included large stakes in the German auto industry with nearly 10% of Daimler-Benz and 30% of BMW. Although Herbert and Harald jointly managed the companies, Herbert focused on AFA/VARTA and the automotive investments, while Harald was in charge of IWKA and the engineering and tooling companies. Harald was an enthusiast of the amphibious vehicle known as the Amphicar, manufactured by IWKA, his death was a factor in the ceasing of production of the Amphicar. He survived an aviation accident at Zurich International Airport but died in 1967 when another of his aircraft crashed in Cuneo, Italy. Harald Quandt's five daughters inherited about 1.5 billion deutsche marks and would increase their wealth through the Harald Quandt Holding GmbH, a Germany-based family investment company and trust named after their father.
Today, they share a fortune worth at least $6 billion. The Hanns-Joachim-Friedrichs-Award winning documentary film The Silence of the Quandts by the German public broadcaster ARD described in October 2007 the role of the Quandt family businesses during the Second World War; the family's Nazi past was not well known, but the documentary film revealed this to a wide audience and confronted the Quandts about the use of slave labourers in the family's factories during World War II. As a result, five days after the showing, four family members announced, on behalf of the entire Quandt family, their intention to fund a research project in which a historian will examine the family's activities during Adolf Hitler's dictatorship; the independent 1,200-page study released in 2011 concluded that, "The Quandts were linked inseparably with the crimes of the Nazis," according to Joachim Scholtyseck, the historian who compiled and researched the study. Secret Meeting of 20 February 1933 List of people whose parent committed suicide Notes Further reading Jungbluth, Rüdiger, Die Quandts: Ihr leiser Aufstieg zur mächtigsten Wirtschaftsdynastie Deutschlands, ISBN 3-404-61550-6, ISBN 3-593-36940-0 Sander, Ulrich, Mörderisches Finale – NS-Verbrechen bei Kriegsende, Cologne: Neue Kleine Bibliothek Nr.
129, ISBN 978-3-89438-388-6 The Silence of the Quandts - Das Schweigen der Quandts on IMDb
Raja Sourindra Mohun Tagore or Sourindro Mohun Tagore CIE was a Bengali musicologist who came from an upper-class family from Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. He published extensively on the topics, he founded the Bengal Music Bengal Academy of Music. A staunch supporter of the British Empire and its agencies in India, he was commissioned to set Indian translations of God Save the Queen to Indian tunes. Sourindro was the son of Hara Kumar Tagore and a younger brother of Jotindro Mohun Tagore belonging to the Pathuriaghata branch of the Tagore family, his family owned extensive lands including the battleground of Plassey and the pilgrimage site Ganga Sagar. He studied at the European-model Hindu College in Calcutta and took an interest in music, both Indian and western, he published a book on music at the age of fifteen, developed a system of musical notation for Indian music and set up the first Indian music orchestra in Calcutta. He donated many to museums across the world, he received an honorary Doctorate of Music from Oxford.
In 1877 the declaration of Queen Victoria as Empress of India led to the creation of the national anthem of "God Save the Queen". In 1882 a National Anthem Committee was created at the suggestion of Francis Harford. In 1883 he wrote On the Good That May Result to England and India from the Establishment of "God Save the Queen" as a National Anthem in Her Majesty's Eastern Empire. A translation of the wording of the anthem was made by Mirza Mohammed Bakir Khan of Bishop's College, Calcutta into Arabic and Persian; these were further translated into many other Indian languages. The problem of singing the anthem in a style that would suit Indian musical taste was however vexing and the committee chose the foremost authority on Indian music to help- "a letter will be forwarded to Dr. Sourindro Mohan Tagore, of Calcutta, the principal authority upon Hindu music, requesting him to secure the services of the best native composer, a melody which shall at once suit Oriental taste and the measure of the translated hymn."
The idea was supported by others like Sir Henry Rawlinson. Sourindra Mohun produced no less than twelve different variations of the anthem based on lum jhijhiti and nagara kirtana styles. In one variant he chose rag sahana which he claimed was the "favourite melody of the Mahomedan Emperors of India." Tagore claimed that Indians always supported rule by Kings and he published a book, Hindu Loyalty, with extracts from old Sanskrit sources on the need for rule by Kings. He dedicated the book to Augustus Rivers Thompson and supported the ideas of Canon Harford that the anthem would help earn loyalty, it has been noted that a major motivation for Sourindra Mohun to work with the National Anthem Committee was to align his family and social group with that of the colonial rulers. He set some poems by Lord Lytton to Indian tunes in A Few Lyrics Of Owen Meredith Set to Hindu Music, with Added Words and Signs Noting the Two-Part Form of the Tune in Hindustani Music and a Tal Pattern, he published on The Caste System of the Hindus and noted its antiquity and justified its role in Indian society.
Among Sourindra's published works was a translation of Kalidasa's Malavikagnimitra. He founded the Bengal Music School in 1871 and the Bengal Academy of Music in 1881, he was made Fellow of the University of Calcutta and a Companion of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire in 1880 apart from being given the title of Raja. He was decorated Knight Commander of the Royal Order of the Crown of Italy and several other Royal recognitions from Sweden, Netherlands and Austria. In 1877, he made an initiative to renew musical ties with Japan by sending three musical instruments to the Emperor Mutsuhito of the Meiji Era to help bring the musical traditions of two nations together. Musica instruments donated to the Metropolitan Museum Bharatiya Natya Rahasya: Treatise on Indian Drama The Caste System of the Hindus Victoria-Giti-Mala. Yantra Kosha or a Treasury of musical instruments of ancient and of modern India, of various other countries English Verses set to Hindu Music in Honor of his Royal Highness The Prince of Wales Six principal rágas, with a brief view of Hindu music Hindu Music from Various Authors.
2nd edition A few lyrics of Owen Meredith The Orders of Knighthood and Foreign, with a brief review of the titles of rank and merit in Ancient Hindustan Mani-mala or A treatise on Gems. Part II; the Ten Principal Avataras Of The Hindus Fifty Tunes - dedicated to Ashley Eden. Hindu Loyalty: A presentation of the views and opinions of the Sanskrit authorities on the subject of loyalty Jātīya saṇgīta vīṣayaka prastāva
Divna M. Vuksanović is a Serbian philosopher, media theorist and the president of the Aesthetic Society of Serbia, she graduated from the Department of Performing and organizing cultural and artistic activities of the Faculty of Dramatic Arts in 1988 and the Department of Philosophy, University of Belgrade in 1992. He holds MA in theater studies and Doctor of Philosophy of Science in the field of contemporary philosophy and aesthetics, she has published four scientific studies: Baroque spirit in modern philosophy: Benjamin, Bloch, 2001 Aesthetica Minima, 2004 Philosophy Media: Ontology, criticism Philosophy media 2: Ontology, criticism. She edited the book: The media for the book - book for the media, 2008. Three thematic collections of the Aesthetic Society of Serbia: The aesthetics and art criticism, 2004. What is aesthetics? Art culture Thematic Issue Culture: Cultural Identities cities, 2009. Culture rhythms and spectacle, 2010; the philosophy of the media, 2012. Reviews Postmoderna i fenomen sinkretizacije žanrova u jugoslovenskom pozorištu do 1991.
Godine, magistarski rad iz teatrologije, 1993. Barokni duh u savremenoj filozofiji: Benjamin, Bloh, doktorska disertacija, Čigoja, Beograd. 2001. ISBN 86-80269-47-6. Aesthetica Minima, Zograf, Niš. 2004. ISBN 86-7578-091-5. Filozofija medija: ontologija, kritika, monografija, 1. Tom, Čigoja, Beograd. 2007. ISBN 978-86-82101-30-7. Filozofija medija: ontologija, kritika, 2. Tom, Fakultet dramskih umetnosti, Institut za pozorište, radio i televiziju, Čigoja, Beograd. 2011. ISBN 978-86-82101-41-3 Faculty of Dramatic Arts / Teachers Interview
Lyndon Ambrose Smith was an American educator and Republican politician who served as the 14th Attorney General and the 15th Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota. Smith was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire in 1854, his father Ambrose Smith was congregational pastor. Smith attended Dartmouth College and served as the superintendent of schools in Norwich, Vermont while in school, he graduated as valedictorian in 1880. He worked with the National Commissioner of Education and as the superintendent of the World Cotton Centennial's educational department, he earned a law degree at Georgetown University Law Center. In 1885 Smith moved to Minnesota, settling in Montevideo and establishing a law practice. In 1886, he married Dora Rogers, a teacher from Maine. Together they had a daughter Charlotte. Smith's political career began in 1889 when he was elected attorney for Minnesota, he served only one term but was elected Lieutenant Governor under Republican John Lind in 1899 and re-elected under his successor Samuel Van Sant in 1901.
He returned to the position of Chippewa County attorney from 1903 to 1909 when he was appointed as assistant state Attorney General. Smith ran for the office of Attorney General as a Republican, winning his first term in 1912 and re-election in 1914 and 1916. Smith died while in office on March 5, 1918, he is buried in Orchard Grove Cemetery in Maine. 1912 Race for Attorney General Lyndon A. Smith 84,816 Thomas Fraser 56,137 1912 Race for Attorney General Lyndon A. Smith 166,950 William F. Donohue 83,997 J. H. Morse 27,140 1914 Race for Attorney General Lyndon A. Smith 104,653 James Manahan 76,110 1914 Race for Attorney General Lyndon A. Smith 195,372 Neil M. Cronin 94,025 August V. Rieke 16,736 1916 Race for Attorney General Lyndon A. Smith 263,285