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Waterton Lakes National Park

Waterton Lakes National Park is a national park located in the southwest corner of Alberta, Canada. It borders Glacier National Park in United States. Waterton was the fourth Canadian national park, formed in 1895 and named after Waterton Lake, in turn after the Victorian naturalist and conservationist Charles Waterton, its range is between prairies. This park contains 505 km2 of rugged mountains and wilderness. Operated by Parks Canada, Waterton is open all year, but the main tourist season is during July and August; the only commercial facilities available within the park are located at the Waterton Park townsite. This park ranges in elevation from 1,290 metres at the townsite to 2,910 m at Mount Blakiston, it offers many scenic trails, including Crypt Lake trail. In 2012/2013, Waterton Lakes National Park had 402,542 visitors; the park was the subject of a short film in 2011's National Parks Project, directed by Peter Lynch and scored by Cadence Weapon, Laura Barrett and Mark Hamilton. In 1932, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was formed from Glacier.

It was dedicated to world peace by Sir Charles Arthur Mander on behalf of Rotary International. Although this park has a lot of diversity for its size, the main highlight is the lakes which are deeper than any other lake elsewhere in Canada, they are overlooked by the historic Prince of Wales Hotel National Historic Site. In September 2017, a large forest fire forced the evacuation of the park; the fire burned through 200 km2 of the park, destroying the visitor centre and other buildings. Some 80% of hiking trails were affected and several remained closed for the 2018 season. Animals that inhabit this national park include wolverines, bighorn sheep, bald eagles, white-tailed deer, mule deer, mountain goats, moose, timber wolves, coyotes, river otters, lynxes, snowshoe hares, hoary marmots, grizzly bears and black bears. In 1979, Waterton and bordering Glacier National park in the US were designated as World Biosphere reserves, preserving mountains, prairie and freshwater wetlands ecosystems. Habitats represented in the parks' range include: prairie grasslands, aspen grove forests, alpine tundra/high meadows, lower subalpine forests and coniferous forests.

The park is part of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, designated as World Heritage Site in 1995 for their distinctive climate, physiographic setting, mountain-prairie interface, tri-ocean hydrographical divide. They are areas of significant scenic values with abundant and diverse fauna. List of National Parks of Canada List of parks in Alberta List of trails in Alberta List of mountains in Alberta List of waterfalls of Alberta Waterton Lakes National Park Map Highlighting Park's Boundaries Pure Experience: Waterton Lakes National Park

Social medicine

The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through understanding how social and economic conditions impact health and the practice of medicine and fostering conditions in which this understanding can lead to a healthier society. Social medicine as a scientific field began in the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and the subsequent increase in poverty and disease among workers raised concerns about the effect of social processes on the health of the poor; the field of social medicine is most addressed today by public health efforts to understand what are known as social determinants of health. The major emphasis on biomedical science in medical education, health care, medical research has resulted into a gap with our understanding and acknowledgement of far more important social determinants of public health and individual disease: social-economic inequalities, illiteracy, detrimental life-styles, discrimination because of race and religion. Farmer et al. gave the following explanation for this gap:'The holy grail of modern medicine remains the search for a molecular basis of disease.

While the practical yield of such circumscribed inquiry has been enormous, exclusive focus on molecular-level phenomena has contributed to the increasing "desocialization" of scientific inquiry: a tendency to ask only biological questions about what are in fact biosocial phenomena.' They further concluded that'Biosocial understandings of medical phenomena are urgently needed'. Social care traditionally takes a different look at issues of impairment and disability by adopting a holistic perspective on health; the social model was developed as a direct response to the medical model, the social model sees barriers not just as a biomedical issue, but as caused in part by the society we live in – as a product of the physical and social worlds that lead to discrimination. Social care advocates equality of opportunities for vulnerable sections of society. German physician Rudolf Virchow laid foundations for this model. Other prominent figures in the history of social medicine, beginning from the 20th century, include Salvador Allende, Henry E. Sigerist, Thomas McKeown, Victor W. Sidel, Howard Waitzkin, more Paul Farmer and Jim Yong Kim.

In The Second Sickness, Howard Waitzkin traces the history of social medicine from Engels, through Virchow, through Allende. Waitzkin has sought to educate North Americans about the contributions of Latin American Social Medicine. In 1976, the British public health scientist and health care critic, Thomas McKeown, MD, published The role of medicine: Dream, mirage or nemesis?, wherein he summarized facts and arguments that supported what became known as the McKeown's thesis, i.e. that the growth of population can be attributed to a decline in mortality from infectious diseases thanks to better nutrition also to better hygiene, only marginally and late to medical interventions such as antibiotics and vaccines. McKeown was criticized for his controversial ideas, but is nowadays remembered as'the founder of social medicine'. BibliographySocial Medicine: http://journals.sfu.ca/socialmedicine/index.php/socialmedicine/index Social Medicine Portal: http://www.socialmedicine.org/ Porter D. "How Did Social Medicine Evolve, Where Is It Heading?".

PLoS Med. 3: e399. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030399. PMC 1621092. PMID 17076552. Matthew R. Anderson, Lanny Smith, Victor W. Sidel. What is Social Medicine? Monthly Review: 56. Http://www.monthlyreview.org/0105anderson.htm King NMP, Strauss RP, Churchill LR, Estroff SE, Henderson GE, et al. editors Patients and illness. Volume I: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Henderson GE, Estroff SE, Churchill LR, King NMP, Oberlander J, et al. editors Social and cultural contributions to health and inequality. Volume II: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Oberlander J, Churchill LR, Estroff SE, Henderson GE, King NMP, et al. editors Health policy and medicine. Volume III: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Porter D, Porter R. "What was social medicine? An historiographical essay". J Hist Sociol. 1: 90–106. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.1988.tb00005.x. PMID 11617341. Stonington S, Holmes SM. "Social medicine in the twenty-first century".

PLoS Med. 3: e445. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030445. PMC 1621097. PMID 17523252. Introduction to the journal: Social Medicine What is social medicine

Latin declension

Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case and gender. Nouns and adjectives are declined, a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are grouped by ending and grammatical gender; each noun follows one of the five declensions. Adjectives are of two kinds: those like bonus, bonum'good' use first-declension endings for the feminine, second-declension for masculine and neuter. Other adjectives such as celer, celere belong to the third declension. There are no fourth- or fifth-declension adjectives. Pronouns are of two kinds, the personal pronouns such as ego'I' and tū'you', which have their own irregular declension, the third-person pronouns such as hic'this' and ille'that' which can be used either as pronouns or adjectivally; these latter decline in a similar way to the first and second noun declensions, but there are differences. The cardinal numbers ūnus'one', duo'two', trēs'three' have their own declensions, there are numeral adjectives such as bīnī'a pair, two each', which decline like ordinary adjectives.

A complete Latin noun declension consists of up to seven grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, dative and locative. However, the locative is limited to few nouns: names of cities, small islands and a few other words; the case names are abbreviated to the first three letters. The grammarian Aelius Donatus, whose work was used as standard throughout the Middle Ages, placed the cases in this order: casus sunt sex: nominativus, dativus, vocativus, ablativus. "There are six cases: nominative, dative, accusative and ablative."This order was based on the order used by earlier Greek grammarians, with the addition of the ablative, which does not exist in Greek. The names of the cases were translated from the Greek terms, such as accusativus from the Greek αἰτιατική; the traditional order was used in England, for example in The School and University Eton Latin Grammar. and it is still used in Germany and most European countries. Gildersleeve and Lodge's Latin Grammar of 1895 follows this order. More recent American grammars, such as Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar and Wheelock's Latin, use this order but with the vocative at the end.

However, in Britain and countries influenced by Britain, the Latin cases are given in the following order: nominative, accusative, dative, ablative. This order was first introduced in Benjamin Hall Kennedy's Latin Primer, with the aim of making tables of declensions easier to recite and memorise, it is used in France and Belgium. Syncretism, where one form in a paradigm shares the ending of another form in the paradigm, is common in Latin; the following are the most notable patterns of syncretism: For pure Latin neuter nouns, the nominative singular, vocative singular, accusative singular are identical. The vocative form is always the same as the nominative in the plural, the same as the nominative in the singular except for second-declension masculine nouns ending in -us and a few nouns of Greek origin. For example, the vocative of the first-declension Aenēās is Aenēā; the genitive singular is the same as the nominative plural in first-, second-, fourth-declension masculine and feminine pure Latin nouns.

The dative singular is the same as the genitive singular in first- and fifth-declension pure Latin nouns. The dative is always the same as the ablative in the singular in the second declension, the third-declension full i-stems, fourth-declension neuters; the dative and locative are always identical in the plural. The locative is identical to the ablative in the fifth declensions. Old Latin had two patterns of endings. One pattern was shared by the first and second declensions, which derived from the Proto-Indo-European thematic declension; the other pattern was used by the third and fifth declensions, derived from the athematic PIE declension. There are two principal parts for Latin nouns: the genitive singular; each declension can be unequivocally identified by the ending of the genitive singular. The stem of the noun can be identified by the form of the genitive singular as well. There are five declensions for Latin nouns: Nouns of this declension end in -a in the nominative singular and are feminine, e.g. via, viae f. and aqua, aquae f..

There is a small class of masculine exceptions referring to occupations, e.g. poēta, poētae m. agricola, agricolae m. and nauta, nautae m.. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is a; the nominative singular form consists of the stem and the ending -a, the genitive singular form is the stem plus -ae. The locative endings for the first declension are -ae and -īs, similar to the genitive singular and ablative plural, as in mīlitiae'in war' and Athēnīs'at Athens'; the first declension includes three types of Greek loanwords, derived from Ancient Greek's alpha declens