Watford DC line
The Watford DC line is a commuter railway line from London Euston to Watford Junction in Watford, Hertfordshire. Its services are operated by London Overground; the line runs beside the West Coast Main Line for most of its length. The London Underground Bakerloo line shares the section of the line from Queen's Park to Harrow & Wealdstone; the rolling stock used on the line is Class 378 "Capitalstar". The "DC" in the title refers to line being electrified using direct current; this was done in the early twentieth century with conductor rails. By contrast the WCML uses overhead alternating current. Services on this line began when London and North Western Railway completed the Camden to Watford Junction new line in 1912, to provide additional suburban capacity and more outer-suburban services running non-stop to Euston, it incorporated part of the LNWR Rickmansworth branch between Watford Junction and Watford High Street Junction and part of the original slow main line between Queen's Park and South Hampstead stations.
Prior to 1912, at which time the entire route was electrified, services were steam operated. Although the operation of the line is self-contained, connections at Watford Junction and Camden allow other trains onto it, a facility used with trains diverted from the West Coast Main Line should an alternative diversionary route be not available; the line opened with conventional semaphore signalling mechanically operated from signal boxes at each station. The London and Scottish Railway introduced an automatic electric signalling system in the early 1930s over most of the route and some signal boxes were abolished. A similar system was used for a shorter period between Bromley-by-Bow and Upminster now part of the District line; the closely spaced mix of automatic and semi-automatic signals, repeater signals, auxiliary calling-on aspects was intended to let trains to proceed, after a set delay, at low speed past "failed" signals on track with no junctions without the need to contact a signalman, but this could lead to a nose-to-tail queue of trains as they all reached the location of a real line blockage.
Train stops were provided to allow London Electric Railway trains to operate over the line without the special provision of a second man. Signal boxes remaining in use in the early 1970s included: Kilburn High Road Queens Park No.3 Willesden New Station Stonebridge Power House Harrow No.2Normally Kilburn High Road and Stonebridge Power House which controlled only plain track with crossovers were switched out and only Queens Park and Harrow boxes were staffed for at least part of the day, to deal with junction and siding traffic. In the early 1980s manual control of signalling was needed for a few months after dragging gear on a train destroyed many electric train-stops which were of a design confined to this line. By this time the signal boxes at Stonebridge Power House and Kilburn High Road had been abolished. Emergency crossovers at other locations were controlled by ground frames enclosed in structures the size of a garden shed. In 1988 the LMS system was replaced by a more standard system controlled from a new signal box, Willesden Suburban, the remaining local boxes were abolished.
The new system had solid far fewer signals. In the early 1960s there were headways of less than 2 minutes between Harrow & Wealdstone and Willesden Junction stations, the section of line used by nearly all services. In the early 2000s Willesden Suburban was closed and control passed to Wembley Main Line Signalling Centre; the original electrification was on a fourth rail system, similar to that now used by London Underground, which allowed LER trains to use the new line. Power was supplied from the railway's own power station at Stonebridge Park until the 1960s when it was closed, after which it has been obtained from public supplies; as installed, there was provision for interconnection of the high voltage section of the power station to adjacent public supplies for output or intake but this ceased when national supplies were standardised at 50 Hz. In the late 1950s, the original electric multiple units built for the line were replaced by new Class 501 rolling stock; these were in turn displaced in the mid 1980s by Class 313 units.
The line is now operated by London Overground Class 378 "Capitalstar" units. In the 1970s, the track and the rolling stock used on this line and the North London Line were changed to use a modified version of the BR standard third rail system, with the fourth rail left in place on the sections of line shared with LU Bakerloo line trains. North of Harrow & Wealdstone, now the limit of LU operation, the fourth rail has in most places been dropped onto the sleepers and remains bonded, thus leaving the resistance of the current return path unaltered; the fourth rail remains in the normal position from Queens Park to Kilburn High Road up platform, wh
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Watford (UK Parliament constituency)
Watford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Richard Harrington, a member of the Conservative Party. Before the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 the area was part of the three-seat constituency of Hertfordshire. Upon this act, it took up the western division of the county. Political historyThe seat has been a bellwether of the national result since February 1974, since 1945 has only voted against the winning party twice: in 1951 and 1970. Watford saw considerable Liberal Democrat opposition in 2005, achieving second place, taking many Labour votes with the Conservative candidate close behind. Before the 2010 general election it was a three-way marginal seat in which local Tories, Labour supporters and Liberal Democrats aimed to garner support for their candidate; this election in Watford was won by Richard Harrington with 34.9% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats narrowly missed out on the seat with 32.4% of the vote and the defeat for Labour's candidate, Claire Ward, was a pronounced change with 26.7% of the vote.
In 2015, the result saw a increased majority for Harrington of more than 9,000 votes over Labour, whilst the Liberal Democrats fell back to third. The 2017 election saw Labour cut the Conservative majority to 2,092. Prominent frontbenchersDennis Herbert was Deputy Speaker from 1931 to 1943. Major John Freeman was only a third-tier minister in the War Office as MP, his unusually prominent positions in diplomacy led to his being appointed a member of the Privy Council and thereby being Rt Hon as of 1966. Tristan Garel-Jones was Minister for Europe for three years of the Major ministry. Both Herbert and Garel-Jones opted as peers in life to use Watford as the territorial designation of their peerages. Watford has a considerable service sector economy, with several notable headquarters, engineering, trade-craft and distribution in its economy, however is a commuter town to the City of London. British Waterways, J D Wetherspoon, Camelot Group, manufacturers of commercial vehicles; the borough is the UK base of many multinationals including C. H. Robinson, Total Oil, TK Maxx, Costco and Beko appliances.
International golf tournaments such as the 2006 World Golf Championship have taken place at The Grove hotel. Workless claimants who were registered jobseekers were in November 2012 lower than the national average of 3.8%, at 3.0% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian. 1885–1918: Parts of the Sessional Division of Watford and Dacorum. The constituency was established by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 as one of four Divisions of the abolished three-member Parliamentary County of Hertfordshire, was formally named as the Western or Watford Division of Hertfordshire, it included the towns of Watford, Hemel Hempstead and Tring. 1918–1950: The Urban Districts of Bushey, Chorleywood and Watford, the Rural District of Watford parishes of Aldenham, Rickmansworth Rural and Watford Rural. Aldenham transferred from St Albans. Northern half of constituency, including Hemel Hempstead and Tring transferred to the new Hemel Hempstead Division. 1950–1983: Reconstituted as a Borough Constituency comprising the Municipal Borough of Watford.
Remainder of the constituency formed the bulk of the new County Constituency of South West Hertfordshire. 1983–1997: The Borough of Watford, the District of Three Rivers wards of Abbots Langley and Leavesden, the District of St Albans wards of Park Street and St Stephens. Abbots Langley and Leavesden transferred from South West Hertfordshire and Park Street and St Stephens from the abolished County Constituency of South Hertfordshire. 1997–present: The Borough of Watford, the District of Three Rivers wards of Abbots Langley, Carpenders Park, Langleybury and Oxhey Hall. Three wards further wards in the Three Rivers District transferred from South West Hertfordshire. Park Street and St Stephens transferred to St Albans; the constituency comprises the whole of the Borough of Watford, together with five wards from Three Rivers District. Two of the Three Rivers wards, Carpenders Park and Oxhey Hall, are to the south of Watford town and include prosperous, commuter villages; the remaining three, Abbots Langley and Leavesden, are to the north of Watford, the first of, a large village, is mixed in character and levels of income.
The Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies in September 2018. If these proposals are approved by Parliament they will reduce the total number of MPs from 650 to 600 and come into effect at the next UK general election, due to take place in May 2022 under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011; the Commission has recommended that Abbotts Langley and Leavesden, together with the northern-most Borough of Watford ward of Woodside, be transferred to St Albans. To compensate, South Oxhey, to the south of Watford, would be transferred from South West Hertfordshire. Background to Conservative candidatesIn July 2007 former candidate Ali Miraj, a candidate for Aberavon in 2001, was dropped from the candidates list by the Conservative party after he complained about David Cameron's leadership style and demanded a peerage; the public selected his former campaign manage
Berkhamsted is a historic market town close to the western boundary of Hertfordshire, England. It is situated in the small Bulbourne valley in the Chiltern Hills, 26 miles northwest of London; the town is a civil parish with a town council within the borough of Dacorum, based at the much larger town of Hemel Hempstead. Berkhamsted and the adjoining village of Northchurch are surrounded by countryside, much of it classified as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the high street is on a pre-Roman route known by its Saxon name Akeman Street. The earliest written reference to Berkhamsted was in 970, it was recorded as a burbium in the Domesday Book in 1086. The oldest known extant jettied timber-framed building in Great Britain, built between 1277 and 1297, survives as a shop on the town's high street. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the town was a wool trading town, with a thriving local market. In the 21st century, Berkhamsted has evolved into an affluent commuter town; the most notable event in the town's history occurred in December 1066.
After William the Conqueror defeated King Harold's Anglo-Saxon army at the Battle of Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon leadership surrendered to the Norman encampment at Berkhamsted. The event was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. From 1066 to 1495, Berkhamsted Castle was a favoured residence of royalty and notable historical figures, including Henry II, the Black Prince, Thomas Becket and Geoffrey Chaucer. After the castle was abandoned in 1495, the town went into decline, losing its borough status in the second half of the 17th century. Modern Berkhamsted began to expand after the railway were built in the 19th century. Colonel Daniel Axtell, captain of the Parliamentary Guard at the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649, was among those born in Berkhamsted; the town's literary connections include the 17th century hymnist and poet William Cowper, the 18th century writer Maria Edgeworth, the 20th century novelist Graham Greene. The town is the location of Berkhamsted School, a co-educational boarding independent school, Ashlyns School a state school whose history began as the Foundling Hospital established in London by Thomas Coram in 1742.
It is the home of the Rex independent cinema, the British Film Institute's BFI National Archive at King's Hill, one of the largest film and television archives in the world, endowed by J. Paul Getty, Jr; the earliest recorded spelling of the town's name is the 10th century Anglo-Saxon Beorhðanstædæ. The first part may have originated from either the Old English words beorg, meaning "hill", or berc or beorc, meaning "birch"; the latter part, "hamsted", derives from the Old English word for homestead. So the town's name could be either mean "homestead amongst the hills" or the "homestead among the birches". Through history spellings of the town's name have changed. Local historian Rev John Wolstenholme Cobb identified over 50 different versions of the town's name since the writing of the Domesday Book The present spelling was adopted in 1937; the town's local nickname is "Berko". Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman artefacts show that the Berkhamsted area of the Bulbourne Valley has been settled for over 5,000 years.
The discovery of a large number of worked flint chips provides Neolithic evidence of on-site flint knapping in the centre of Berkhamsted. Several settlements dating from the Neolithic to the Iron Age have been discovered south of Berkhamsted. Three sections of a late Bronze Age to Iron Age bank and ditch, sixteen feet wide by seven to thirteen feet high and known as Grim's Ditch, are found on the south side of the Bulbourne Valley. Another Iron Age dyke with the same name is on the north side of the valley. In the late Iron Age, before the Roman occupation, the valley would have been within Catuvellauni territory; the Bulbourne Valley was rich in iron ore. In the late Iron Age, a four-square-mile area around Northchurch became a major iron production centre, now considered to be one of the most important late Iron Age and Roman industrial areas in England. Iron production led to the settlement of a Roman town at Cow Roast, about two miles northwest of Berkhamsted. Four Roman first century AD iron smelting bloomeries at Dellfield provide evidence of industrial activity in Berkhamsted.
Production ceased at the end of the Roman period. Other evidence of Roman-British occupation and activity in the Berkhamsted area, includes a pottery kiln on Bridgewater Road; the town's high street still follows the line of the Roman-engineered Akeman Street, a pre-existing route from St Albans to Cirencester. During Roman occupation the countryside close to Verulamium was subdivided into a series of farming estates; the Berkhamsted area appears to have been divided into two or three farming estates, each including one or more masonry villa buildings, with tiled roofs and underfloor heating. The remains of a villa were found close to the river in 1973 in the adjacent village of Northchurch; the oldest building, made of timber, was built in AD 60, rebuilt using stone in the early 2nd century, enlarged to a ten-room building around AD 150. The house may have been empty for a period, reoccupied in the 4th century, abandoned in the late 4th or early 5th century. A Roman-British villa and temple were found 1.25
Hertfordshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Hertfordshire in England. Its headquarters is in Welwyn Garden City. From 2011-2016 the force was headed by Chief Constable Andy Bliss, the current Chief Constable is Charlie Hall QPM; the forces manpower consists of over 3,900 police officers and staff, supported by more than 410 special constables. The Constabulary was founded in 1841, under the County Police Act, five years after the Hertford Borough Police and St Albans Borough Police had been formed. In 1889, the Hertford Borough Police force was merged into Hertfordshire; the first Constables were paid at the level of an agricultural labourer. In Victorian times, officers were entitled to only one rest day in every four to six weeks and were entitled to only one week's unpaid annual leave a year. A ten-hour working day was the norm and no meal breaks were allowed. There were strict constraints on an officer's private life too. For example, officers could not leave their homes without permission and could only go out with their wives so long as they were not absent for more than two hours and someone was home to take messages.
St Albans Constabulary remained independent until 1947 being absorbed into the Hertfordshire Constabulary. It was in 2000 that the current force boundaries came into place with the addition of Hertsmere and Broxbourne, transferred from the Metropolitan Police. In 2006 proposals were made by Charles Clarke, the Home Secretary, that would see the force merge with neighbour forces Bedfordshire Police and Essex Police to form a new strategic police force. However, in July 2006, the Prime Minister Tony Blair signalled that police force mergers would not be forced through by the central government. However, with the economic recession beginning in 2008 the force began working on collaboration with neighbouring forces. First joining with Bedfordshire Police and Cambridgeshire Constabulary in a Strategic Alliance, the three forces formed joint units in Counter Terrorism, Major Crime, Firearms, SOCO, Roads Policing, Operation Planning, Civil Contingencies, ICT and Professional Standards. Working collaboratively in this way protected local policing by local officers, but enabled specialist units to work across, be paid for by, all three forces.
Further collaborative work is underway with call handling and dispatch, human resources and some'back-office' functions being examined for merging. For the foreseeable future, the Constabularly looks to remain an independent force; the decision for any full merger of the three forces will be in the hands of the Police and Crime Commissioners, thereby in turn, the public themselves. Local policing is overseen by the Local Policing Command, headed by a Chief Superintendent; the county is sub-divided into 10 Community Safety Partnerships, which broadly correspond to the local Borough and Council areas. The 10 CSPs, each headed by a Chief Inspector are: Watford, Three Rivers, Dacorum and Hatfield, St Albans, East Herts, Broxbourne and North Herts; each CSP has: 5x Intervention and Response Teams: Each team is headed by a sergeant and aligned to a shift pattern, there is always at least one team on duty at any time during the year. Intervention teams non emergency calls and perform general patrol duties.
Safer Neighbourhood Teams: Combined teams of PCs and PCSOs covering local and quality of life issues. Each Ward/Neighbourhood has at least one PC and PCSO to maintain an up-to-date knowledge of local issues and to address them; each town is headed with an Inspector supervising on a CSP level. Local Crime Unit: Team of Detectives with a remit covering burglaries to assaults. Local policing is supplemented by an array of specialist units, some of which are collaborated with Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire; these include: Armed Policing Unit: Collaborated unit working across the three counties providing Armed Response Vehicles, crewed with Authorised Firearms Officers to assist in the response to dangerous incidents such as those involving firearms and knives. The unit provides a Specialist Firearms Officer capability for hostage rescue and close protection. Dog Unit: Collaborated unit providing a 24/7 Police dog service for tracking and public order duties; the unit provides pre-planned capabilities for explosive and drugs search.
Road Policing Unit: Collaborated unit patrol and respond to serious incidents on the motorway and other road networks. Other duties include responsibilities for taking over pursuits, traffic management and road death investigation. Major Crime Unit: Collaborated unit, responsible for the investigation of murder, stranger rape and kidnap, amongst others. Force Communications Room: Responsible for taking emergency and non-emergency calls and recording crime through Call Handling and the deployment and management of resources through Despatch and Control; the FCR receives an average of deals with over 1,000 incidents every day. Notable major incidents and investigations in which Hertfordshire Constabulary have directed or been involved include: October 2000: Hatfield rail crash: A railway accident that caused 4 deaths and over 70 injuries; the accident exposed major stewardship shortcomings and regulatory oversight failings of Railtrack and triggered its partial re-nationalisation. May 2002: Potters Bar Railway Crash: A railway accident that occurred when a train derailed at high speed, killing 7 and injuring 76.
Part of the train ended up wedged between the station platforms and building structures. December 2005: The Buncefield fire: A major fire caused by a series of explosions at the Buncefield oil storage facility causing
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
South Oxhey is a suburb of Watford in the Watford Rural parish of the Three Rivers district of Hertfordshire, England. It is located in the south western corner of Northwood Hertfordshire and close to the boundary with Greater London. At the 2011 Census South Oxhey's population was included in the Northwick Ward of Three Rivers Council South Oxhey is a large estate built on land, part of the Oxhey Hall Estate. There was a manor house here, Oxhey Place, a chapel; the manor house was owned by the Blackwell family of Blackwell fame. It burnt down in 1960. Oxhey Chapel is still standing to the south of the parish church of All Saints; the church was opened in 1954 to serve the new estate built after the Second World War by the London County Council. The church was demolished and rebuilt in 2000. Since the introduction of the nationwide Right to buy policy in 1980, many South Oxhey residents have bought their homes from the local council, meaning that by 2007, some 70% of houses on the estate are owned.
The estate was built after the Second World War to help alleviate the housing pressures thrust upon London during the Blitz as well as general inadequate housing. South Oxhey was built and managed by the London County Council and the Greater London Council. In 1980 the ownership and management of the estate was transferred from the GLC to Three Rivers District Council. Following changes to financial regulations in 2008, the remaining social housing was transferred to Thrive Homes housing association. South Oxhey featured in the BBC television series The Choir: Unsung Town, first broadcast on BBC Two on 1 September 2009; the programme featured a project by Gareth Malone to assemble a community choir in the town by recruiting local residents and encouraging them to take part. A legacy of the programme was the foundation of two groups, the South Oxhey Community Choir and the South Oxhey Youth Choir; as part of the TV series, the choirs performed at venues including the Watford Colosseum, St Albans Abbey, headlining at Sox Fest'09 in May 2009.
In April 2009, the Community Choir made their debut recording at Abbey Road Studios. Gareth Malone continued as choirmaster for two years following the conclusion of the TV recording and now maintains his support as patron; the current musical director is Simon Wookey and both the Community and Youth choirs continue to make regular performances about three to four times per year at events around Hertfordshire and the South East of England. Nick Moran - Actor and Director Paul Field - Two time Winter Olympian from South Oxhey. Grew up in Hemel Hempstead. South Oxhey is served by London Overground rail services from Carpenders Park railway station, on the Watford DC Line. Trains run from Watford Junction to London Euston every 20 minutes in either direction; until 1982, Carpenders Park was part of the London Underground network, on the Bakerloo line. A number of bus routes pass through South Oxhey. Buses are managed by Hertfordshire County Council's Intalink transport service. One service is provided by Arriva Shires & Essex: The No. 8 runs from Northwood to Abbots Langley running along Fairfield Avenue, Gosforth Lane and Hayling Road - the route vacated by the cessation of the 503 service.
In addition, there are two limited'shopper' services. Colnbrook Greenfields Oxhey Wood St. Josephs Roman Catholic School Warren Dell Primary Woodhall PrimarySouth Oxhey has no secondary schools. However, from the early 1950s, there were two Secondary modern schools – Clarendon, on Chilwell Gardens, the smaller Hampden School, on Little Oxhey Lane. Built to cater for post-war conditions both schools combined to form Sir James Altham Comprehensive. Three Rivers Council sold off the School Land to developers. Now a shortage of School places in Hertfordshire has left South Oxhey as the furthest Town from a secondary School in Herts. In 2012, the Three Rivers District Council proposed a redevelopment of the local shopping and business area known as'The Precinct'; the initiative was devised after 130 flats between Fairfield Avenue and Oxhey Drive were identified by the council as being beyond repair and in need of replacing. However many residents were against the idea of knocking down the old Precinct favouring refurbishment of the existing buildings.
Many of the local shop keepers formed a pressure group against a full redevelopment. In November 2013, political support for the South Oxhey Initiative fractured as the local Conservative Party withdrew their backing for the regeneration scheme; this followed the decision by two housing associations to pull their support as development partners. One of the main areas of political disagreement is the level of social housing to be included in the proposed development. In January 2014, Three Rivers Council announced that they intend to continue with submitting an outline planning application in June 2014, in the hope that a developer will show interest in the scheme after planning permission has been granted. In 2016 Three Rivers District Council and development partner Countryside Properties announced they had entered into an agreement to redevelop central South Oxhey; the proposals for the regeneration include 514 new homes, as well as public spaces. Work is planned for three phases, with the overall development planned for completion in 2022.
Work began in late 2016, is underway at the former Jet public house site on Hayling Road, Maylands/ Ferndown Road and Hallowes Crescent.. South Oxhey h