Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. It was long known around the world as the home of the Formula One United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for twenty consecutive years, but the site has been home to road racing of nearly every class, including the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, NASCAR Cup Series, the International Motor Sports Association and the IndyCar Series. Public roads in the village were used for the race course. In 1956 a permanent circuit for the race was built. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit's current layout has more or less been the same since 1971, with minor modifications after the fatal crashes of François Cevert in 1973 and J. D. McDuffie in 1991; the older of those chicanes, has since been removed. The circuit is known as the Mecca of North American road racing and is a popular venue among fans and drivers; the facility is owned by International Speedway Corporation.
The circuit has been the site of music concerts: the 1973 Summer Jam, featuring The Allman Brothers Band, the Grateful Dead and The Band and attended by 600,000 fans, two Phish festivals: Super Ball IX in 2011 and Magnaball in 2015. The Watkins Glen International race course has undergone several changes over the years, with five general layouts recognized over its history. Two distinct layouts are used—the "Boot" layout and the "NASCAR" layout; the first races in Watkins Glen were organized by Cameron Argetsinger, whose family had a summer home in the area. With local Chamber of Commerce approval and SCCA sanction, the first Watkins Glen Grand Prix took place in 1948 on a 6.6-mile course over local public roads. For the first few years, the races passed through the heart of the town with spectators lining the sidewalks, but after a car driven by Fred Wacker left the road in the 1952 race, killing seven-year-old Frank Fazzari and injuring several others, the race was moved to a new location on a wooded hilltop southwest of town.
The original 6.6-mile course is listed in the New York State register and National Register of Historic Places as the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948–1952. The second layout 4.6-mile began use in 1953 and used existing roads. The Watkins Glen Grand Prix Corporation was formed to manage spectators and concessions; this arrangement lasted three years. The first permanent course was constructed on 550 acres, overlapping part of the previous street course, it was designed by engineering professors from Cornell University. The layout measured 2.35-mile. This course was used from 1956–1970. In 1968 the race was extended to six hours; the circuit underwent a major overhaul for the 1971 season. The "Big Bend" and the turns leading up to it were eliminated, replaced with a new pit straight; the pits and start/finish line were moved to this new straightaway. "The 90" now became Turn 1 instead of Turn 8. When the 1971 Six Hours of Watkins Glen arrived in July 1971, the overall circuit renovations were still unfinished.
The short course had been finished, but the Boot segments were not complete, nor was the new pit area. The 1971 Six Hours race was run on the short course layout, that layout colloquially became known as the 1971 Six Hours Course. In addition, for 1971 only, the cars used the old pits; when NASCAR returned to the track in 1986, they chose to use the short course layout. IMSA used the "Boot", but that series began using the shorter 1971 layout; the short course was lengthened in 1992. The most significant change to the track, a new segment known as "The Boot", was finished in time for the Formula One race in 1971; the start-finish line was moved to the new pit straight as planned. At the end of the backstretch, after the Loop-Chute, cars swept left into a new four-turn complex that departed from the old layout, curling left-hand downhill through the woods; the track followed the edge of the hillside to two uphill right-hand turns, over an exciting blind crest into a right-hand turn, down and up into a left-hand turn rejoining the old track.
The new layout measured 3.377 miles. With its intrinsic link to the Formula One race, it became known colloquially as the Grand Prix Circuit. For 1972, the Six Hours sports car race began using the full "Boot" layout. By that time, nearly all facility improvements were completed, the pits and start/finish line were permanently moved to the new pit straight. In 1973, French driver François Cevert, a previous winner at the Glen, died in a crash during practice at the 1973 United States Grand Prix; this led course officials in 1975 to add a fast right-left chicane to slow speeds in the turn 3-4 Esses section. Dubbed the "Scheckter Chicane", it was eliminated in 1985. In the early 1990s, the IMSA sports cars began bypassing the "Boot" in favor of the short course. NASCAR events have never used the Boot layout; the "Long/Boot" course was lengthened in 1992. In the mid-2000s, the Boot segment, which had seen little use in many years, was repaved and upgraded; when the IndyCar Series returned to Watkins Glen starting in 2005, they chose to use the Boot segment.
The entire course was repaved in 2015. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest and appreciation of the full Grand Prix Course layout. Consideration had been made for NASCAR to start using the Boot. After a succession of serious crashes took place at the "Loop" at the end of the backstretch, a major change was made to the track's layout. During the
Landwehr, or Landeswehr, is a German language term used in referring to certain national armies, or militias found in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Europe. In different context it refers to low-strength fortifications. In German, the word means "defence of the country". 262, 10th edition. The English term "home guard" may derive from an attempt to translate the term landwehr, the earliest unit calling itself "home guard" being formed by German immigrants in Missouri in the events leading up to the American Civil War; the Austrian Landwehr was one of three components that made up the ground forces of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy between 1868 and 1918, it was composed of recruits from the Cisleithanian parts of the empire. Intended as a national defence force alongside the Royal Hungarian Landwehr, the Landwehr was established by order of Emperor Franz Josef on 5 December 1868, yet while the Hungarian force was generously supported early on by the parliament in Budapest, legislators in Vienna failed to advance the cause of the Landwehr, leaving it by the 1870s as a skeletal force with only the appearance of parity.
In 1887, Archduke Albert wrote that Landwehr units were not ready, in terms of training or discipline, for use in the first two weeks of a war. Yet the 1880s saw an expansion in the force's numbers, as the high command was unable to obtain increases in manpower for the joint Imperial and Royal army and sought to increase overall numbers through the Landwehr. Additionally, Austrian fears of the development of the Honved caused the Austrian Reichsrat to vote to increase the Landwehr's strength to 135,000; these nationalist interests led to a gradual strengthening and improvement of the force, so that by the start of the First World War, Landwehr units were considered equal to the units of the joint army in readiness and equipment. Additionally, in Tyrol and Carinthia, three units of the Landwehr were specially trained and equipped for mountain warfare; the Austrian Landwehr and the other components of the Austro-Hungarian Army were all full-time standing armies. The Royal Hungarian Landwehr or Royal Hungarian Honved, was the standing army of the Kingdom of Hungary, established as one of four armed forces of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918.
The others were its counterpart the Austrian Landwehr, the Common Army and the Imperial and Royal Navy. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian rebels during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The Hungarian Landwehr should not be confused with its successor, the Royal Hungarian Army, which went by the same Hungarian name, but existed from 1922 to 1945; the landwehr in Prussia was first formed by a royal edict of 17 March 1813, which called up all men capable of bearing arms between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, not serving in the regular army, for the defense of the country. After the peace of 1815 this force was made an integral part of the Prussian Army, each brigade being composed of one line and one Landwehr regiment.
This, slowed the mobilisation of brigades as Landwehr regiments had to be called up, diminishing the value of the first line. By the re-organization of 1859 the Landwehr troops were relegated to the second line. During the Weimar republic, Germany was not allowed a standing army of more than 100,000 men, thus conscription had been abolished. In the course of the remilitarization of Nazi Germany, the Landwehr was reestablished on 21 May 1935 comprising all Germans liable for military service under the new law older than 35 years of age and younger than 45 years. In effect only one Landwehr division was called up, the remainder of the Landwehr was used either to fill out the 3rd wave infantry divisions or formed Landesschützen battalions used for guard and occupation duty. In Switzerland, the Landwehr used to be a second line force, in which all citizens served for twelve years, it was abolished after the army reform in 1965. As a reference to this past, a number of Swiss wind bands bear the name "Landwehr" in their titles.
The Baltic Landeswehr was the name of the armed forces of the puppet Government of Latvia established by the Baltic nobility. The Baltic state was designed to be established from territories that were ceded by Imperial Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918, but collapsed in the Estonian War of Independence in 1919. Hrvatsko domobranstvo Slovensko domobranstvo Landsturm Volkssturm National Guard
Lincoln Minster School is an independent co-educational day and boarding school in Lincoln, England. It comprises three schools: the nursery and pre-preparatory and senior school. While the school is now open to pupils from the community it continues to educate the choristers of Lincoln Cathedral, it is the Choir Schools' Association. In 1265 Richard of Gravesend, Bishop of Lincoln decreed that there should be twelve boys, two of whom were incense bearers, living in one house under a master who appropriated certain revenues for their support, they were taught lessons in their house in addition to their choral duties. Before the Bishop's ordinance, boys were known to have been taught music in the Cathedral Close. Lincoln Minster School was formed in 1996 with the amalgamation of four schools: The Cathedral School for the choristers of Lincoln Minster. St Joseph's School for a day and boarding school. Stonefield House School which taught children up to the age of 16. In 2011 St Mary's Preparatory School merged with the school to become its preparatory department.
Non-chorister pupils are encouraged to be involved in music. There are opportunities to lead worship services. Many are selected for the National Youth Choirs of Great Britain, National Children's Orchestra and other groups. In 1995, the Lincoln Cathedral became the third English cathedral to allow girl choristers. All choristers are educated at the school as scholarship holders. Although "chorister" is a general term, at Lincoln it is reserved for the four senior boys and girls, distinguished by their dark ‘copes’ or cloaks. Boys and girls who have passed their probationary stage are known as'chanters'. Across all the schools there are four boarding houses: Hillside Lindum View Eastgate James Street A detailed history of the Lincoln Grammar School from its foundation to 1902 is provided by: Leach A F in Page W, The Victoria History of the County of Lincoln Vol II, pp 421–449. School website Profile on the ISC website Profile on the Good Schools Guide ISI Inspection Reports Ofsted Social Care Inspection Reports