SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Watling Street

Watling Street is a route in England that began as an ancient trackway first used by the Britons between the areas of modern Canterbury and St Albans using a natural ford near Westminster. The Romans paved the route, which connected the Kentish ports of Dubris, Rutupiae and Regulbium to their bridge over the Thames at Londinium; the route continued northwest through Verulamium on its way to Viroconium. The Romans considered the continuation on to Blatobulgium beyond Hadrian's Wall to be part of the same route, leading some scholars to call this Watling Street as well, although others restrict it to the southern leg. Watling Street was the site of Boudica's defeat by the Romans and was the southwestern border of the Danelaw. In the early 19th century, the course between London and the Channel was paved and became known as the Great Dover Road: today, the route from Dover to London forms part of the A2 road; the route from London to Wroxeter forms much of the A5 road. At various points along the historic route, the name Watling Street remains in modern use.

The original Celtic and Roman name for the road is unknown and the Romans may not have viewed it as a single path at all, dividing it amongst two separate itineraries in one 2nd-century list. The modern name instead derives from the Old English Wæcelinga Stræt, from a time when "street" referred to any paved road and had no particular association with urban thoroughfares; the Waeclingas were a tribe in the St Albans area in the early medieval period with an early name of the city being "Waetlingacaester", which would translate into modern English as "Watlingchester". The original Anglo-Saxon name for the section of the route between Canterbury and London was Casingc Stræt or Key Street, a name still borne by a hamlet on the road near Sittingbourne; this section only became considered part of Watling Street. Watling Street has been used as a boundary of many historic administrative units, some of these are still in existence today, either through continuity or the adoption of these as by successor areas.

Examples include: Watling Street was used as a boundary in the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum and it is inferred that this made the road the SW boundary of the Danelaw It is the boundary of Leicestershire and Warwickshire, this may be a legacy of the treaty described above. Watling Street forms part of the boundary of four London Boroughs and is sometimes described as the boundary of West and North London; the broad, grassy trackway found by the Romans had been used by the Britons for centuries. The main path led from Richborough on the English Channel to a natural ford in the Thames at Thorney Island near Westminster to a site near Wroxeter, where it split; the western continuation went on to Holyhead while the northern ran to Chester and on to the Picts in Scotland. There is a longstanding tradition that a natural ford once crossed the Thames between Thorney Island and the Lambeth\Battersea boundary, its location means it. Several factors may have slowed the river here, leading to the deposition of sufficient sedimentary material to allow fording: The bend in the Thames near Vauxhall Bridge.

The two arms of the River Effra joining in that vicinity, depositing their own load, with the athwart flow causing the Thames to eddy and slow. The southern arm of the Tyburn, once joined in this point, on the northern bank; these factors mean the area is to have been the tidal head for some of the historic period. The Romans began constructing paved roads shortly after their invasion in AD 43; the London portion of Watling Street was rediscovered during Christopher Wren's rebuilding of St Mary-le-Bow in 1671–73, following the Great Fire. Modern excavations date its construction to the winter from AD 47 to 48. Around London, it was 7.5–8.7 m wide and paved with gravel. It was redone, including at least twice before the sack of London by Boudica's troops in 60 or 61; the road ran straight from the bridgehead on the Thames to what would become Newgate on the London Wall before passing over Ludgate Hill and the Fleet and dividing into Watling Street and the Devil's Highway west to Calleva. Some of this route is preserved beneath Old Kent Road.

The 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary gives the course of Watling Street from "Urioconium" to "Portus Ritupis" as a part of its Second Route, which runs for 501 MP from Hadrian's Wall to Richborough: Some site in the middle section of this route is supposed by most historians to have been the location of G. Suetonius Paulinus's decisive victory over Boudica's Iceni in AD 61; the two routes of the Antonine Itinerary following list the stations from Londinium to "Portus Dubris" and to "Portus Lemanis" at the north eastern edge of the Romney Marsh, suggesting that they may have been considered interchangeable terminuses. They only differ in the distance to Durovernum: 17 Roman miles, respectively; the route to Lemanis was sometimes distinguished by the name "Stone Street". The route between Durovernum and the fortress and port at Regulbium on Kent's northern shore is not given in these itineraries but was paved and is sometimes taken as a fourth terminus for Watling Street; the Sixth Route recorded an alternate path stopping at Tripontium between Venonis and Bannaventa.

The more direct route

Arab on Radar

Arab on Radar was a Providence, Rhode Island-based noise rock band founded in 1994. They went on hiatus in 2002. Members of the band went on to form or join the bands The Chinese Stars, Athletic Automaton, Made in Mexico, most Doomsday Student; the band reformed in 2010 but promptly disbanded. Arab on Radar's first show was in the cafeteria on the Rhode Island College campus. While the band was opening for Marilyn Manson at a Providence club called Babyhead, they were chased out of the club by angry audience members. Arab on Radar's early sound was typified by thickly distorted, repeated bass grooves, 4/4 drum beats, two deafening guitars that employed contrasting melodies and near-unison chords that drew comparisons to The Contortions, their live shows featured spitting, trisomic parody, full nudity. After Andrea Fiset's departure, the band developed a more abstract sound and they began to draw comparisons to Sonic Youth. Arab on Radar may be considered catalysts for the revival of no wave, a scene that began to gain popularity with bands like Lightning Bolt and The Locust in the early part of the 21st century.

Three One G released an Arab on Radar DVD entitled Sunshine for Shady People in 2008. It includes a short footage from a number of live performances. All of Arab on Radar's album cover art was created by Matt Brinkman. On April 13, 2010 Justin Pearson announced on his Facebook page. On April 26, Skin Graft Records announced that Arab on Radar would perform at Dude Fest 2010, with more tour dates to follow; the band did tour the east coast, however they cancelled west coast dates and their new album's recording session for unknown reasons. In an interview with the New York Press, the band responded to a question on how their politics have changed over the years: The four of us never use or view the band as a political platform. We like to keep the band separate from our views although there have been times that we've adhered to certain questionable belief systems to get through airport security. In February 2017 guitarist of Arab On Radar, Jeff Schneider authored the definitive story of Arab On Radar in the way of a memoir titled "Psychiatric Tissues" which details the band's touring and performing history.

This book is a personal memoir that will be released by Pig Roast Publishing, a book publishing company founded by Jeff Schneider for the purpose of publishing books as an, "Underground, interesting, Music/Art related Book Publishing Company." Eric Paulvocals Steve Mattosguitar Jeff Schneider – guitar Craig Kureckdrums Andrea Fiset – bass Untitled cassette tape Kangaroo single Queen Hygiene II "Swimming with a Hard-On" single Rough Day at the Orifice Split 7" with The Locust Soak the Saddle Yahweh or the Highway Split single with Kid Commando The Stolen Singles Article on AOR A couple of early show flyers. Interview with Eric Paul about Arab on Radar's history

Rushed behind

In Australian rules football, a rushed behind occurs when the ball passes through the goalposts and was last touched by a defending player. A rushed behind scores one point against the defending team, but prevents the attacking team from scoring a goal, worth six points. A rushed behind occurs when a defending player touches the ball after it has been kicked and as it heads toward the goal, it may be less risky for a defending player in possession of the ball to deliberately concede a rushed behind, rather than try to prevent any score outright. A deliberately rushed behind results in a free kick to the opposing side unless under extreme pressure. Rushed behinds are statistically credited to no player, it is impossible for a defending team to directly concede a "rushed goal" worth six points. Since 2009, it has been illegal in AFL matches for a defender to deliberately concede a rushed behind when he is not under any pressure from the attacking team. In the event that a defender does this, the umpire awards a free kick to the attacking team on the goal-line at the spot where the defender conceded the score.

The defender may still deliberately concede a rushed behind if he is under pressure from an attacker. Two high-profile incidents during the 2008 AFL season were responsible for the introduction of this rule. In Round 16, Richmond's Joel Bowden rushed two behinds in a row while kicking in to use up time towards the end of their game against Essendon, reducing the margin from 6 points to 4 points, but enabling Richmond to win the game; the 2008 AFL Grand Final saw Hawthorn rush a record 11 behinds against Geelong. Prior to the 2008 season, a variation had been trialled in pre-season matches in which a deliberate rushed behind conceded three points instead of one.