Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Green building refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, operation, maintenance and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, the client at all project stages; the Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility and comfort. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design is a set of rating systems for the design, construction and maintenance of green buildings, developed by the U. S. Green Building Council. Another certificate system that confirms the sustainability of buildings is the British BREEAM for buildings and large-scale developments. World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE Market Transformation Program and certification.
There are other tools such as Green Star in Australia and the Green Building Index predominantly used in Malaysia. Building information modelling is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models are files which can be extracted, exchanged or networked to support decision-making regarding a building or other built asset. Current BIM software is used by individuals and government agencies who plan, construct and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, electricity, communication utilities, railways, bridges and tunnels. Although new technologies are being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective of green buildings is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste and environmental degradationA similar concept is natural building, on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally.
Other related topics include sustainable green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Although some green building programs don't address the issue of retrofitting existing homes, others do through public schemes for energy efficient refurbishment. Green construction principles can be applied to retrofit work as well as new construction. A 2009 report by the U. S. General Services Administration found 12 sustainably-designed buildings that cost less to operate and have excellent energy performance. In addition, occupants were overall more satisfied with the building than those in typical commercial buildings; these are eco-friendly buildings. Globally, buildings are responsible for a huge share of energy, electricity and materials consumption; the building sector has the greatest potential to deliver significant cuts in emissions at little or no cost. Buildings account for 18% of global emissions today, or the equivalent of 9 billion tonnes of CO2 annually.
If new technologies in construction are not adopted during this time of rapid growth, emissions could double by 2050, according to the United Nations Environment Program. Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of building. Since construction always degrades a building site, not building at all is preferable to green building, in terms of reducing environmental impact; the second rule is. The third rule is not to contribute to sprawl if the most energy-efficient, environmentally sound methods are used in design and construction. Buildings account for a large amount of land. According to the National Resources Inventory 107 million acres of land in the United States are developed; the International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world’s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy crisis and environmental pollution concerns of the 1960s and 1970s.
The Rachel Carson book, “Silent Spring”, published in 1962, is considered to be one of the first initial efforts to describe sustainable development as related to green building. The green building movement in the U. S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives for building green, including environmental and social benefits. However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of existing structures. Known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy among the practices used. Green building brings together a vast array of practices and skills to reduce and eliminate the impacts of buildi
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
Tumby is a village and township in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 2 miles north from Coningsby and 6.5 miles south from Horncastle, in the civil parish of Kirkby on Bain. Tumby Woodside is a hamlet about 3 miles south-east of the village of Tumby; the woods are of larch. In the 15th century it belonged to Ralph, Lord Cromwell, was known as Tumby Chase. Tumby Woodside railway station opened here in 1913 serving the Great Northern Railway, closed in 1970. A Wesleyan Methodist chapel was founded in Tumby Woodside in 1818 and was rebuilt in 1897, it closed in 2004. There was an Anglican church dedicated to St Lawrence, located in the neighboring hamlet of Moorhouses, built by James Fowler in 1875; this is closed. Tumby Moorside is a hamlet about 2 miles south of Tumby, 1.5 miles west of Tumby Woodside. In the 15th century it belonged to Lord Willoughby, who died leaving his estate to his wife, who married Sir Thomas Neville, Sir Gervaise Clifton. In 1466 Gervaise and Maud Clifton granted Sir Anthony Wydville, Lord Scales, the manor of Tumby, with the exception of Tumby Woodside which belonged to Ralph, Lord Cromwell.
High House Museum is at Tumby Moorside, is a Grade II listed building dating from the 18th century. A 17th-century barn located at the farmhouse is Grade II listed. Fulsby is a hamlet located on the River Bain north of Tumby, it was listed in Domesday Book of 1086 as having 4 households, 8 acres of meadow and 120 acres of woodland. Most of Fulsby Wood is classified with the rest as plantation. In the seventeenth century Fulsby was the home of the Cressey family. Tumby Wood is Site of Special Scientific Interest; the rents on a small farm at Fulsby were used by the trustees of the will of Sir John Nelthorpe to maintain Brigg Grammar School, two poor boys from Legsby or Fulsby were educated and looked-after by the school. Media related to Tumby, Lincolnshire at Wikimedia Commons
The jacal is an adobe-style housing structure found throughout parts of the southwestern United States and Mexico. This type of structure was employed by some Native people of the Americas prior to European colonization and was employed by both Hispanic and Anglo settlers in Texas and elsewhere. A jacal consisted of slim close-set poles tied together and filled out with mud and grasses. More sophisticated structures, such as those constructed by the Anasazi, incorporated adobe bricks—sun-baked mud and sandstone. Jacal construction is similar to daub. However, the "wattle" portion of jacal structures consists of vertical poles lashed together with cordage and sometimes supported by a pole framework, as in the pit-houses of the Basketmaker III period of the Ancestral Puebloan Indians of the American Southwest; this is overlain with a layer of mud/adobe, sometimes applied over a middle layer of dry grasses or brush which functions as insulation. Luna Jacal in Big Bend National Park Texas-Mexican Vernacular Architecture from the Handbook of Texas Online Sketch of a Jacal from A pictorial history of Texas, from the earliest visits of European adventurers, to A.
D. 1879, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. In English "plaster" means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "render" refers to external applications. Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, often used for plasterwork, worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces; the most common types of plaster contain either gypsum, lime, or cement, but all work in a similar way. The plaster is manufactured as a dry powder and is mixed with water to form a stiff but workable paste before it is applied to the surface; the reaction with water liberates heat through crystallization and the hydrated plaster hardens. Plaster can be easily worked with metal tools or sandpaper, can be moulded, either on site or to make pre-formed sections in advance, which are put in place with adhesive. Plaster is not a strong material. Forms of plaster have several other uses.
In medicine plaster orthopedic casts are still used for supporting set broken bones. In dentistry plaster is used to make dental impressions. Various types of models and moulds are made with plaster. In art, lime plaster is the traditional matrix for fresco painting. In the ancient world, as well as the sort of ornamental designs in plaster relief that are still used, plaster was widely used to create large figurative reliefs for walls, though few of these have survived. Clay plaster is a mixture of clay and water with the addition of plant fibers for tensile strength over wood lath. Clay plaster has been used since antiquity. Settlers in the American colonies used clay plaster on the interiors of their houses: “Interior plastering in the form of clay antedated the building of houses of frame, must have been visible in the inside of wattle filling in those earliest frame houses in which …wainscot had not been indulged. Clay continued in the use long after the adoption of laths and brick filling for the frame."
Where lime was not available or accessible it was rationed or substituted with other binders. In Martin E. Weaver’s seminal work he says, “Mud plaster consists of clay or earth, mixed with water to give a “plastic” or workable consistency. If the clay mixture is too plastic it will shrink and distort on drying, it will probably drop off the wall. Sand and fine gravels were added to reduce the concentrations of fine clay particles which were the cause of the excessive shrinkage.” Straw or grass was added sometimes with the addition of manure. In the Earliest European settlers’ plasterwork, a mud plaster was used or more a mud-lime mixture. McKee writes, of a circa 1675 Massachusetts contract that specified the plasterer, “Is to lath and siele the four rooms of the house betwixt the joists overhead with a coat of lime and haire upon the clay. 5. To lath and plaster partitions of the house with clay and lime, to fill and plaister them with lime and haire besides. 6. The said Daniel Andrews is to find lime, clay, haire, together with laborers and workmen….”
Records of the New Haven colony in 1641 mention hay as well as lime and hair also. In German houses of Pennsylvania the use of clay persisted.” Old Economy Village is one such German settlement. The early Nineteenth-Century utopian village in present-day Ambridge, used clay plaster substrate in the brick and wood frame high architecture of the Feast Hall, Great House and other large and commercial structures as well as in the brick and log dwellings of the society members; the use of clay in plaster and in laying brickwork appears to have been a common practice at that time not just in the construction of Economy village when the settlement was founded in 1824. Specifications for the construction of, “Lock keepers houses on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, written about 1828, require stone walls to be laid with clay mortar, excepting 3 inches on the outside of the walls…which to be good lime mortar and well pointed.” The choice of clay was because of its low cost, but the availability. At Economy, root cellars dug under the houses yielded clay and sand, or the nearby Ohio river yielded washed sand from the sand bars.
Other required building materials were sourced locally. The surrounding forests of the new village of Economy provided straight grain, old-growth oak trees for lath. Hand split lath starts with a log of straight grained wood of the required length; the log is spit into quarters and smaller and smaller bolts with wedges and a sledge. When small enough, a froe and mallet were used to split away narrow strips of lath - unattainable with field trees and their many limbs. Farm animals pastured in the fields cleared of trees provided the hair and manure for the float coat of plaster. Fields of wheat and grains provided straw and other grasses for binders for the clay plaster, but there was no uniformity in clay plaster recipes. Straw or grass was added sometimes with the addition of manure providing fiber for tensile strength as well as protein adhesive. Proteins in the manure act as binders; the hydrogen bonds of p
Adobe is a building material made from earth and organic materials. Adobe is Spanish for mudbrick, but in some English-speaking regions of Spanish heritage, the term is used to refer to any kind of earth construction. Most adobe buildings rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, is used throughout the world. Adobe bricks are rectangular prisms small enough that they can air dry individually without cracking, they can be subsequently assembled, with the application of adobe mud to bond the individual bricks into a structure. There is no standard size, in different regions. In some areas a popular size measured 8 by 4 by 12 inches weighing about 25 pounds; the maximum sizes can reach up to 100 pounds. In dry climates, adobe structures are durable, account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. Adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, but they are known to be susceptible to earthquake damage if they are not somehow reinforced.
Cases where adobe structures were damaged during earthquakes include the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, the 2003 Bam earthquake, the 2010 Chile earthquake. Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common throughout the world Adobe had been in use by indigenous peoples of the Americas in the Southwestern United States and the Andes for several thousand years. Puebloan peoples built their adobe structures with handsful or basketsful of adobe, until the Spanish introduced them to making bricks. Adobe bricks were used in Spain from Iron Ages, its wide use can be attributed to its simplicity of design and manufacture, economics. A distinction is sometimes made between the smaller adobes, which are about the size of ordinary baked bricks, the larger adobines, some of which may be one to two yards long; the word adobe has existed for around 4000 years with little change in either pronunciation or meaning. The word can be traced from the Middle Egyptian word ɟbt "mud brick". Middle Egyptian evolved into Late Egyptian, Demotic or "pre-Coptic", to Coptic, where it appeared as τωωβε tōʾpə.
This was adopted into Arabic as الطوب aṭ-ṭawbu or aṭ-ṭūbu, with the definite article al- attached. Tuba, This was assimilated into the Old Spanish language as adobe via Mozarabic. English borrowed the word from Spanish in the early 18th century, still referring to mudbrick construction. In more modern English usage, the term "adobe" has come to include a style of architecture popular in the desert climates of North America in New Mexico, regardless of the construction method. An adobe brick is a composite material made of earth mixed with water and an organic material such as straw or dung; the soil composition contains sand and clay. Straw is useful in binding the brick together and allowing the brick to dry evenly, thereby preventing cracking due to uneven shrinkage rates through the brick. Dung offers the same advantage; the most desirable soil texture for producing the mud of adobe is 15% clay, 10–30% silt, 55–75% fine sand. Another source quotes 15–25% clay and the remainder sand and coarser particles up to cobbles 50 to 250 mm, with no deleterious effect.
Modern adobe is stabilized with Portland cement up to 10 % by weight. No more than half the clay content should be expansive clays, with the remainder non-expansive illite or kaolinite. Too much expansive clay results in uneven drying through the brick, resulting in cracking, while too much kaolinite will make a weak brick; the soils of the Southwest United States, where such construction has been used, are an adequate composition. Adobe walls are load bearing, i.e. they carry their own weight into the foundation rather than by another structure, hence the adobe must have sufficient compressive strength. In the United States, most building codes call for a minimum compressive strength of 300 lbf/in2 for the adobe block. Adobe construction should be designed so as to avoid lateral structural loads that would cause bending loads; the building codes require the building sustain a 1 g lateral acceleration earthquake load. Such an acceleration will cause lateral loads on the walls, resulting in shear and bending and inducing tensile stresses.
To withstand such loads, the codes call for a tensile modulus of rupture strength of at least 50 lbf/in2 for the finished block. In addition to being an inexpensive material with a small resource cost, adobe can serve as a significant heat reservoir due to the thermal properties inherent in the massive walls typical in adobe construction. In climates typified by hot days and cool nights, the high thermal mass of adobe mediates the high and low temperatures of the day, moderating the temperature of the living space; the massive walls require a large and long input of heat from the sun and from the surrounding air before they warm through to the interior. After the sun sets and the temperature drops, the warm wall will continue to transfer heat to the interior for several hou