In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths of laser light. This technique enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber, as well as multiplication of capacity; the term WDM is applied to an optical carrier, described by its wavelength, whereas frequency-division multiplexing applies to a radio carrier, more described by frequency. This is purely conventional because frequency communicate the same information. Frequency multiplied by wavelength equals the velocity of the carrier wave. In vacuum, this is the velocity of light denoted by the lower case letter, c. In glass fiber, it is slower about 0.7 times c. The data rate, which ideally might be at the carrier frequency, in practical systems is always a fraction of the carrier frequency. A WDM system uses a multiplexer at the transmitter to join the several signals together and a demultiplexer at the receiver to split them apart.
With the right type of fiber, it is possible to have a device that does both and can function as an optical add-drop multiplexer. The optical filtering devices used have conventionally been etalons; as there are three different WDM types, whereof one is called "WDM", the notation "xWDM" is used when discussing the technology as such. The concept was first published in 1978, by 1980 WDM systems were being realized in the laboratory; the first WDM systems combined only two signals. Modern systems can handle 160 signals and can thus expand a basic 100 Gbit/s system over a single fiber pair to over 16 Tbit/s. A system of 320 channels is present WDM systems are popular with telecommunications companies because they allow them to expand the capacity of the network without laying more fiber. By using WDM and optical amplifiers, they can accommodate several generations of technology development in their optical infrastructure without having to overhaul the backbone network. Capacity of a given link can be expanded by upgrading the multiplexers and demultiplexers at each end.
This is done by use of optical-to-electrical-to-optical translation at the edge of the transport network, thus permitting interoperation with existing equipment with optical interfaces. Most WDM systems operate on single-mode fiber optical cables. Certain forms of WDM can be used in multi-mode fiber cables which have core diameters of 50 or 62.5 µm. Early WDM systems were complicated to run. However, recent standardization and better understanding of the dynamics of WDM systems have made WDM less expensive to deploy. Optical receivers, in contrast to laser sources, tend to be wideband devices. Therefore, the demultiplexer must provide the wavelength selectivity of the receiver in the WDM system. WDM systems are divided into three different wavelength patterns: normal and dense. Normal WDM uses the two normal wavelengths 1550 on one fiber. Coarse WDM provides up to 16 channels across multiple transmission windows of silica fibers. Dense WDM uses the C-Band transmission window but with denser channel spacing.
Channel plans vary, but a typical DWDM system would use 40 channels at 100 GHz spacing or 80 channels with 50 GHz spacing. Some technologies are capable of 12.5 GHz spacing. New amplification options enable the extension of the usable wavelengths to the L-band, more or less doubling these numbers. Coarse wavelength division multiplexing, in contrast to DWDM, uses increased channel spacing to allow less-sophisticated and thus cheaper transceiver designs. To provide 16 channels on a single fiber, CWDM uses the entire frequency band spanning the second and third transmission windows including the critical frequencies where OH scattering may occur. OH-free silica fibers are recommended if the wavelengths between second and third transmission windows is to be used. Avoiding this region, the channels 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61 remain and these are the most used. With OS2 fibers the water peak problem is overcome, all possible 18 channels can be used. WDM, CWDM and DWDM are based on the same concept of using multiple wavelengths of light on a single fiber but differ in the spacing of the wavelengths, number of channels, the ability to amplify the multiplexed signals in the optical space.
EDFA provide an efficient wideband amplification for the C-band, Raman amplification adds a mechanism for amplification in the L-band. For CWDM, wideband optical amplification is not available, limiting the optical spans to several tens of kilometres; the term coarse wavelength division multiplexing was generic and described a number of different channel configurations. In general, the choice of channel spacings and frequency in these configurations precluded the use of erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Prior to the recent ITU standardization of the term, one common definition for CWDM was two or more signals multiplexed onto a single fiber, with one signal in the 1550 nm band and the other in the 1310 nm band. In 2002, the ITU standardized a channel spacing grid for CWDM using the wavelengths from 1270 nm through 1610 nm with a channel
Hong Kong International Lighting Fair is a trade fair held twice-yearly in Hong Kong. The full title has the seasonal version appended, or; the autumnal version is the second largest in the world. Organised by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, it is held annually in October in Hong Kong, featuring over 1,700 international exhibitors and catering to the needs of buyers from around the world. Exhibits includes LED lighting, green lighting, household lighting, outdoor lighting, commercial lighting, lighting accessories, along with Hall of Aurora for branded lighting; the Spring edition is held annually in April. Organised by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, the HKTDC Hong Kong International Lighting Fair is held annually in April in Hong Kong, featuring a wide range of products including LED lighting, green lighting, commercial lighting, household lighting, outdoor lighting, lighting accessories. Running in tandem with the fair are HKTDC Hong Kong Electronics Fair and HKTDC International ICT Expo.
Commercial Lighting, Crystal Lighting, Green Lighting, Holiday Lighting, Outdoor Lighting, Lighting Accessories & Components, Table Lamps, Household Lighting, LED Lighting, Lighting Management, Design & Technology, Trade Associations & Publications. HKTDC Hong Kong Electronics Fair HKTDC International ICT Expo HKTDC Hong Kong Electronics Fair Hong Kong International Building and Decoration Materials & Hardware Fair Eco Expo Asia - International Trade Fair on Environmental Protection Sports Source Asia A Lighting Magazine is published at each fair, featuring exhibitors as well as talking points within the lighting industry; the magazine, all in English, addressed a global lighting audience. In its efforts to expand beyond lighting industry alone, it writes about new lighting applications such as plant-centric lighting from LuxBalance Lighting which help to "speed up plant growing process". Autumn editionOfficial Site German-British Chamber of Industry & Commerce China Economic News Service LEDinsideSpring editionOfficial site - At a glance World Furniture Online HKTDC Hong Kong International Lighting Fair
The 1983–84 Portland Trail Blazers season was the 14th season of the franchise in the National Basketball Association. The season is memorable when the Blazers drafted Clyde Drexler with the 14th pick of the 1983 NBA Draft. Note: This is not a complete list. Notes z, y – division champions x – clinched playoff spot Portland Trail Blazers vs. Phoenix Suns: Suns win series 3-2 Game 1 @ Memorial Coliseum, Portland: Phoenix 113, Portland 106 Game 2 @ Memorial Coliseum, Portland: Portland 122, Phoenix 116 Game 3 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Phoenix 106, Portland 103 Game 4 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Portland 113, Phoenix 110 Game 5 @ Memorial Coliseum, Portland: Phoenix 117, Portland 105Last Playoff Meeting: 1979 Western Conference First Round Jim Paxson, All-NBA Second Team 1983-84 NBA season
Krishna Subramanian is a serial tech entrepreneur, angel investor and commentator on mobile advertising. He is best known for co-founding BlueLithium, one of the largest online ad network acquired by Yahoo in 2007 for $300 million, Mobclix, a mobile ad exchange network acquired by Velti in 2010. Subramanian has written for Forbes, The Huffington Post, Advertising Age and Mashable. In 2003, Subramanian co-founded Burrp!, an internet recommendation and review portal for local businesses and landmarks that operated in a number of Indian cities. Burrp! was acquired by Network 18 in 2009. In January 2004, he co-founded BlueLithium with Gurbaksh Chahal. BlueLithium was an online advertising network, which provided a platform that displayed targeted advertising impressions. BlueLithium was acquired by Yahoo! in 2007 for $300 million. At the time of its acquisition, BlueLithium was the fifth largest ad network in the US and the second largest in the UK. In 2008, Subramanian co-founded Mobclix with Vishal Gurbuxani.
Mobclix was a mobile ad exchange network, acquired by Velti in 2010. Subramanian became chief marketing officer of Velti in 2011. Subramanian resigned from Velti in October 2013, he was reelected to Mobile Marketing Association’s board of directors the same month. In Jan 2015, Subramanian co-founded Captiv8 with Vishal Gurbuxani, Taz Patel, Sunil Verma, it is another platform for online marketing. Krishna Subramanian on LinkedIn Captiv8 at Crunchbase
"Flicker" is a song recorded by American electronic music producer Porter Robinson. It was released on July 2014 as the fourth single from his debut studio album Worlds. Robinson wrote and performed the track. Musically, the song contains elements of hip-hop, as well as sampling of soul music. Vocally, the song contains a text-to-speech voice incorrectly translating "never seen" Japanese song titles that have been chopped and screwed in a rap-like style. An official music video for the single premiered on August 14, 2014, involves footage of Japan filtered with effects including those of 8-bit video games; the song was well-received from critics, was a hit on the American Dance/Electronic Songs chart. With "Flicker", one of Porter Robinson's favorite songs of his debut studio album Worlds, he wanted to experiment with samples of soul music, which he became a fan of since he listened to his favorite album, Daft Punk's second studio record Discovery; the result was a hip-hop-style instrumental that he felt was "incomplete" with only drums and the phased samples.
He didn't plan "Flicker" to be a track on Worlds until some time when he was using a translation website to translate "song titles that would never be seen" incorrectly into Japanese, put the Japanese text into a text-to-speech program for it to be converted into a WAV file for him to "cut it into a rap" which he called a "charming little thing". He composed the lead melody and chord progression; the song features the laugh of Remon Yamano from the anime "Ano Natsu de Matteru" at multiple points. Robinson described "Flicker" as more of a "journey" than a pop song, saying that it goes "to a lot of different places" structure-wise; the text-to-speech speaker on the song says "Watashi wa choudo nani ga juuyou ka mitsukeyou toshite iru,” translating to “I’m just trying to find what is important to me,” which Robinson said was "nice, because it could have come out as something random." The song contains influences of disco, opening with a "summer-y disco guitar" before moving into "hands-in-the-air synth blasts" as a critic for Vice magazine described.
The pitch shifting of the samples was influenced by the works of Jay Dilla. The song's composition and arrangement was compared by Spin magazine's Garrett Kamps to the works of Boards of Canada, while other listeners compared the track's use of soul samples to that of "The Glory," a track from Kanye West's third album Graduation. "Flicker" premiered on July 28, 2014 by Vogue magazine for streaming as Worlds' fourth and final single. The song was planned to be the album's second single after "Sea of Voices," but Robinson replaced it with "Sad Machine" three days before its release. Robinson wanted Flicker to be the LP's last single, given that it presented the record's "cuter" aspect. Upon its release, it debuted at number 37 on the Billboard Dance/Electronic Songs chart in the United States on the issue week of August 16, 2014 re-appearing at its peak of number 34 on the week of August 30. A remix by Robinson's friend Mat Zo, which he said was “One of the best remixes I've gotten in my life”, was first heard at his performance at the Monstercat label showcase, was released on September 9, 2015 as a single off the official remix album for Worlds.
The re-cut was ranked number seven on Billboard's "The 15 Best Dance / Electronic Remixes of 2015," Matt Medved writing that "What Mat Zo's meandering revision of the Worlds fan-favorite lacks in cohesion, it more than makes up in imagination." An official animated music video for "Flicker" premiered on August 14, 2014. Lucas Villa described the video as "like seeing Japan on a train ride," where "scenes of the area fly by with an abounding amount of digital alterations." Footage of Japan in the video is filtered with 8-bit video game effects. The video was well received, with Villa calling it "as awe-inspiring as the track itself." "Flicker" was well received by critics. Elissa Stolman praised Robinson on the track for not being "overwhelmed by his influences, which seem to extend farther back into history than most producers in his field", while joking that "it's just a bit of a shame that disco is one of them." In his mixed review of Worlds, Derek Staples of Consequence of Sound praised “Flicker” and “Goodbye to a World” for highlighting "Robinson’s more intricate big room capabilities" in an album where "Robinson hides his former bass-fueled self behind the album’s sheen."
Allmusic journalist Andy Kellman said in his review of the album that "Flicker", along with "Lionhearted" and "Years of War" "have sections muscular and bold enough to move large crowds", while Las Vegas Weekly critic Mike Prevatt described the track's hook as having an "emotional payoff." Official music video on YouTube Metrolyrics
Oliver Newton Colvile is a British politician. He is a former Conservative Member of Parliament for Plymouth Devonport. Colvile's father served as an officer in the Royal Navy for over thirty years, his grandfather was the First Lieutenant of Plymouth's Naval barracks, whilst his uncle was a Royal Marines officer who served at Stonehouse. Colvile says his interest in politics took hold whilst at Stowe School when he became fascinated by how an idea could become law or a policy to protect civil liberties, to enhance people's freedom and for the enjoyment of life, he joined the Conservative Party's staff at the age of 21, working for backbench MPs. He devised community campaigns which saw the Conservatives return to Parliament a number of its candidates in marginal seats. Colvile has lived for the past 10 years at Plymouth. Colvile unsuccessfully contested the Plymouth Sutton constituency in the 2001 and 2005 general elections, both times losing to the sitting Labour MP Linda Gilroy. Colvile won its successor seat, Plymouth Sutton and Devonport, at the 2010 general election with a majority of 1149 and 34.3% of the votes cast, ousting Gilroy with a swing of 6.9% calculated after allowing for significant boundary changes.
He held the seat at the 2015 general election with a reduced majority of 523. Colvile was named by Conservative Home as one of a minority of loyal Conservative backbench MPs not to have voted against the government in any significant rebellions. Colvile lost his seat at the seat at the 2017 general election to Luke Pollard of the Labour Party. Parliamentary and government rolesHouse of Commons Northern Ireland Affairs Select Committee. Public Bill Committee for the Defence Reform Act 2014.. Parliamentary Private Secretary to the ministers at the Ministry of Defence. PPS to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. In March 2017, the Electoral Commission fined the Conservative Party £70,000. During the 2015 general election coaches of activists were transported to marginal constituencies including Plymouth Sutton & Devonport to campaign alongside or in close proximity to local campaigners; the tour party stopped off at the Jury's Inn in Exeter Street, where it used 29 rooms. The inclusion in the Party national return of what in the commission's view should have been reported as candidate spending meant that there was a realistic prospect that this enabled its candidates to gain a financial advantage over opponents.
Oliver Colville was investigated by Devon and Cornwall Police over whether he breached election spending rules. Devon and Cornwall Police subsequently confirmed that a file has been passed to the Crown Prosecution Service for a decision on whether Mr Colville should be prosecuted for electoral fraud in relation to the 2015 general election. Colvile was criticised when it was revealed in October 2011 that he received hospitality equivalent to £694.80 from Japan Tobacco, owners of the Benson & Hedges and Silk Cut brands, paying for a visit to see Test match cricket at The Oval that summer, coming shortly after he voted in favour of relaxing the smoking ban. Colvile was again criticised in July 2013 when it was revealed he received two free tickets to the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, again from Japan Tobacco. Colvile was in favour of Britain remaining in the European Union during the 2016 referendum campaign. In March 2013 Mr Colvile, vice-chair of the all-party parliamentary group on the Armed Forces made an all-expenses-paid trip to Saudi Arabia as a delegate of the UK Defence Forum that he received from the Saudi Arabian government.
Following a spell at an agency advising on business development, since 1996 Oliver Colvile has run a communications business specialising in handling community consultation for major regeneration projects. He is a member of the Federation of Small Businesses and the Institute of Directors, is a former director of the Enterprise Forum. Colvile is a keen cricketer and a member of the Addis Army, which supports the England national side: Official Website Profile at the Conservative Party Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou www.dodonline.co.uk