United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Mariposa Grove is a sequoia grove located near Wawona, United States, in the southernmost part of Yosemite National Park. It is the largest grove of Giant Sequoias in the park, with several hundred mature examples of the tree. Two of its trees are among the 30 largest Giant Sequoias in the world; the grove closed on July 6, 2015 for a restoration project and reopened on June 15, 2018. The Mariposa Grove was first visited by non-natives in 1857 when Galen Clark and Milton Mann found it, they named the grove after Mariposa County, where the grove is located. The Giant Sequoia named Grizzly Giant is between 1900–2400 years old: the oldest tree in the grove, it has a volume of 34,010 cubic feet, is counted as the 25th largest tree in the world. It is 210 feet tall, has a buttressed base with a basal circumference of 28 m or a diameter of 30 feet. Grizzly Giant's first branch from the base is 2 m in diameter. Another tree, the Wawona Tree, had a tunnel cut through it in the nineteenth century, wide enough for horse-drawn carriages and early automobiles to drive through.
Weakened by the large opening at its base, the tree fell down in a storm in 1969. Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on June 30, 1864 ceding Mariposa Grove and Yosemite Valley to the state of California. Criticism of stewardship over the land led to the state's returning the grove to federal control with the establishment of Yosemite National Park; the Mariposa Grove Museum is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Some of the trees found in the grove that are worthy of special note are: The Fallen Monarch: A tree that fell more than three hundred years ago. Giant sequoias are resistant to decay, so their remains can linger for a long period of time if undisturbed; the Bachelor and Three Graces: A group of four trees, three of them growing close together, with a fourth a little more distant. Their roots are so intertwined that if one of them were to fall, it would bring the others along with it; the Grizzly Giant: The oldest tree and second largest tree in the grove, with a volume of 34,010 cubic feet The Washington tree: The largest tree in the grove, with a volume of 35,950 cubic feet The California Tunnel Tree: Cut in 1895 to allow coaches to pass through it, this is the only living Giant sequoia tree with a tunnel in it since the fall of the Wawona Tunnel Tree in 1969 and the fall of the Pioneer Cabin Tree in 2017.
The Faithful Couple: A rare case in which two trees grew so close together that their trunks have fused together at the base. The Clothespin tree: Countless fires throughout the decades nearly severed this tree's trunk, creating a space in it large enough for a pick-up truck to drive through; the Telescope tree: A tree that has become hollow from repeated fires through the decades. Despite that, the tree is still living, it is possible to walk inside the tree and, from there, see the sky. This condition leaves the tree weakened and makes it more difficult for it to withstand strong winds; this tree could topple at any time. The Columbia tree: The tallest tree in the grove and in Yosemite National Park at 285 feet; the Galen Clark tree: Of historical importance, as it is said to be the first tree seen by Galen Clark when he entered the grove, inspired his love for the Giant Sequoias and struggle for setting aside the land for preservation, a new concept in the mid-19th century. The Wawona Tunnel Tree: Renamed the "Fallen Tunnel Tree" after it toppled over during a snow storm in 1969.
In 1881, this was the first tree to have a tunnel carved through its trunk. Its collapse is seen as a turning point in the preservation program in National Parks in the United States. So grave was the shock of the tree's collapse that the result was a greater awareness of the sensitivity of ecosystems for a living thing as massive as the Giant Sequoias; the Fallen Giant: It was one of the largest trees in the grove, until it fell in 1873. The Massachusetts tree: It was one of the most famous trees in the grove, it fell in 1927. The Mariposa Grove Museum was built in 1930, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. List of largest giant sequoias List of trees Geology of U. S. Parklands: Fifth Edition, Eugene P. Kiver and David V. Harris ISBN 0-471-33218-6 Yosemite National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias - Yosemite National Park Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove: A Preliminary Report, 1865, California State "Mariposa Grove", National Geographic Society Record from the 38th Congress, 1864 Act granting the grove to California Record from the 59th Congress, Act returning the grove to federal control Short radio episode Samoset about John Muir showing Ralph Waldo Emerson the Mariposa Grove, from The Life and Letters of John Muir, 1923.
California Legacy Project
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Frank Bigelow is an American politician serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Republican representing the 5th district, encompassing Gold Country and the central Sierra Nevada. Prior to being elected to the state assembly, he was a Madera County supervisor. Official website Campaign website
California Republican Party
The California Republican Party is the California affiliate of the United States Republican Party. The party is based in Sacramento, is led by Chairwoman Jessica Patterson; as of 2018, Republicans represent 24% of the state's registered voters, placing the Republicans in third place in California behind the Democratic Party and no party preference voters. The party is a superminority in the California State Legislature, holding only 19 seats out of 80 in the California State Assembly, 11 seats of 40 in the California State Senate; the California GOP holds none of the 8 statewide executive branch offices, only 7 of the state's seats in the House of Representatives, neither of California's seats in the United States Senate. The following is a list of Republican statewide and legislative officeholders: NoneBoth of California's U. S. Senate seats have held by Democrats since 1992. John F. Seymour was the last Republican to represent California in the U. S. Senate. Appointed in 1991 by Pete Wilson who resigned his Class I Senate seat because he was elected governor in 1990, Seymour lost the 1992 special election to determine who would serve the remainder of the term expiring in 1995.
Pete Wilson was the last Republican elected to represent California in the U. S. Senate in 1988, the last Republican to represent California for a full term in the U. S. Senate from 1983 to 1989. Out of the 53 seats California is apportioned in the U. S. House of Representatives, 7 are held by Republicans: NoneCalifornia has not elected any GOP candidates to statewide office since 2006, when Arnold Schwarzenegger was re-elected as governor and Steve Poizner was elected insurance commissioner. In 2010, term limits forced Schwarzenegger from office, Poizner did not seek re-election as insurance commissioner, instead making an unsuccessful bid for the Republican nomination for governor. Republicans hold 1 of the 5 seats on the State Board of Equalization: 1st District: Ted Gaines Republicans are in the minority, holding 11 of the 40 seats in the State Senate. Republicans have been the minority party in the Senate since 1970. Republicans hold 19 of the 80 seats in the State Assembly; the last time the Republicans were the majority party in the Assembly was during 1994–1996.
Of California's ten largest cities, four have Republican mayors in 2018: San Diego: Kevin Faulconer Fresno: Lee Brand Bakersfield: Karen Goh Anaheim: Harry Sidhu The California Republican Party is a "political party that has detailed statutory provisions applicable to its operation", which are in division 7, part 3 of the California Elections Code. The Republican State Central Committee, the governing body of the California Republican Party, functions pursuant to its standing rules and bylaws; the RSCC works together with the Republican county central committees and district central committees, with county central committees appointing delegates to the RSCC. The regular officers of the RSCC are the chairman, state vice chairman, eight regional vice chairmen and treasurer. There are semi-autonomous county central committees for each of California's 58 counties. At every direct primary election or when district boundaries are redrawn, their members are either elected by supervisor district or Assembly district depending on the county.
California State Assembly Republican Caucus Pasadena Republican Club oldest continuously active Republican club in America, founded on March 29, 1884. California Republican Party California State Senate Republican Caucus California State Assembly Republican Caucus California Republican Lawyers AssociationAssociated organizationsCalifornia Congress of Republicans California Republican Assembly California Republican LeagueYouthCalifornia College Republicans California Young Republicans Young Republican FederationMinorityCalifornia Republican National Hispanic CommitteeCalifornia Federation of Republican Women Republican Jewish CoalitionLincoln ClubsLincoln Club of Fresno County Lincoln Club of Northern California Lincoln Club of San Diego Lincoln Club of Los Angeles County
California State Route 41
State Route 41 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California, connecting the Cabrillo Highway in Morro Bay with Fresno and Yosemite National Park via the San Joaquin Valley. It has been constructed as an expressway from near SR 198 in Lemoore north to the south part of Fresno, where the Yosemite Freeway begins, passing along the east side of downtown and extending north into Madera County; the majority of Route 41 runs as four-lane divided highway. The southern end of the highway intersects SR 1 in Morro Bay. Between Morro Bay and Fresno, the highway intersects U. S. Route 101 in Atascadero, proceeds through the Coast Range and intersects SR 46. Actor James Dean died in an accident in 1955 at the intersection of SR 46 in Cholame. There is a memorial located there; the interchange is now called the James Dean Memorial Junction. Between SR 46 and SR 33, SR 41 travels through Kern County without any intersections in its entirety. After entering Kings County, it reaches SR 33. SR 41 intersects Interstate 5 south of Kettleman City.
A large hazardous waste and municipal solid waste disposal facility operated by Waste Management, Inc. is located 5.6 km SSW of Kettleman City on the west side of the highway. Just before reaching the intersection at SR 198 outside of the city of Lemoore, SR 41 becomes a four-lane divided highway until just southeast of Riverdale, where SR 41 reverts to one lane in each direction; the El Adobe de los Robles Rancho built by pioneer Daniel Rhoads can be found north of Lemoore. Southeast of Caruthers, SR 41 becomes a four-lane divided highway and a freeway approaching the Fresno city limits; the route intersects SR 99 near Jensen Avenue. Complete access is not available between SR 41/SR 99. For example, there is no direct connector between the southbound SR 41 and northbound SR 99. There is no direct connector between the northbound SR 41 and the southbound SR 99. Drivers must exit at Jensen Avenue, head east on Jensen until its junction with SR 99 a half-mile east of SR 41, make the southbound transition onto SR 99.
SR 41 continues north into downtown Fresno intersects SR 180 at a section of the latter route that links SR 41 to both SR 99 to the west, to SR 168 to the east. North of Fresno, the route crosses the San Joaquin River, enters Madera County near Children's Hospital of Central California before reverting to a two-lane highway. 8.5 miles further north, Route 41 intersects with SR 145, before entering California's Sierra-Nevada mountain range. Route 41 continues through the towns of Coarsegold and Oakhurst, where it intersects with SR 49. Route 41 ends in Yosemite National Park to the north. Tunnel View is a viewpoint located just outside the east end of the Wawona Tunnel in Yosemite National Park, it is located about 1.5 miles from the Yosemite Valley. This is the first view. There is an END-41 sign just south of the southern entrance to Yosemite National Park; the state routes within the park are not signed. Tunnel View is along Route 41's alignment, although state maintenance of the route ends at the south entrance of the park.
Except between US 101 in Atascadero and SR 46 near Shandon, SR 41 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, north of SR 46 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. Three segments – from SR 1 to US 101, SR 46 to SR 33, SR 49 at Oakhurst to Yosemite – are eligible for inclusion in the State Scenic Highway System, but SR 41 is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. SR 41 is known as the E. G. Lewis Highway from SR 1 to US 101 in San Luis Obispo County, the Dwight David Eisenhower Memorial Freeway from Ventura Avenue in Fresno to Herndon Avenue in Fresno, the Donald DeMers Highway from Jensen Avenue in Fresno to Elkhorn Avenue, the Yosemite Freeway from Elkhorn Avenue to the Fresno-Madera County line, the Southern Yosemite Highway from the Fresno-Madera County line to Yosemite National Park, the Wawona Road from Fresno to Yosemite National Park.
In 1930, the counties of Fresno, Kings and San Luis Obispo considered organizing a joint highway district to construct a shortcut connecting Fresno with the Pacific Ocean at Morro Bay. This highway would pass through Kettleman City on its way to the Cholame Lateral near Cholame or Shandon, continue to Morro Bay, where a new harbor was being developed; the entire length from Fresno to Morro Bay, as well as the Wawona Road to Yosemite, was added to the state highway system in 1933 as Route 125, subsequently improved by the state. In 1934, the state sign route system was established, Sign Route 41 was designated along Route 125 from Yosemite south and southwest to Cholame and west through Paso Robles to Cambria via Legislative Route 33; the part of Route 125 southwest of Cholame instead became part of the new U. S. Route 466. By the 1950s, the short piece of US 466 between Creston and Atascadero had not yet been paved, so US 466 was moved to the longer but better road via Paso Robles, replacing SR 41 to Paso Robles and overlapping US 101 to Atascadero.
As SR 41 had not been signed over the unpaved road west of Paso Robles, it was truncated to Cholame. US 466 was eliminated in the 1964 renumbering. However, instead of going south and west to Morro Bay, SR 46 continued we