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Wax tablet

A wax tablet is a tablet made of wood and covered with a layer of wax linked loosely to a cover tablet, as a "double-leaved" diptych. It was used throughout the Middle Ages. Cicero's letters make passing reference to the use of cerae, some examples of wax-tablets have been preserved in waterlogged deposits in the Roman fort at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall. Medieval wax tablet books are on display in several European museums. Writing on the wax surface was performed with a pointed instrument, a stylus. A straight-edged spatula-like implement would be used as an eraser; the modern expression of "a clean slate" equates to the Latin expression "tabula rasa". Wax tablets were used for a variety of purposes, from taking down students' or secretaries' notes to recording business accounts. Early forms of shorthand were used too; the earliest surviving exemplar of a boxwood writing tablet with an ivory hinge was among the finds recovered from the 14th-century BCE Uluburun Shipwreck near Kaş in modern Turkey in 1986.

This find further confirmed that the reference to writing tablets in Homer was far from anachronistic. An archaeological discovery in 1979 in Durrës, Albania found two wax tablets made of ivory in a grave believed to belong to a money lender from the 2nd century CE; the Greeks started using the folding pair of wax tablets, along with the leather scroll in the mid-8th century BCE. Liddell & Scott, 1925 edition gives the etymology of the word for the writing-tablet, from the letter delta based on ancient Greek and Roman authors and scripts, due to the shape of tablets to account for it. An alternative theory holds that it has retained its Semitic designation, which signified "door" but was being used for writing tablets in Ugarit in the 13th century BCE. In Hebrew the term evolved into daleth. In the first millennium BCE writing tablets were in use in Mesopotamia as well as Syria and Palestine. A carved stone panel dating to between 640-615 BCE, excavated from the South-West Palace of the Assyrian ruler Sennacherib, at Nineveh in Iraq depicts two figures, one clasping a scroll and the other bearing what is thought to be an open diptych.

Berthe van Regemorter identified a similar figure in the Neo-Hittite Stela of Tarhunpiyas, dating to the late 8th century BCE, seen holding what may be a form of tablature with a unique button closure. Writing tablets of ivory were found in the ruins of Sargon's palace in Nimrud. Margaret Howard surmised that these tablets might have once been connected together using an ingenious hinging system with cut pieces of leather resembling the letter “H” inserted into slots along the edges to form a concertina structure. Hériman of Tournai, a monk at the abbey of St Martin of Tournai, wrote "I wrote down a certain amount on tablets". A remarkable example of a wax tablet book are the servitude records which the hospital of Austria's oldest city, established in 1500. Ten wooden plates, sized 375 x 207 mm and arranged in a 90 mm stack, are each divided into two halves along their long axis; the annual payables due are written on paper glued to the left sides. Payables received were recorded for deduction on the respective right sides, which are covered with brownish-black writing wax.

The material is based on beeswax, contains 5-10% plant oils and carbon pigments. This volume is the continuation of an earlier one, begun in 1447. Wax tablets were used for high-volume business records of transient importance until the 19th century. For instance, the salt mining authority at Schwäbisch Hall employed wax records until 1812; the fish market in Rouen used them until the 1860s, where their construction and use had been well documented in 1849. Galling, K. 1971. "Tafel, Buch und Blatt" in Near Eastern Studies in Honour of W. F. Albright, pp 207–23

Industrial railway

An industrial railway is a type of railway, not available for public transportation and is used to serve a particular industrial, logistics or a military site. In regions of the world influenced by British Railway culture and management practices, they are referred to as tramways. Industrial railways may be connecting the site to public freight networks through sidings, isolated or located within a served property. Industrial railways were once common, but with the rise of road transport, their numbers have diminished. An example of an industrial railway would transport bulk goods, for example clay from a quarry or coal from a mine, to an interchange point, called an exchange siding, with a main line railway, onwards from where it would be transported to its final destination; the main reasons for industrial railways are for one of two reasons: Onsite shunting and consolidation: part-finished products or goods require movement between different parts of the process site to enable them to be manufactured, or made-ready for shipment.

Moving small amounts of goods over short distances is expensive if undertaken by mainline railway operators, who make money for charging for the shipment of goods over long distances in bulk Control of manufacture: Many industrial lines only operate for short periods of time, requiring the shipment of time-sensitive goods to the factory or processing point, over short distances. These are food products operating on narrow gauge lines to enable closer access to the originating pointResultantly, most industrial railways are short being only a few miles/kilometers long. While these types of lines most at some point connect via exchange sidings or transfer sidings to bulk mainline shipping railways, there are notable exceptions which are hundreds of miles long, which include the iron ore-carrying railways in Western Australia, or in China to transport coal, while in Canada there are the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway and the Cartier Railway; these lines can be thought of as dedicated shipment routes, where only the products of that industry require shipment between those two points, hence a dedicated line makes more economic sense with only limited possibility of consolidation of shipment with other industries.

Industrial railways serve many different industries. In both Australia and Cuba a large number of industrial railways serve the sugarcane industry. In Colorado, the Coors Brewing Company uses its own industrial railway at the brewery both for the delivery of raw materials and for shipping the finished product; some industrial railways are military in purpose, serve ammunition dumps or transportation hubs and storage facilities. The world's largest industrial railway serves the Baikonur Cosmodrome, has been long operated by a military rail unit of the Russian Armed Forces; the railway participates in space launches, transporting space vehicles to their immediate launch pads. The Industrial Railway Society Light Railway Research Society of Australia

Atlanta murders of 1979–1981

The Atlanta murders of 1979–1981, sometimes called the Atlanta child murders, were a series of murders committed in Atlanta, between July 1979 and May 1981. Over the two-year period, at least 28 children and adults were killed. Wayne Williams, an Atlanta native, 23 years old at the time of the last murder, was arrested and convicted of two of the adult murders and sentenced to two consecutive life terms. Police subsequently have attributed a number of the child murders to Williams, although he has not been charged in any of those cases, Williams himself maintains his innocence, although the killings ceased after his arrest. In March 2019, the Atlanta police, under the order of Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms, reopened the cases in hopes that new technology will lead to a conviction. 1979 In the middle of 1979, Edward Hope Smith and Alfred Evans, both 14, disappeared four days apart. Their bodies were found on July 28 in a wooded area, Smith with a.22 caliber gunshot wound in his upper back. They were believed to be the first victims of the putative "Atlanta Child Killer."

On September 4, the next victim, 14-year-old Milton Harvey, disappeared while on an errand to the bank for his mother. He was riding a yellow 10-speed bike, found a week in a remote area of Atlanta, his body was not recovered until November of that year. On October 21, 9-year-old Yusuf Bell went to a store to buy Bruton snuff for a neighbor, Eula Birdsong, at Reese Grocery on McDaniel Street. A witness said she saw Yusuf near the intersection of McDaniel and Fulton getting into a blue car before he disappeared, his body was found on November 8 in the abandoned E. P. Johnson Elementary School by a school janitor, looking for a place to urinate. Bell's body was found clothed in the brown cut-off shorts he was last seen wearing, though they had a piece of masking tape stuck to them, he had been hit over the head twice, the cause of death was strangulation. Police did not link his disappearance to the previous killings.1980 On March 4, 1980, the first female victim, 12-year-old Angel Lenair, disappeared.

She left her house around 4 p.m. wearing a denim outfit, was last seen at a friend's house watching the television program Sanford and Son. Lenair's body was found six days in a wooded vacant lot along Campbellton Road, wearing the same clothes in which she had left home. A pair of white panties that did not belong to Lenair were stuffed in her mouth, her hands were bound with an electrical cord; the cause of death was strangulation. On March 11, one week after Lenair's disappearance, 11-year-old Jeffery Mathis disappeared while on an errand for his mother, he was wearing gray jogging pants, brown shoes, a white and green shirt. Months a girl said she saw him get into a blue car with a light-skinned man and a dark-skinned man; the body of Jeffrey Mathis was found in a "briar-covered patch of woodlands," 11 months after he disappeared, by which time it was not possible to identify a cause of death. On May 18, 14-year-old Eric Middlebrooks disappeared, he was last seen answering the telephone at home and leaving in a hurry on his bicycle, taking with him a hammer to repair the bicycle.

His body was found the following day next to his bicycle in the rear garage of an Atlanta bar. The bar was located next door to what was the Georgia Department of Offender Rehabilitation, his pockets were turned inside out, his chest and arms had slight stab wounds, the cause of death was determined to be blunt force trauma to the head. A few weeks before he disappeared, Middlebrooks had testified against three juveniles in a robbery case. On June 9, 12-year-old Christopher Richardson went missing on his way to a local pool, he was last seen walking towards the DeKalb County's Midway Recreation Center in Midway Park. He was wearing blue shorts, a light blue shirt, blue tennis shoes, his body was not found until the following January, clothed in unfamiliar swim trunks, along with the body of a victim, Earl Terrell. The cause of Richardson's death was not determined. On June 22, 7-year-old LaTonya Wilson disappeared from her parents' apartment. According to a witness, she appeared to have been abducted by two men, one of whom was seen climbing into the apartment window and holding Wilson in his arms as he spoke to the other man in the parking lot.

On October 18, Wilson's body was found in a fenced-in area at the end of Verbena Street in Atlanta. By the body had skeletonized, no cause of death could be established; the next day, June 23, 10-year-old Aaron Wyche disappeared after having been seen near a local grocery store, getting into a blue Chevrolet with either one or two black men. A female witness says she saw Wyche being led from Tanner's Corner Grocery by a 6-foot-tall 180-pound black male 30 years old, with a mustache and goatee; the witness's description of the car matched a description of a similar car implicated in the earlier Jeffrey Mathis disappearance. At 6 p.m. Wyche was seen at a shopping center; the following day, Wyche's body was found under a bridge. In July 1980, two more children, Anthony Carter and Earl Terrell, were murdered. Between August and November 1980, five more killings took place. All the victims were African-American children, between the ages of 7 and 14, most were killed via asphyxiation.1981 The murders continued into 1981.

The first known victim in the new year was Lubie Geter, who disappeared on January 3. Geter's body was found on February 5. Geter's friend Terry Pue went missing in January. An anonymous caller told the police wher

John VII, Count of Harcourt

Jean VII d'Harcourt was a French nobleman. He was Count of Harcourt, Count of Aumale, Viscount of Châtellerault, Seigneur of Mézières, of Elbeuf, of Lillebone, of La Saussaye etc, he was the son of John VI of Harcourt, Count of Harcourt, of Catherine de Bourbon, sister-in-law of King Charles V of France. On 17 March 1390, he married Marie of Alençon, princess of the blood, daughter of Pierre II, Count of Alençon and of Marie Chamaillart d'Anthenaise, Viscountess of Beaumont, they had three children: John VIII of Harcourt, Count of Aumale and captain general of Normandy, killed at the Battle of Verneuil. Marie of Harcourt, wife of Antoine of Lorraine, Count of Vaudémont, the origin of the Harcourt-Lorraine branch. Jeanne of Harcourt He participated in the siege of Taillebourg, where he was made a knight by his uncle Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, at the siege of Tunis and Harfleur, he distinguished himself at the Battle of Agincourt. In 1418, his castle at Harcourt was taken by the English, his titles of Count of Aumale and Count of Harcourt were usurped and given to Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter.

His cousin, King Charles VI, therefore supported him and named him captain general of Normandy, gave him a gift of 1000 books. On his death in 1452, he was buried at the Franciscan convent at Châtellerault, which he had founded. With him, the oldest branch of Harcourt became extinct. Gilles-André de La Roque, Histoire généalogique de la maison de Harcourt, 1662 Dom Lenoir, Preuves généalogiques et historiques de la Maison d'Harcourt, 1907 Georges Martin, Histoire et Généalogie de la Maison d'Harcourt, 1994 Dictionnaire de biographie française, 1989

Anna (The Courteeners album)

Anna is the third album by British indie rock band Courteeners, recorded with Hurts producer Joe Cross and released on 4 February 2013. It reached number 6 in the UK Albums Chart. On 21 February in support of the album the band embarked on a UK and European "ANNA Tour" with 22 shows in England, Ireland, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In December the band toured the UK once again culminating in their 3rd headline appearance at the 16,000 capacity Manchester Arena; the album has seen the release of three singles.'Lose Control' was released on 28 January 2013, peaking at number 82 in the UK,'Van Der Graaf' was released on 6 May 2013 and'Are You In Love With A Notion?' on 9 December 2013. All tracks are written by Liam Fray; the CourteenersLiam Fray – vocals and guitars Daniel Moores – guitars Mark Cuppello – bass guitars Michael Campbell – drumsAdditional personnelContinuous Rob Crane – design George Atkins – engineer Adam Paynekeyboards Robin Schmidtmastering Mike Crossey – mixing Paul X. Johnson – painting

Raw as F**k

Raw as Fuck is an album by the British electronic music group Freestylers. Released in July 2004, it was the group's third album, it is the first full-length album release from the Against the Grain label. The remix album was released a year later; the album included breakbeat dance music, with tracks including the singles "Get a Life", "Push Up" and "Boom Blast". "Push Up" was successful in Australia as a single, where it reached No. 2 in the charts, although in both Australia and the United Kingdom the album failed to make a major impact on the album charts. The tracks "Punks", "The Slammer" and "No Replica" were from the singles the Freestylers created as Raw As F**k in 2002–2003; the three singles were their first productions in Against the Grain. Despite the album's title, the album did not carry an "Parental Advisory - Explicit Content" warning due to a lack of extreme profanity on the tracks themselves. Track 5 was from "The Slammer" / "Theme From Raw" single by Raw As F**k Track 7 was from the "Punks" / "Demon Beats" single by Raw As F**k Track 11 was credited as Million Dan vs.

Raw As F**k The duration of tracks 6 & 11 are extended in US releases