A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Massachusetts Route 126
Route 126 is a north–south state highway in Massachusetts. Route 126 begins at the Rhode Island state line, continuing into Woonsocket as Rhode Island Route 126. After a short stretch in the town of Blackstone and Worcester County, Route 126 enters the town of Bellingham and Norfolk County, heading north. In Bellingham, Route 126 has a short concurrency with Route 140 at the center of town. In the north of the town, the route turns east on Hartford Avenue, crossing I-495 at Exit 18. Shortly after entering the town of Medway, the route turns north again, crossing Route 109 shortly after that. Route 126 enters Holliston, in Middlesex County. In Holliston, Route 126 shares a 2.3 miles long concurrency with Route 16 through the center of town. After splitting from Route 16, Route 126 heads north into Ashland, passing through the eastern side of town before entering Framingham; the route passes Waushakam Pond before crossing Route 135 near the center of town, next to the Framingham MBTA station. The road bears to the right, passing Gleason Pond before crossing over Route 9 with exit ramps between the two.
At this point, Route 30 eastbound joins Route 126 for a short stretch before meeting Route 30 westbound. Route 126 continues northward; as it passes Lake Cochituate, Route 126 enters the town of Wayland. The route joins Route 27 for a mile, crossing U. S. Route 20 together just before the two routes split. Route 126 enters the town of Lincoln. After crossing Route 117, the route continues north, crossing the Fitchburg Line before entering Concord; as the route rounds the banks of Walden Pond through the State Reservation, it ends at Routes 2 and 2A next to Concord-Carlisle Regional High School
Massachusetts Route 27
Route 27 is a south–north highway in eastern Massachusetts that runs for 73.4 miles. Route 27 runs in a sweeping arc from Kingston to Chelmsford. For most of its route, it acts as an intermediate route between Interstate 95 and Interstate 495. Route 27 begins in Kingston at Route 106 1-1/4 miles west of Route 3, it heads northwest towards Brockton, passing through Pembroke, East Bridgewater and Whitman. In Brockton the road shares a triple concurrency with Route 123 Eastbound. From the center of town, Route 27 heads northwest, past the Westgate Mall, over Route 24 at Exits 18A-B, past Good Samaritan Hospital before passing into Norfolk County via Stoughton. In Stoughton, the road has a brief concurrency with Route 138 in the center of town, it passes just south of the town of Canton before making a large loop through the town of Sharon. It crosses over Interstate 95 without access, between Exits 9 and 10, both of which are accessible via US Route 1 nearby, it crosses through Walpole and Medfield before crossing the Charles River into Middlesex County and the town of Sherborn.
In Sherborn, the road begins a more northerly direction, with a short concurrency with Route 16 in the center of town. The road heads through the center of Natick, passing the town green and crossing Route 135, which carries the Boston Marathon at that point. Route 27 crosses over Route 9 with a four-way exit ramp system, just east of Lake Cochituate, the Natick Collection and the Golden Triangle retail area. Route 27 passes into Wayland and under the Massachusetts Turnpike, which it accesses via Route 30, just north of the Pike. In Wayland, Route 27 has a 1.2-mile concurrency with Route 126, passing through the center of town and intersecting US Route 20. The road crosses the Sudbury River into Sudbury and through the historic town center, it passes into Maynard, having a short, 0.1-mile concurrency with Route 62 over the Assabet River, before heading north into Acton. It crosses Route 2 at Exit 42 before crossing through the town center, past the Isaac Davis Monument, it sweeps by Carlisle before directly crossing into Westford, passing through the southeast corner of town before heading into Chelmsford.
Route 27 ends at the center of town, at the intersection of Routes 4, 110 and 129, just south of Interstate 495 and U. S. Route 3. Route 27's original form was identical to the modern route south of Wayland, with the exception of a bypass built in 1963 from the Charles River at the Sherborn-Medfield line to Route 109 in Medfield center. North of Wayland the route followed current Route 126 into Concord, it came into its current form by 1939. However, historical maps from the U. S. Department of the Interior from 1943 show Route 27 running concurrent with US 20 from Wayland Center to Concord Road in Sudbury following Concord Road to Sudbury Center, where it resumed its current alignment on Hudson Road. Kelley, Neil. "MA 27". Massachusetts Route Log. neilbert.com. Retrieved 2006-06-26
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6% for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of August 2018, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include five National Humanities Medalists and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, four U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 21 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired.
That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams.
The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784, he described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Go
Wayland (display server protocol)
Wayland is a computer protocol that specifies the communication between a display server and its clients, as well as a reference implementation of the protocol in the C programming language. A display server using the Wayland protocol is called a Wayland compositor. Wayland is developed by a group of volunteers led by Kristian Høgsberg as a free and open community-driven project with the aim of replacing the X Window System with a modern, simpler windowing system in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems; the project's source code is published under the terms of the MIT License, a permissive free software licence. As part of its efforts, the Wayland project develops a reference implementation of a Wayland compositor called Weston. In recent years, Linux desktop graphics has moved from having "a pile of rendering interfaces... all talking to the X server, at the center of the universe" towards putting the Linux kernel and its components "in the middle", with "window systems like X and Wayland... off in the corner".
This will be "a much-simplified graphics system offering more flexibility and better performance". Kristian Høgsberg could have added an extension to X as many recent projects have done, but preferred to " X out of the hotpath between clients and the hardware" for reasons explained in the project's FAQ: What’s different now is that a lot of infrastructure has moved from the X server into the kernel or libraries, there is little left that has to happen in a central server process.... A tremendous amount of functionality that you must support to claim to speak the X protocol, yet nobody will use this.... This includes code tables, glyph rasterization and caching, XLFDs, the entire core rendering API that lets you draw stippled lines, wide arcs and many more state-of-the-1980s style graphics primitives. For many things we've been able to keep the X.org server modern by adding extension such as XRandR, XRender and COMPOSITE... With Wayland we can move the X server and all its legacy technology to an optional code path.
Getting to a point where the X server is a compatibility option instead of the core rendering system will take a while, but we'll never get there if don’t plan for it. Wayland consists of a reference implementation named Weston; the project is developing versions of GTK+ and Qt that render to Wayland instead of to X. Most applications are expected to gain support for Wayland through one of these libraries without modification to the application. Initial versions of Wayland have not provided network transparency, though Høgsberg noted in 2010 that network transparency is possible, it was not successful. Adam Jackson has envisioned providing remote access to a Wayland application by either "pixel-scraping" or getting it to send a "rendering command stream" across the network; as of early 2013, Høgsberg is experimenting with network transparency using a proxy Wayland server which sends compressed images to the real compositor. In August 2017, GNOME saw the first such pixel-scraping VNC server implementation under Wayland.
Wayland protocol follows a client–server model in which clients are the graphical applications requesting the display of pixel buffers on the screen, the server is the service provider controlling the display of these buffers. The Wayland reference implementation has been designed as a two-layer protocol: A low-level layer or wire protocol that handles the inter-process communication between the two involved processes—client and compositor—and the marshalling of the data that they interchange; this layer is message-based and implemented using the kernel IPC services Unix domain sockets in the case of Linux and Unix-like operating systems.:9 A high-level layer built upon it, that handles the information that client and compositor need to exchange to implement the basic features of a window system. This layer is implemented as "an asynchronous object-oriented protocol".:9While the low-level layer was written manually in C, the high-level layer is automatically generated from a description of the elements of the protocol stored in XML format.
Every time the protocol description of this XML file changes, the C source code that implements such protocol can be regenerated to include the new changes, allowing a flexible and error-proof protocol. The reference implementation of Wayland protocol is split in two libraries: a library to be used by Wayland clients called libwayland-client and a library to be used by Wayland compositors called libwayland-server.:57 The Wayland protocol is described as an "asynchronous object-oriented protocol".:9 Object-oriented means that the services offered by the compositor are presented as a series of objects living on the same compositor. Each object implements an interface which has a name, a number of methods as well as several associated events; every request and event has each one with a name and a data type. The protocol is asynchronous in the sense that requests do not have to wait for synchronized replies or ACKs, avoiding round-trip delay time and achieving improved performance; the Wayland clients can make a request on some object if the object's interface supports that request.
The client must supply the required data for the arguments of such request. This is the way; the compositor in turn sends information back to the client by causing t