Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
National Register of Historic Places listings in Wayne County, Utah
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Wayne County, Utah. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Wayne County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 21 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. One other site in the county has since been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Utah National Register of Historic Places listings in Utah Media related to National Register of Historic Places in Wayne County, Utah at Wikimedia Commons
Fishlake National Forest
Fishlake National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in south central Utah; the namesake for the forest is the largest freshwater mountain lake in the state. Animals that inhabit this forest are elk, deer, black bears, various species of bats, raccoons, two species of skunks, turkey vultures, two species of eagles, snowshoe hares, various species of woodpeckers, pine marten, four species of hummingbirds, kestrels, various species of owls, minks, three species of fox, bighorn sheep, wild turkeys, mountain goats. Established in 1907, the forest is split into four districts; the forest lies in parts of nine counties. In descending order of forestland area, they are Sevier, Piute, Wayne, Garfield and Sanpete counties. Forest headquarters are located in Richfield with local ranger district offices in Beaver, Fillmore and Richfield; the national forest is the headwaters of a tributary of the East Fork Sevier River. Pando, a clonal quaking aspen stand, according to some sources, is the oldest and largest organism on Earth, is located in the Fremont River Ranger District of the National Forest, 1 mile southwest of Fish Lake on Utah route 25.
Native water rights to Fish Lake were sold to the Fremont Irrigation Company on March 10, 1889 for nine horses, 500 pounds of flour, one steer, a suit of clothes. Ten years President William McKinley created a Forest Reserve which included Fish Lake. List of U. S. national forests Fish Lake, Utah Fishlake Scenic Byway Fishlake National Forest - USDA Forest Service Fishlake National Forest - Utah Office of Tourism
Dixie National Forest
Dixie National Forest is a United States National Forest in Utah with headquarters in Cedar City. It occupies two million acres and stretches for about 170 miles across southern Utah; the largest national forest in Utah, it straddles the divide between the Great Basin and the Colorado River. In descending order of forestland area it is located in parts of Garfield, Iron, Kane and Piute counties; the majority of forest acreage lies in Garfield County. Elevations vary from 2,800 feet above sea level near St. George, Utah to 11,322 feet at Blue Bell Knoll on Boulder Mountain; the southern rim of the Great Basin, near the Colorado River, provides spectacular scenery. Colorado River canyons are made up of steep-walled gorges; the Forest is divided into four geographic areas. High altitude forests in rolling hills characterize the Markagunt and Aquarius Plateaus. Boulder Mountain, one of the largest high-elevation plateaus in the United States, is dotted with hundreds of small lakes 10,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level.
The forest includes the Pine Valley Mountains north of St. George The Forest has many climatic extremes. Precipitation ranges from 10 inches in the lower elevations to more than 40 inches per year near Brian Head Peak 11,307 feet. At the higher elevations, most of the annual precipitation falls as snow. Thunderstorms produce heavy rains. In some areas, August is the wettest month of the year. Temperature extremes can be impressive, with summer temperatures exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit near St. George and winter lows exceeding −30 degrees Fahrenheit on the plateau tops; the vegetation of the Forest grades from sparse, desert-type plants at the lower elevations to stand of low-growing pinyon pine and juniper dominating the mid-elevations. At the higher elevations and conifers such as pine and fir predominate; the Dixie Forest Reserve was established on September 1905 by the General Land Office. The name was derived from the local description of the warm southern part of Utah as "Dixie". In 1906 the U.
S. Forest Service assumed responsibility for the lands, on March 4, 1907 it became a National Forest; the western part of Sevier National Forest was added on July 1, 1922, all of Powell National Forest on October 1, 1944. There are local ranger district offices and visitor centers in Cedar City, with Duck Creek Visitor Center Escalante, with Escalante Interagency Visitor Center Pine Valley, in St. George, with Pine Valley Heritage Center Powell, in Panguitch, with Red Canyon Visitor Center There are four designated wilderness areas within Dixie National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Ashdown Gorge Wilderness Box-Death Hollow Wilderness Cottonwood Forest Wilderness Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness List of U. S. national forests Panguitch Lake Bryce Canyon Natural History Association List of Utah Wilderness areas Podunk Paunsaugunt Plateau West Valley Fire Official website Podunk Guard Station
Grand County, Utah
Grand County is a county on the east central edge of Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,225, its county seat and largest city is Moab. Evidence of indigenous occupation up to 10,000BCE has been seen in Grand County; the present city of Moab is the site of pueblo farming communities of the 12th centuries. These groups were vanished when the first European explorers entered the country; the European-based settlement of the area began with arrival of Mormon pioneers in 1847. By 1855 they had sent missionary-settlers into eastern Utah Territory. An Elk Mountain Mission closed after a few months due to Indian raids. For several decades thereafter, the future Moab area was visited only by prospectors. Permanaent settlement began in 1877; these early settlers, coming in from the north, encountered the deep canyon walls of the Grand River and were unable to take wagons over, or around, the steep canyon walls. They dismantled the wagons and lowered them by rope to the river valley.
They drove their oxen over a canyon rim, down deep sand dunes. After the wagons were reassembled and supplies reloaded, they made their way through the deep sand to the river, they found a place to ford the river, below the present bridge in north Moab. They established a ferry at the crossing site, which remained in use until the first bridge was built in 1921. In 1881 the area was known as Grand Valley, Moab was a "wild west" town. A 1991 visitor to Moab said it was known as the toughest town in Utah because the area and surrounding country has many deep canyons, rivers and wilderness areas, becoming a hideout for outlaws; the local economy was based on farming and livestock. Mining came in at the end of the 19th century, the railroad arrived; the first school in the county was started in 1881. Mormon settlers began planting fruit trees by 1879, by 1910 Moab was a significant fruit-production center. Due to the distances involved, the settlers of eastern Emery County found it difficult to conduct county business in that county's seat.
By March 13, 1890 their petitions caused the Utah Territory legislature to designate the eastern portion of the county as a separate entity, to be named Grand County, named for the Grand River. The county boundaries were adjusted in 1892 and in 2003. Exploration for deep petroleum deposits began in the 1920s, this industry has made significant contribution to the economy since that time. Other significant industries include uranium mining, filmmaking. Grand County lies on the east side of Utah, its east border abuts the west border of the state of Colorado. The Green River flows southward through the eastern part of central Utah, its meandering course defines the western border of Grand County; the Colorado River enters the east side of Grand County from Colorado, flowing southwestward toward its confluence with the Green in San Juan County, south of Grand. The Dolores River enters Grand County from Colorado, flowing westward to its confluence with the Colorado River near Dewey. Grand County terrain is arid and spectacularly carved by water and wind erosion, exposing red rock formations that have created a solid tourist industry.
The area is little used for agriculture. The terrain is filled with hills and protuberances, but slopes to the south and to the west, its highest point is Mount Waas in the SE part of the county, at 12,336' ASL. The county has a total area of 3,684 square miles, of which 3,672 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Deserts and plateaus make up the scenery, with few settlements apart from the city of Moab, a Colorado River oasis. Arches National Park lies in the southern part of the county, just north of Moab. A northern portion of Canyonlands National Park lies in the southwest corner of the county. Canyonlands Field northwest of Moab United States Interstate I-70 US-191 Utah State Highway UT-128 Utah State Highway UT-313 Pace Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 8,485 people, 3,434 households, 2,170 families in the county; the population density was 2.31/sqmi. There were 4,062 housing units at an average density of 1.11/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 92.65% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 3.85% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races.
5.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,434 households out of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.60% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.80% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.06. The county population contained 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 12.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,387, the median income for a family was $39,095. Males had a median income of $31,000 versus $21,769 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,356. About 10.90% of families and 14.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.20% of those under age 18 and 8.40% of those age 65 or over.
Grand County has
Horseshoe Canyon (Utah)
Horseshoe Canyon known as Barrier Canyon, is in a remote area west of the Green River and north of the Canyonlands National Park Maze District in Utah, United States. It is known for its collection of Barrier Canyon Style rock art, including both pictographs and petroglyphs, first recognized as a unique style here. A portion of Horseshoe Canyon containing The Great Gallery is part of a detached unit of Canyonlands National Park; the Horseshoe Canyon Unit was added to the park in 1971 in an attempt to preserve and protect the rock art found along much of its length. Human presence in Horseshoe Canyon has been dated as far back as 9000-7000 B. C. when Paleo-Indians hunted large mammals such as mammoths across the southwest. Inhabitants included the Desert Archaic culture, the Fremont culture, Ancestral Puebloans. Occupation by the Fremont and Ancestral Puebloans was brief. D; the Great Gallery is one of the largest and best preserved collections of Barrier Canyon Style rock art. The gallery was a product of the Desert Archaic culture, a nomadic group of hunter-gatherers predating the Fremont and Ancestral Puebloans.
The panel itself measures about 200 feet 15 feet high. The panel contains about 20 life-sized anthropomorphic images, the largest of which measures over 7 feet tall. A Works Projects Administration produced reproduction of the paintings is located at the Natural History Museum of Utah; the Holy Ghost panel of the Great Gallery has been dated to between 400 A. D. and 1100 A. D. by dating two rockfall events of which one exposed the rock face the panel was made and the second damaging part of the panel. The Horseshoe Canyon trailhead is located on the west rim of the canyon, it can be accessed from State Route 24 via 30 miles of graded dirt road, or from Green River via 47 miles of dirt road. Both routes include segments of road. Visitors may camp at the west rim trailhead, on public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, or BLM. A vault toilet is provided but there is no water available. Overnight camping is not permitted in Horseshoe Canyon inside the Park boundaries. To see the rock art, visitors must descend 750 vertical feet to the canyon bottom and hike 3 miles.
The hike from the West Rim trailhead to the Great Gallery is 6.5 miles round trip, requires 3 to 6 hours to complete. The trail is well marked, but reaching the Great Gallery requires a certain amount of stamina and endurance in the heat. Three other significant panels of rock art are passed en route to the Great Gallery. Blue John Canyon, tributary of the Horseshoe, site of Aron Ralston's accident National Park Service Koyaanisqatsi, a film that uses images from the great gallery Canyonlands National Park - Horseshoe Canyon Canyonlands National Park - History of Horseshoe Canyon Canyonlands National Park - Archeology of Horseshoe Canyon, online-book 74 pages Wilderness Utah - Description and Photos of Horseshoe Canyon Barrier Canyon Style Rock Art
The Territory of Utah was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah, the 45th state. The territory was organized by an Organic Act of Congress in 1850, on the same day that the State of California was admitted to the Union and the New Mexico Territory was added for the southern portion of the former Mexican land; the creation of the territory was part of the Compromise of 1850 that sought to preserve the balance of power between slave and free states. With the exception of a small area around the headwaters of the Colorado River in present-day Colorado, the United States had acquired all the land of the territory from Mexico with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848; the creation of the Utah Territory was the result of the petition sent by the Mormon pioneers who had settled in the valley of the Great Salt Lake starting in 1847.
The Mormons, under the leadership of Brigham Young, had petitioned Congress for entry into the Union as the State of Deseret, with its capital as Salt Lake City and with proposed borders that encompassed the entire Great Basin and the watershed of the Colorado River, including all or part of nine current U. S. states. The Mormon settlers had drafted a state constitution in 1849 and Deseret had become the de facto government in the Great Basin by the time of the creation of the Utah Territory. Following the organization of the territory, Young was inaugurated as its first governor on February 3, 1851. In the first session of the territorial legislature in September, the legislature adopted all the laws and ordinances enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Deseret. Mormon governance in the territory was regarded as controversial by much of the rest of the nation fed by continuing lurid newspaper depictions of the polygamy practiced by the settlers, which itself had been part of the cause of their flight from the United States to the Great Salt Lake basin after being forcibly removed from their settlements farther east.
Although the Mormons were the majority in the Great Salt Lake basin, the western area of the territory began to attract many non-Mormon settlers after the discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1858. In 1861 as a result of this, the Nevada Territory was created out of the western part of the territory. Non-Mormons entered the easternmost part of the territory during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush, resulting in the discovery of gold at Breckenridge in Utah Territory in 1859. In 1861 a large portion of the eastern area of the territory was reorganized as part of the newly created Colorado Territory; the controversies stirred by the Mormon religion's dominance of the territory are regarded as the primary reason behind the long delay of 46 years between the organization of the territory and its admission to the Union in 1896 as the State of Utah, long after the admission of territories created after it. In contrast, the Nevada Territory, although more sparsely populated, was admitted to the Union in 1864, only three years after its formation as a consequence of the Union's desire to consolidate its hold on the silver mines in the territory.
Colorado was admitted in 1876. Historic regions of the United States History of Utah Territorial evolution of the United States Unpopular Sovereignty: Mormons and the Federal Management of Early Utah Territory by Brent M. Rogers, 2017, University of Nebraska Press Utah in 1851, with the text of the 1850 Act of Congress to Establish the Territory of Utah, Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Utah's Role in the Transcontinental Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Utah State History Utah Office of Tourism Official Website