Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial commemorates the Battle of Lake Erie that took place near Ohio's South Bass Island, in which Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry led a fleet to victory in one of the most significant naval battles to occur in the War of 1812. Located on an isthmus on the island, the memorial celebrates the lasting peace between Britain and the United States that followed the war. A 352-foot monument — the world's most massive Doric column — was constructed in Put-in-Bay, Ohio by a multi-state commission from 1912 to 1915 "to inculcate the lessons of international peace by arbitration and disarmament." The memorial was designed after an international competition from which the winning design by Joseph H. Freelander and A. D. Seymour was chosen. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial was established to honor those who fought in the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812, to celebrate the long-lasting peace among Britain and the U. S; the Memorial column, rising over Lake Erie, is situated five miles from the longest border in the world.
Although the monument bears the name of Oliver Hazard Perry and six officers slain during the battle are buried under its rotunda, Perry himself is buried in Newport Rhode Island. Beneath the stone floor of the monument lie the remains of those three American officers and three British officers. Carved into the walls inside the rotunda are the names of soldiers and sailors who were killed or injured in the Battle of Lake Erie and the text of the Rush-Bagot Treaty; the Doric Column is the only international peace memorial in the United States National Park System and stands 47 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. The upper deck platform is 12 feet higher than the statue of Liberty's torch. To visit the observation deck near the top, visitors must walk up 37 steps, pay the minimal admission cost a National Park Ranger will transport them by elevator to the top. Rangers are stationed at the observation deck to answer questions and speak about the history and surrounding area.
Views span Lake Erie, the islands and mainland of Ohio, nearby islands in Ontario, including Middle Island, the southernmost point of land in Canada, part of Point Pelee National Park. The column is among the tallest monuments in the United States. Although completed in 1915, funding problems prevented the proper completion of a realized memorial complex. In 1919 the federal government provided additional funding; the official dedication was celebrated on July 31, 1931. In 2002, 2.4 million dollars was spent on a new visitor center. The memorial is visited by 200,000 people each year. Established as Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial National Monument by Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 2, 1936; as with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial were selected to represent Ohio in the multi-year America the Beautiful Quarters series, honoring a national site from every US state, district, or territory.
Its design shows Oliver Hazard Perry on the coin's reverse, depicting the site's statue of Perry with the International Peace Memorial in the distance. The design was selected from eleven proposals; the Memorial had been closed for most of the summer of 2006 after a 500-pound piece of granite broke off the southeast face of the observation deck, falling 315 feet and leaving a crater in the plaza in June. No one was injured. Following a structural assessment that deemed it safe for visitors, the memorial reopened on August 26, 2006, with a fence surrounding it; the monument closed on September 30, 2009 for repairs, reopened on July 3, 2012. The monument was closed once again for the summer of 2017 for repairs and cleaning. Other Navy memorials Downloadable resources regarding Oliver Hazard Perry, including orations at the opening of the Put-in-Bay monument, American Library Association; the National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service: Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial Perry's Monument Photo Gallery
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in Dayton, United States that commemorates three important historical figures—Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright, poet Paul Laurence Dunbar—and their work in the Miami Valley. The idea for the present-day Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park was first conceived by Jerry Sharkey. Much of the Dayton neighborhood where Orville and Wilbur Wright had lived and worked had been destroyed by the 1970s. Neglect, riots during the 1960s, a highway project through the city had leveled much of the neighborhood. Decades earlier, Henry Ford had relocated one of the Wrights' bicycle shops from Dayton to its present location in Greenfield Village, for display. Sharkey's quest to preserve the Wright brothers' legacy began when he purchased their last surviving bicycle shop in Dayton for just $10,000, which saved the building from demolition, he founded the Aviation Trail Inc. a nonprofit group dedicated to the creation of a potential national park or historic district encompassing the Wright brothers' buildings.
Sharkey enlisted the help of local political and media figures to lobby for the creation of the park. Notable figures who supported its creation included the descendants of the Wright brothers, aviation historian Tom Crouch, U. S. District Judge Walter H. Rice, then-U. S. Rep. Dave Hobson, Dayton Daily News publisher Brad Tillson, Michael Gessel, an aide to former U. S. Rep. Tony P. Hall; the group lobbied federal officials and the National Park Service to incorporate the landmarks related to the Wright brothers, which are scattered throughout the city, into a new historic trail. The U. S. Congress passed legislation to establish the new park. In 1992, President George H. W. Bush signed the bill which created the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park into law. In addition to the Wright brothers' sites, the new park preserved the home of Paul Laurence Dunbar, an acclaimed African-American poet and friend of the Wright brothers. Jerry Sharkey donated the Wright brothers' bicycle shop, which he had saved from demolition, to the National Park Service as part of the agreement to create the park.
A new visitor center was constructed in 2003 in time for the centennial of the Wright brothers' first flight. Jerry Sharkey, who had first conceived of the future historic park, died in April 2014. Through the invention of powered flight and Orville Wright made significant contributions to human history. In their Dayton, bicycle shops, the Wright brothers, who self-trained in the science and art of aviation and built the world's first power-driven, heavier-than-air machine capable of free and sustained flight; the Wrights perfected their invention during 1904 and 1905 at the Huffman Prairie Flying Field near their hometown of Dayton. Paul Laurence Dunbar achieved national and international acclaim in a literary world, exclusively reserved for whites, producing a body of work that included novels, short stories and over 400 published poems, his work, which reflected much of the African American experience in the United States, contributed to a growing social consciousness and cultural identity for African Americans.
Although he died in 1906, his writings contributed to developments in African American history, such as the Harlem Renaissance and the early Civil Rights Movement. He was a neighbor and lifelong friend of Orville Wright; the park is a cooperative effort between several partners. The sites are: The Wright Cycle Company Complex in Dayton, which includes the Wright Cycle Company building, the Wright-Dunbar Interpretive Center and the Aviation Trail Visitor Center and Museum Huffman Prairie Flying Field and the Huffman Prairie Flying Field Interpretive Center, both located within Wright-Patterson Air Force Base just northeast of Dayton in Fairborn, but operated by the National Park Service and open to the public; the Wright Brothers Aviation Center at Carillon Historical Park in Dayton, operated by Dayton History The Paul Laurence Dunbar State Memorial in Dayton, operated by Dayton History on behalf of the Ohio Historical Society Hawthorn Hill, the 1914-1948 residence of Orville Wright, located just south of Dayton in Oakwood, Ohio.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park is located within the National Aviation Heritage Area, an eight-county region in Ohio established as a National Heritage Area by Congress in 2004. The U. S. Department of the Interior listed three units of the park on the 2008 U. S. World Heritage Tentative List as part of the Dayton Aviation Sites listing; the park is a central component of the National Aviation Heritage Area. Wright Brothers National Memorial in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina Official NPS Site 2008 U. S. World Heritage Tentative List Report, with section on the Dayton Aviation Sites Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Carillon Park - home of the 1905 Wright Flyer III Ohio Historical Society site for the Paul Laurence Dunbar State Memorial
Monroe County, Ohio
Monroe County is a county located on the eastern border of the U. S. state of Ohio, across the Ohio River from West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,642, making it the second-least populous county in Ohio, its county seat is Woodsfield. The county was created in 1813 and organized in 1815. Monroe County was formed on January 28, 1813 from portions of Belmont and Washington counties, it was named after James Monroe, the U. S. Secretary of State when the county was formed, fifth President of the United States; when organized, the county's eastern border was with the state of Virginia. This portion of the state seceded from Virginia during the American Civil War, being admitted to the Union as the state of West Virginia; the rural county reached its peak of population in the 19th century, before urbanization drew people into and near cities for work and other opportunities. It is still a center of Amish population and farms. On or about December 20, 2011, Exxon Mobil Corp. a New Jersey petroleum company, via its subsidiary XTO Energy, acquired 20,056 acres of Monroe County Utica Shale gas leases from Beck Energy.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 457 square miles, of which 456 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. It is bordered by the Ohio River to the east; the terrain is hilly in this area, with waterways cutting through some hills of the Appalachian Plateau, which extends from Lake Erie to the Ohio River, which flows southwest to the south of this county. Belmont County Marshall County, West Virginia Wetzel County, West Virginia Tyler County, West Virginia Washington County Noble County Wayne National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 15,180 people, 6,021 households, 4,413 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 7,212 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.72% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. 0.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 6,021 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.70% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,467, the median income for a family was $36,297. Males had a median income of $33,308 versus $19,628 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,096. About 11.00% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.30% of those under age 18 and 11.40% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,642 people, 6,065 households, 4,183 families residing in the county. The population density was 32.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,567 housing units at an average density of 16.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.1% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 34.8% were German, 14.5% were Irish, 10.6% were English, 9.6% were American. Of the 6,065 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,030 and the median income for a family was $43,261.
Males had a median income of $39,261 versus $24,922 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,738. About 12.3% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.7% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. Monroe County voted Democratic in every election from 1976 until 2008. In 2012, it voted Republican for the first time in 40 years. In 2016, it took a sharp turn to the right. In the 2014 gubernatorial election, Monroe was one of two counties to vote for Democrat Ed FitzGerald over Republican John Kasich. However, in 2018 it voted for Republican Mike DeWine over Democrat Richard Cordray. Monroe County has three County Commissioners who oversee the various County departments, similar to 85 of the other 88 Ohio counties. Current Commissioners are: Mick Schumacher, Tim Price, Carl Davis. Monroe County is served by the Monroe County District Library from its administrative offices in Woodsfield, Ohio. In 2005, the library loaned more than 141,000 items to its 6,000 cardholders.
Total holding are over 64,000 volumes with over 140 periodical subscriptions. This library is a member of the SOLO Regional Library System. Monroe County contains the following schools through the Switzerland of Ohio Local Sc