First Anglo-Afghan War
The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. Initially, the British successfully intervened in a dispute between emir Dost Mohammad and former emir Shah Shujah, whom they installed upon conquering Kabul in August 1839. The main British Indian and Sikh force occupying Kabul, having endured harsh winters as well, was almost completely annihilated while retreating in January 1842. It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century was a period of diplomatic competition between the British and Russian empires for spheres of influence in Asia known as the Great Game. The Russian Empire was slowly extending its domain into Central Asia, the Company sent an envoy to Kabul to form an alliance with Afghanistans Amir, Dost Mohammad Khan against Russia. Dost Mohammad had recently lost Afghanistans second capital of Peshawar to the Sikh Empire and wanted support to retake it, for this reason, Lord Auckland preferred an alliance with the Punjab over an alliance with Afghanistan, which had nothing equivalent to the Dal Khalsa.
The British could have an alliance with the Punjab or Afghanistan, British fears of a Russian invasion of India took one step closer to becoming a reality when negotiations between the Afghans and Russians broke down in 1838. The Qajar dynasty of Persia, with Russian support, attempted the Siege of Herat, Lord Aucklands plan was to drive away the besiegers and replace Dost Mohammad with Shuja Shah Durrani, who had once ruled Afghanistan and was considered pro-British. Shuja Shah had been deposed in 1809 and been living in exile in British India since 1818, collecting a pension from the East India Company, the British denied that they were invading Afghanistan, claiming they were merely supporting its legitimate Shuja government against foreign interference and factious opposition. But this point, Auckland was committed to putting Afghanistan into the British sphere of influence, the Army of the Indus. which included 21,000 British and Indian troops under the command of John Keane, 1st Baron Keane set out from Punjab in December 1838.
With them was William Hay Macnaghten, the chief secretary of the Calcutta government. It included a train of 38,000 camp followers and 30,000 camels. By late March 1839 the British forces had crossed the Bolan Pass, reached the Baloch city of Quetta and they advanced through rough terrain, across deserts and 4, 000-metre-high mountain passes, but made good progress and finally set up camps at Kandahar on 25 April 1839. After reaching Kandahar, Keane decided to wait for the crops to ripen before resuming his march, Keane left behind his siege engines in Kandahar, which turned out to be a mistake as he discovered that the walls of the Ghazni fortress were far more powerful than he expected. A deserter, Abdul Rashed Khan, a nephew of Dost Mohammad Khan, informed the British that one of the gates of the fortress was in bad state of repair and might be blasted open with a gunpowder charge. The British took fifty prisoners who were brought before Shuja, where one of them stabbed a minister to death with a hidden knife.
On 22 July 1839, in an attack, the British-led forces captured the fortress of Ghazni. The British troops blew up one city gate and marched into the city in a euphoric mood, in taking this fortress, they suffered 200 men killed and wounded, while the Afghans lost nearly 500 men
Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, FRS was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes for his role in establishing contact with and exploring Bukhara and his memoir, Travels into Bokhara, was a bestseller when it was first published in 1835. Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland, to the son of the local provost, who was first cousin to the poet Robert Burns. At the age of sixteen, Alexander joined the army of the East India Company and while serving in India, he learned Hindi and Persian, one of the most remote and impoverished kingdoms in the world, found itself sandwiched between the rival British and Russian empires. British control in India made the Russians suspect an intention to move northwards through Afghanistan, sensing the two empires would collide in Afghanistan, the British Government needed intelligence and dispatched Burnes to get it. In 1831, travelling in disguise, Burnes surveyed the route through Kabul to Bukhara, in the same year he arrived in Lahore with a present of horses from King William IV to Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The British claimed that the horses would not survive the journey, so they were allowed to transport the horses up the Indus. In the following years, in company with Mohan Lal, his travels continued through Afghanistan across the Hindu Kush to Bukhara and Persia. The narrative which he published on his visit to England in 1834 added immensely to contemporary knowledge of these countries, the first edition earned the author £800, and his services were recognised not only by the Royal Geographical Society of London, but by that of Paris. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society the same year, londons prestigious Athenaeum Club admitted him without ballot. On the restoration of Shah Shuja in 1839, Burnes became regular political agent at Kabul, an account of his labours was published in 1842 under the title of Cabool. Sir Alexander Burnes was duly informed by his Afghan servants, the day previous to his murder, that there was a stir in the city, who had grown comfortable with his masterful command of the Persian language, ignored the admonitions.
In the early morning of 2 November, disorder broke out in Kabul, by 03,00, a hostile mob had formed outside Burnes house and set fire to the gates. Informed that Shah Shujah had sent an escort, Burnes ran to the rooftop to look for them. Burnes and his escort fired at the mob around the building, an Afghan swore that if Burnes party ceased fire, he would lead them safely to a nearby fort occupied by Persian troops in Shah Shujas service. Burnes disguised himself as Afghan to facilitate the arrangement, but only a few metres from the house and his party, including his brother, fifteen sepoys, and several Hindu servants, were attacked by the mob and killed – most cut up by knives. Burnes Afghan servants and several others in native clothing escaped and he is commemorated in the name of the Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii. Being an account of a Journey from India to Cabool, also, narrative of a Voyage on the Indus from the Sea to Lahore
The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, there were many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war. The Barakzai dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries, following the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmed Shah Durranis Afghan Empire as various sons of Timur Shah struggled for supremacy. The Afghan Empire ceased to exist as a nation state. Dost Mohammad Khan gained preeminence in 1826 and founded the Barakzai dynasty in about 1837, his descendants ruled in direct succession until 1929, when King Amanullah Khan abdicated and his cousin Mohammed Nadir Shah was elected king.
The most prominent & powerful sub-clan of the Barakzai Pashtun tribe is the Mohamedzai clan, Gul Agha Sherzai is the Khan of the Barakzai tribe. He is Senior Advisor to the President of Afghanistan and Governor of Nangarhar Province, a family of Barakzai Tribe is residing in village Tordher of District Swabi of Khyber PukhtoonKhwa. Mohammadzai are the most prominent & powerful sub-tribe of Barakzai, they belong to the branch of the Durrani confederacy and they can be found in other provinces throughout Afghanistan as well across the border in the Pakistans Balochistan Province. Musahiban are the descendants of Sultan Muhammed Khan, ruler of Peshawar, Mohammadzai Barakzai are closely related to Amanullah Khan. The family of Nadir and Zahir Shah, the Tarzi family is a branch of the Mohammadzai of Afghanistan. Although a smaller branch of the Barakzai ruling dynasty, the Tarzi family has produced some of the most famous, Dari Persian was used as the language for records and correspondence, until the late nineteenth century tombstones were inscribed in Dari.
The language of the Barakzai tribes in Pishin, Quetta and those who have settled away from Pishin speak local languages, such as Multani or Saraiki in Multan, Hindko in Hazara, Urdu in Bhopal and Sindhi in Sindh. Barakzai, a dialect of Pashto, is the language spoken by Harnai Barakzai
Flashman is a 1969 novel by George MacDonald Fraser. It is the first of the Flashman novels, presented within the frame of the discovery of the supposedly historical Flashman Papers, this book chronicles the subsequent career of the bully Flashman from Tom Browns School Days. The book begins with a note explaining that the Flashman Papers were discovered in 1965 during a sale of household furniture in Ashby. The papers are attributed to Harry Paget Flashman, the featured in Thomas Hughes novel. The papers were written between 1900 and 1905. Flashman begins with the heros own account of his expulsion from Rugby. It details his life from 1839 to 1842 and his travels to Scotland, India and it contains a number of notes by the author, in the guise of a fictional editor, providing additional historical glosses on the events described. The history in books is largely accurate, most of the prominent figures Flashman meets were real people. Flashmans expulsion from Rugby for drunkenness leads him to join the British Army in what he hopes will be a sinecure and he joins the 11th Regiment of Light Dragoons commanded by Lord Cardigan, to whom he toadies in his best style.
After an affair with a lover, he is challenged to a duel but wins after promising a large sum of money to the pistol loader. He does not kill his opponent but instead delopes and accidentally shoots the top off a bottle thirty yards away, an action that gives him instant fame, once the reason for fighting emerges, the army stations Flashman in Scotland. He is quartered with the Morrison family and soon takes advantage of one of the daughters. After a forced marriage, Flashman is required to resign the Hussars due to marrying below his station and he is given another option, to make his reputation in India. Upon arrival, he meets a soldier who relates the narrow escape he made in November 1842, the soldier, stationed nearby, manages to flee in midst of the confusion. This tale sets the tone for Flashmans proceeding adventures, including the retreat from Kabul, Last Stand at the Battle of Gandamak and the Siege of Jalalabad, in the First Anglo-Afghan War. Despite being captured and escaping death numerous times and shirking his duty as much as possible, although his triumph is tempered when he realises his wife might have been unfaithful while he was away.
Thomas Hughes - The author of Tom Browns Schooldays, Thomas Arnold - The headmaster of Rugby School. Lord Cardigan - Flashmans original commanding officer, whom he describes as amusing, vindictive, captain John Reynolds - embroiled in The Black Bottle Affair with Lord Cardigan
Wazir Akbar Khan, Kabul
Wazir Akbar Khan is a neighbourhood in northern Kabul, named after the 19th century Afghan Emir Wazir Akbar Khan. It is one of the wealthiest parts in Kabul, many foreign embassies are located there, including the American and Canadian. The Kabul International Airport is located in the Wazir Akbar Khan neighborhood and it is a common place for foreign workers to live. The streets are laid out on a grid with Western, two-story houses that date back to the 1960s and 1970s, like much of Kabul, the Afghan National Security Forces provide security for the area. A Marriott Hotel is being constructed across from the U. S. Embassy, the neighborhood is named after Emir Wazir Akbar Khan, a prominent Afghan hero during the early 1840s, a son of Emir Dost Mohammad Barakzai. Akbar is Arabic for great and Khan means chief/King in Pashto, the early part of the novel The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini is set in this suburb. The second half of Max Ledmans novel Conspiracy takes place in this suburb
Brydon was born in London of Scottish descent. He studied medicine at University College London and at the University of Edinburgh, the British Army began its retreat from Kabul in January 1842, following the killing of the two British representatives there. The nearest British garrison was in Jalalabad,90 miles away, Afghan tribesmen intercepted them and proceeded to massacre them during the next seven days. The final stand took place at Gandamak on the morning of 13 January 1842 in the snow, twenty officers and forty-five British soldiers, mostly of the 44th Foot, found themselves surrounded on a hillock. The Afghans attempted to persuade the soldiers that they intended them no harm, the sniping began, followed by a series of rushes. Captain Souter wrapped the regimental colours around his body and was dragged into captivity with a sergeant named Fair, the remainder were shot or cut down. Surgeon Brydon was one of mounted officers who had become separated from the remnants of the main column before the final stand at Gandamak.
This small group had ridden to Futtehabad but half had been killed there while six escaped, all but Brydon were killed, one by one, further along the road as their horses became exhausted. On the afternoon of 13 January 1842 the British troops in Jalalabad, watching for their comrades of the Kabul garrison, saw a single figure ride up to the town walls. Part of his skull had been sheared off by an Afghan sword, the magazine took most of the blow, saving the doctors life. Brydon became widely, if inaccurately, known as being the survivor of the entire army. In fact, he was not the only European to survive the retreat, about 115 British officers, soldiers and children were captured or taken as hostages and these included Sir Robert Sales wife Lady Sale, though not Elphinstone who died in captivity. In addition a number of Indian sepoys reached Jalabad on foot over the subsequent weeks. One sepoy, havildar Sita Ram, escaped from Afghanistan after 21 months of slavery, some sepoys and camp followers were eventually found in Kabul and brought back to India by General Pottingers army following their occupation of Kabul.
The episode was made the subject of a painting by the Victorian artist Lady Butler. The painting is titled Remnants of an Army, Brydon fought in the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, when Rangoon was taken. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in November 1858 and his wife, Colina Maxwell Brydon, published a memoir of the siege. Brydon died at his home Westfield near Nigg in Ross-shire on 20 March 1873, claire E. J. Herrick, William, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004, online edn, May 2006
Sher Ali Khan
Sher Ali Khan was Amir of Afghanistan from 1863 to 1866 and from 1868 until his death in 1879. He was the son of Dost Mohammed Khan, founder of the Barakzai Dynasty in Afghanistan. Sher Ali Khan initially seized power when his father died, but was ousted by his older brother. Internecine warfare followed until Sher Ali defeated his brother and regained the title of Emir and his rule was hindered by pressure from both Britain and Russia, though Sher Ali attempted to keep Afghanistan neutral during their conflict. In 1878, the neutrality fell apart and the Second Anglo-Afghan War erupted, as British forces marched on Kabul, Sher Ali Khan decided to leave Kabul to seek political asylum in Russia. He died in Mazar-e Sharif, leaving the throne to his son Mohammad Yaqub Khan, Sher Ali was closely affiliated to the modern-day region of the Pothohar Plateau in Pakistan. He married one of his daughters to a prominent tribal chief of the Gakhars, after independence, the Gakhars tribe became part of Pakistan.
List of leaders of Afghanistan The Great Game Profile, Amir Sher Ali Khan
Baron Auckland is a title in both the Peerage of Ireland and the Peerage of Great Britain. The first creation came in 1789 when the prominent politician and financial expert William Eden was made Baron Auckland in the Peerage of Ireland, in 1793, he was created Baron Auckland, of West Auckland in the County of Durham, in the Peerage of Great Britain. Eden notably served as Chief Secretary for Ireland, Ambassador to Spain and his second son, the second Baron, was a politician and served as Governor-General of India. In 1839 he was created Baron Eden, of Norwood in the County of Surrey, however, he never married and the barony of Eden and earldom became extinct on his death while he was succeeded in the baronies of Auckland by his younger brother, the third Baron. He was Bishop of both Sodor and Man and Bath and Wells, the titles descended from father to son until the death of the sixth Baron in 1941. He was succeeded by his cousin, the seventh Baron and he was the son of the Hon. George Eden, third son of the fourth Baron.
He was succeeded by his brother, the eighth Baron. As of 2013 the titles are held by the grandson, the tenth Baron. The Barons Auckland are members of the prominent Eden family, the first Baron was the third son of Sir Robert Eden, 3rd Baronet, of West Auckland. His younger brother was Morton Eden, 1st Baron Henley while his brother was Sir Robert Eden, 1st Baronet. The latter was the great-great-grandfather of Prime Minister Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, the present Baron Auckland is in remainder to the Eden Baronetcy of West Auckland, a title held by his kinsman the Lord Eden of Winton. The Honourable William Eden, eldest son of the first Baron, was Member of Parliament for Woodstock, the Honourable Sir Ashley Eden, third son of the third Baron, was an official and diplomat in British India. The city of Auckland in New Zealand was named after the first Earl of Auckland, several Auckland landmarks, including the hill and suburb Mount Eden and the sports ground Eden Park are named directly or indirectly after the family.
The heir presumptives heir apparent is his son Oliver Eden, Earl of Avon Baron Henley Eden baronets Kidd, Williamson, David
At its peak, the Hotak dynasty ruled very briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan, western Pakistan, and large parts of Iran. In 1715, Mirwais died of a cause and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded the monarchy. He was quickly followed by Mahmud who ruled the empire at its largest extent for a three years. Following the 1729 Battle of Damghan, where Ashraf Hotak was roundly defeated by Nader Shah, Hussain Hotak became the last ruler until he was defeated in 1738. Immediately to the east began the Sunni Mughul Empire, who occasionally fought wars with the powerful Safavids over the territory of southern Afghanistan, the area to the north, was controlled by the Khanate of Bukhara at the same time. By the late 17th century, the Iranian Safavids, like their arch rival the Ottoman Turks, had been starting to decline due to misrule, sectarian strife. His first task was to quell the uprisings in the region, Gurgin began imprisoning and executing Afghans, especially those suspected of organizing rebellions, successfully crushing the rebellions.
One of those arrested and imprisoned was Mirwais who belonged to an influential Hotak family in Kandahar. Mirwais was sent as a prisoner to the Persian court in Isfahan but the charges against him were dismissed by Shah Husayn, in April 1709, protected by the Ghaznavid Nasher Khans, and along with his followers revolted against the Safavid rule at Kandahar. The uprising began when Gurgīn Khān and his escort were killed during a feast that was organized by Mirwais at his farmhouse outside the city and it is reported that drinking of wine was involved. Next, Mirwais ordered the killings of the remaining Persian military officials in the region, the Afghans defeated a twice as large Persian army that had been dispatched from Isfahan, one which included Qizilbash and Georgian/Circassian troops. Two years later, in A. D.1713, another Persian army commanded by Rustam Khán was defeated by the rebels, refusing the title of king, Mirwais was called Prince of Qandahár and General of the national troops by his Afghan countrymen.
He died peacefully in November 1715 from natural causes and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz, in 1720, Mahmuds Afghan forces crossed the deserts of Sistan and captured Kerman. His plan was to conquer the Persian capital, after defeating the Persian army at the Battle of Gulnabad on March 8,1722, he proceeded to and besieged Isfahan for 6 months, after which it fell. On October 23,1722, Sultan Husayn abdicated and acknowledged Mahmud as the new Shah of Persia, the majority of the Persian people, rejected the Afghan regime as usurpers from the start. For the next seven years until 1729, the Hotaks were the de facto rulers of most of Persia, the Hotak dynasty was a troubled and violent one from the very start as internecine conflict made it difficult to establish permanent control. On the other hand, the Afghans had suppressed by the Iranian Safavid government represented by its governor Gurgin Khan before their uprising in 1709. Nader Shah had driven out and banished the remaining Ghilji forces from Persia and began enlisting some the Abdali Afghans of Farah, Nader Shahs forces conquered Kandahar in 1738
Battle of Jamrud
The Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Sikh Empire on 30 April 1837. The Sikhs were building up towards crossing the Khyber pass in order to invade Jalalabad and this led Afghan forces to confront the Sikh forces at Jamrud. The death of Sikh General Hari Singh Nalwa limited the Khyber pass as the extent of the Sikh Empire. By the time Sikh reinforcements had arrived, The garrison army was able to hold the Afghans. After the battle, the Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Sikhs under Maharajah Ranjit Singh and the Afghans under Emir Dost Muhammad Khan. Since the consolidation of the Sikh Empire in Punjab, Maharajah Ranjit Singh had turned the wave of invasions on Afghanistan, with the conquest of Jamrud, the frontier of the Sikh Empire now bordered the frontier of Afghanistan. The Sikh general Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa was killed in the battle, many eyewitnesses claimed Nalwa ordered his under garments to be hung outside the fort before he died, discouraging the Afghans from attacking, believing Nalwa was still alive.
The result of the battle is disputed amongst historians, some contend the failure of the Afghans to take the fort as a victory for the Sikhs. Whereas, some simply state an Afghan victory, james Norris, Professor of Political Science at Texas A&M International University, states neither side could claim victory. Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Peshawar Baba Deep Singh Battle of Jamrud
Jalalabad /dʒəˈlæləˌbæd/, formerly called Adina Pur as documented by the 7th century Hsüan-tsang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. Located at the junction of the Kabul River and Kunar River near the Laghman valley and it is linked by approximately 155 kilometres of highway with Kabul to the west. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, Jalalabad is one of the leading trading centres with neighbouring Pakistan. The city of Jalalabad has a population of 356,274 and it has 6 districts and a total land area of 12,796 Hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city are 39,586, the Jalalabad territory fell to the Maurya Empire, which was led by Chandragupta Maurya. The Mauryas introduced Jainism and Buddhism to the region, seleucus is said to have agreed a peace treaty with Chandragupta by giving control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Mauryas upon intermarriage and receipt of 500 elephants. As soon as the forces, therefore, of all the confederates were united, a battle was fought, in which Antigonus was slain, having consolidated power in the northwest, Chandragupta pushed east towards the Nanda Empire.
Afghanistans significant ancient tangible and intangible Buddhist heritage is recorded through wide-ranging archeological finds, including religious, Buddhist doctrines are reported to have reached as far as Balkh even during the life of the Buddha, as recorded by Husang Tsang. In this context a legend recorded by Husang Tsang refers to the first two lay disciples of Buddha and Bhallika responsible for introducing Buddhism in that country. Originally these two were merchants of the kingdom of Balhika, as the name Bhalluka or Bhallika probably suggests the association of one with that country and they had gone to India for trade and had happened to be at Bodhgaya when the Buddha had just attained enlightenment. Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara, in 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad and a number of other locations nearby. The city was a center of Gandharas Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Muslim Arabs in the 11th century.
However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it, in Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu and Afghan wives. The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century, later, it was controlled by the successor Ghurids until the Mongols invaded the area. It became part of the Timurids, the modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1560, the Battle of Jellalabad in 1842 was an Afghan siege of the isolated British outpost at Jellalabad about 130 kilometres east of Kabul. The siege was lifted after five months when a British counterattack routed the Afghans, the outpost was no more than a wide place in the road with a fort, held by about 2,000 troops under General Sir Robert Sale. After the massacre of the British force during their retreat from Kabul in January 1842, the British managed to beat off the assaults, and even captured 300 sheep from the besieging force when rations ran short