click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Wealdstone

Wealdstone is an area of Harrow, located in the London Borough of Harrow. It is north of Harrow west of Belmont and east of Headstone; the eponymous Weald Stone is a sarsen stone marking the boundary between the parishes of Harrow and Harrow Weald. It is located outside the Bombay Central restaurant, a former public house, outside 328 High Road, Harrow Weald; the Harrow Leisure Centre is located in Wealdstone and facilities include swimming, snooker, martial arts and a gym run by Harper's Fitness. One of the country's oldest remaining skate parks, Harrow Skate Park, is next to the leisure centre; the park is a major centre of the British skateboarding scene and draws visitors from all over the country. Wealdstone FC have a long association with the town, their original ground, known as Lower Mead, was located behind the ABC Cinema on Station Road, prior to its controversial sale to Tesco for retail development in 1991. After many years of homelessness Wealdstone FC is now based nearby in Ruislip, having abandoned plans to relocate within the borough of Harrow at Prince Edward Fields, Canons Park.

Famous former players include Vinnie Jones. According to the 2011 census, the largest ethnic group in Wealdstone ward is White British, followed by 20% Indian and 13% Other Asian. Marlborough ward was 10 % Other White. Wealdstone used to have the highest crime rate in the borough, as the town suffered from antisocial behaviour and drug crime, higher than the borough's average. However, the Wealdstone Antisocial Behaviour Partnership, started by the Metropolitan Police to tackle crime in the town in 2010, has seen impressive results with crime figures now below the average in the borough. Wealdstone was one of only four Harrow wards to show a fall in reported Crime from April 2015 to March 2016. Created under the Local Government Act 1894 in 1894, absorbed by Harrow Urban District in 1934. There is one station in the district: Harrow & Wealdstone station Seven London Buses routes run during day, as well as a school bus. There are two night routes serving Wealdstone: 140 and N18. Gordon Hill/The Wealdstone Raider Old Salvatorians

Director of Operations, Planning and Development for Military Commissions

The Director of Operations and Development for Military Commissions serves as the point of contact between the Office of Military Commissions and other United States military and civilian agencies. The position was created on 19 September 2008; the position was to be filled by a flag officer, to report directly to the Department of Defense's General Counsel, at the time William J. Haynes. Haynes has subsequently resigned, the first Director reported to United States Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England and acting General Counsel Daniel J. Dell'Orto; the first officer to be appointed Director was Brigadier Thomas W. Hartmann a military lawyer in the United States Air Force Reserve. Hartmann had been the Legal Advisor to the Convening Authority for the Office of Military Commissions; the Convening Authority is a civilian position held by VADM Bruce MacDonald, the former TJAG of the US Navy. As Legal Advisor Hartmann was the second-in-command. Hartmann had been reassigned from the position of Legal Advisor after the officers Presiding over three separate Guantanamo military commissions had barred him from participation after he was accused of putting "undue command influence" on Prosecutors.

On 2 November 2008 Carol Rosenberg, writing in the Miami Herald, reported that Hartmann had filed a request to retire from the Air Force on 17 February 2008. Hartmann was replaced by his deputy Michael Chapman, the deputy Legal Advisor since April 2005. Hartmann attributed his reassigment, appointment to the new position, to the "explosive growth of the commissions over the last 10 or 12 months."The Air Force described Hartmann new appointment as a promotion. Hartmann's boss at the Pentagon, William J. Haynes, had resigned in February; the Operations Director position was "civilianized" in the fall of 2009 following Hartman's retirement. The current Director of Operations, Ward K. Johnson, III, was appointed to the post in November 2009. Johnson had served on active duty with the U. S. Army as a Branch Chief, Presiding Officer and Tribunal President with the Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants under the control of Deputy Secretary of Defense England. Johnson had served as Director of Operations of the North Dakota National Guard, Provost Marshal for the North Dakota Joint Forces Headquarters, Commander of the North Dakota Joint Training Center among other senior positions in the North Dakota National Guard.

Johnson is a 2005 graduate of the United States Army War College and has been a lawyer licensed to practice law since 1988. Ndcourts.com, lawyers

Shaheed Shrine

A Shaheed Shrine is a building constructed to commemorate and show respect to a saint and forms part of Punjabi folk religion in the Punjab region. In Punjabi folk cosmology, the universe is divided into three realms: Devlok is the realm of the gods and ancestors, existing in akash, the sky. A Shaheed can become a saint in the afterlife. Although not part of organised religion, Shaheed Shrines only form part of Sikh and Muslim folk religion. However, such shrines are respected by all faiths. Sikhs prefer to use the term Shaheed "jaggah" whereas Muslims use the term dargah or mazaar for such shrines if the shrine is near a grave. Muslim Shaheed Shrines represent Sufi saints; the Hindus equivalent of Shaheeds are Siddhs of the Siddha tradition. Siddha shrines are either referred to as Samadhs. Saint worship in shrines is common in the Punjab region. People of all faiths venerate shrines in honour of saints; these shrines represent sources of power to the common people and are open to people from all religious persuasions.

The shrines can be at the final resting places of the saints or ‘memorial shrines’. These memorial shrines have evolved into a distinct form of ‘saint worship’; these shrines represent inter-communal dialogue and a distinct form of cultural practice of saint veneration. Shrines can be local, such as the shrine of Bhagat Baba Kalu and Baba Nihal Singh Ji, or they can be popular across a larger area forming part of folklore, such as the shrines of Sakhi Sarwar known as Baba Lakhadata whose larger central shrine is in Sakhi Sarwar of Dera Ghazi Khan District and the smaller shrine in Una, Himachal Pradesh, India. Other popular shrines include those of Gugga Ji and Khawaja Khizr

Polymer degradation

Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids and some salts. These changes are undesirable, such as cracking and chemical disintegration of products or, more desirable, as in biodegradation, or deliberately lowering the molecular weight of a polymer for recycling; the changes in properties are termed "aging". In a finished product such a change is to be delayed. Degradation can be useful for recycling/reusing the polymer waste to prevent or reduce environmental pollution. Degradation can be induced deliberately to assist structure determination. Polymeric molecules are large, their unique and useful properties are a result of their size. Any loss in chain length is a primary cause of premature cracking. Today there are seven commodity polymers in use: polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and poly.

These make up nearly 98 % of all plastics encountered in daily life. Each of these polymers has its own characteristic modes of degradation and resistances to heat and chemicals. Polyethylene and poly are sensitive to oxidation and UV radiation, while PVC may discolor at high temperatures due to loss of hydrogen chloride gas, become brittle. PET is sensitive to hydrolysis and attack by strong acids, while polycarbonate depolymerizes when exposed to strong alkalis. For example, polyethylene degrades by random scission—that is by a random breakage of the linkages that hold the atoms of the polymer together; when this polymer is heated above 450 Celsius it becomes a complex mixture of molecules of various sizes that resemble gasoline. Other polymers—like polyalphamethylstyrene—undergo'specific' chain scission with breakage occurring only at the ends. Most polymers can be degraded by photolysis to give lower molecular weight molecules. Electromagnetic waves with the energy of visible light or higher, such as ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays are involved in such reactions.

Chain-growth polymers like poly can be degraded by thermolysis at high temperatures to give monomers, oils and water. The degradation takes place by: Step-growth polymers like polyesters and polycarbonates can be degraded by solvolysis and hydrolysis to give lower molecular weight molecules; the hydrolysis takes place in the presence of water containing a base as catalyst. Polyamide is sensitive to degradation by acids and polyamide mouldings will crack when attacked by strong acids. For example, the fracture surface of a fuel connector showed the progressive growth of the crack from acid attack to the final cusp of polymer; the problem is known as stress corrosion cracking, in this case was caused by hydrolysis of the polymer. It was the reverse reaction of the synthesis of the polymer: Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack. Tiny traces of the gas in the air will attack double bonds in rubber chains, with Natural rubber, Styrene-butadiene rubber and NBR being most sensitive to degradation.

Ozone cracks form in products under tension, but the critical strain is small. The cracks are always oriented at right angles to the strain axis, so will form around the circumference in a rubber tube bent over; such cracks are dangerous when they occur in fuel pipes because the cracks will grow from the outside exposed surfaces into the bore of the pipe, fuel leakage and fire may follow. The problem of ozone cracking can be prevented by adding anti-ozonants to the rubber before vulcanization. Ozone cracks were seen in automobile tire sidewalls, but are now seen thanks to these additives. On the other hand, the problem seals; the polymers are susceptible to attack by atmospheric oxygen at elevated temperatures encountered during processing to shape. Many process methods such as extrusion and injection moulding involve pumping molten polymer into tools, the high temperatures needed for melting may result in oxidation unless precautions are taken. For example, a forearm crutch snapped and the user was injured in the resulting fall.

The crutch had fractured across a polypropylene insert within the aluminium tube of the device, infra-red spectroscopy of the material showed that it had oxidized, possible as a result of poor moulding. Oxidation is relatively easy to detect owing to the strong absorption by the carbonyl group in the spectrum of polyolefins. Polypropylene has a simple spectrum with few peaks at the carbonyl position. Oxidation tends to start at tertiary carbon atoms because the free radicals formed here are more stable and longer lasting, making them more susceptible to attack by oxygen; the carbonyl group can be further oxidised to break the chain, this weakens the material by lowering its molecular weight, cracks start to grow in the regions affected. Polymer degradation by galvanic action was first described in the technical literature in 1990; this was the discovery that "plastics can corrode", i.e. polymer degradation may occur through galvanic action similar to that of metals under certain conditions and has been referred to as the "Faudree Effect".

In the aerospace field, this finding has contributed to aircraft safety those aircraft that use C

Zilan massacre

The Zilan massacre, refers to the massacre of thousands of Kurdish residents in the Zilan Valley of Turkey by 12/13 July 1930, during the Ararat rebellion, in which 800–1500 armed men participated. The Zilan massacre took place in the Zilan or Zeylan valley located to the north of the town of Erciş in Van Province; the massacre took place in July 1930, before the Third Ararat Operation, a military operation of the Turkish IX Corps under the command of Ferik Salih against Mount Ararat. The number of people killed in the massacre varies according to different sources. According to the daily newspaper Cumhuriyet, about 15,000 people died. Armenian researcher Garo Sasuni states that 5,000 women and the elderly were massacred. According to Berliner Tageblatt, the Turks in the area of Zilan destroyed 220 villages and massacred 4,500 women and the elderly. After the Sheikh Said rebellion, on September 24, 1925, the Turkish government prepared the "Reform Plan for the East", which provided for special administrative arrangements for the Eastern areas and introduced the Inspector-General system.

This plan forced religious leaders to relocate to other parts of Turkey. On July 17, 1927, with the "Law on the Transfer of Certain People from Eastern Regions to the Western Provinces", the target of the forced migration was extended. On October 5, 1927, in Greater Lebanon, the Kurdish nationalist organization Xoybûn was founded by former members of other Kurdish nationalist organisations such as Kürdistan Teali Cemiyeti, Kürt Millet Fırkası, Comite de Independence Kurde, together with Kurdish intellectuals who took refuge in Iraq and Syria, with the help of former members of the Dashnaktsutyun. In 1927 Xoybûn decided to promote Ihsan Nuri, a former officer in the Ottoman and Turkish armies, to general, sent him to Erzurum with 20 comrades, they published a newspaper named Agirî and, on October 8, 1927, declared the independence of the Republic of Ararat. In October 1927, Xoybûn made appeals to the Great Powers and the League of Nations, appointed Ibrahim Heski, one of the chieftains of Jalali tribe, as governor of Agrî province.

On May 9, 1928, the Turkish government enacted an amnesty law. Amnesty was offered to all oppositional Kurds willing to submit to the Kemalist government, Kurdish nationalists were freed from prison. However, attempts by the Turkish government at initiating meaningful negotiations failed; the Turkish government decided to negotiate directly with Ihsan Nuri Pasha, but this effort was in vain. On December 29, 1929, President Mustafa Kemal led the cabinet meeting, with participation of the Chief of the General Staff Fevzi Çakmak and İbrahim Tali, the general inspector of the First Inspectorate-General. A decision was adopted to begin a military operation against Mount Ararat in June 1930. On January 7, 1930, General Staff of the Republic of Turkey sent an order to IX Corps with the text of the cabinet decision itself: Villages inhabited by Kurds between Bulakbaşı and Şıhlı Köyü and places of refuge will be occupied, and let rebels debar from livelihood bases. After cleaning the district of Kurds, to follow toward the line of Ararat peak and establish garrisons in occupied territories.

Only mobile gendarmerie forces will winter between 1930 and 1931. In district no residential areas, except needs for gendarmerie regiments, will not be left. In this wise, Kurds debarred from food and housing needs will be distributed or be forced to take refuge in Iran. In this case, problem will be solved with Iran; the operation will begin before the harvest season. The commander of IX Corps will direct the military operation. On March 18, 1930, Salih was appointed the commander of IX Corps. Armed hostilities were initiated by Turkish military against the Ararat insurgents on June 11, 1930. Xoybûn appealed for help for Kurds throughout Kurdistan. İhsan Nuri sent an offensive order to Îbrahîm Agha dated June 18, 1930. A Turkish Captain Zühtü, an officer of the 2nd Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion at Iğdır, got this order from a Kurdish rebel. There was wide response to the insurgents' appeal for help, the Turks temporarily abandoned their offensive against Mount Ararat. On June 19–20, 1930, hundreds of rebels, led by the sons of Kör Hüseyin Pasha and Emin Pasha's sons, crossed the border from Persia and cut the telegraph line between Çaldıran and Beyazit.

More than one hundred of them raided the station of gendarmerie. They made; this Kurdish offensive, offensives at Patnos and Çaldıran, would be named the Zeylan Rebellion by the Turkish authority. According to Salih's official report dated July 2, 1930, about the situation in the north of Lake Van, 350–400 rebels led by Kör Hüseyin's sons and Emin Pasha's sons were in the Patnos area with the support of the surrounding villages of Sofu Mustafa, Kâni, Yukarı Romik, Çakırbey, Gürgüre, Haçlı, Harabe Kürk, Çavuş. About 400 rebels led by Seyit Resul were in the Zeylân area with the support of the surrounding villages of Şurik, Su Souk, Kadir Asker, Münevver, Sivik, Ağı, Şeytan

Dulce Chacón

Dulce Chacón was a Spanish poet and playwright. Born into a traditional family in the Extremadura region of Spain, her family moved to Madrid on her father's' death, when she was 12 years old. In spite of growing up in a conservative family, Dulce Chacón soon became a leftist, due to the victims caused by the Spanish dictatorship, her motto towards this issue was “neither bitterness nor oblivion”. She started writing at an early age though she did not publish until 1992 when her first book of poetry, Querrán ponerle nombre, appeared. Two more books of poetry followed: Las palabras de la piedra and Contra el desprestigio de la altura, in 1993 and 1995 respectively; the latter made her win the Ciudad de Irún Prize. In 1996 she published her first novel, Algún amor que no mate, which talks about a women abused by her husband. José Saramago described it as “harsh but necessary”, she involved herself in various progressive social and political activities. Her novel La voz dormida, which gathers some testimonies of women who took part in the republican side during the Spanish Civil War, attracted widespread acclaim.

In regards to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Chacón joined a cultural movement against war. There she went along to read aloud, alongside Nobel prize winner José Saramago, the anti-war manifesto at the 15 March 2003 mass demonstration in Madrid against the war, she was a member of an association for women against gender-based violence. Her husband, Miguel Ángel Alcántara, would define her as a determined, agnostic woman, whose best weapons were words and writing, she died in Madrid in December 2003 of cancer Premio de Poesía Ciudad de Irún, for Contra el desprestigio de la altura, 1995 XXIV Premio Azorín, for Cielos de barro, 2000 Premio Libro del Año 2002, for La voz Dormida' Querrán ponerle nombre Las palabras de la piedra Contra el desprestigio de la altura Matar al ángel Cuatro gotas Algún amor que no mate Blanca vuela mañana Háblame, musa, de aquel varón Cielos de barro La voz dormida Algún amor que no mate Segunda mano 1998 "Te querré hasta la muerte" 2003, pp. 61–64