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Weapons in Star Trek

The Star Trek fictional universe contains a variety of weapons, ranging from missiles to melee. The Star Trek franchise consists of several multi-season television shows and a dozen movies, as well as various video games and inspired merchandise. Many aspects of the fictional universe impact modern popular culture the lingo and the idea of a spacecraft launching space torpedoes and firing lasers, have had a wide influence in the late 20th to early 21st century. Star Trek is popular enough that its science fiction concepts have been studied by real scientists, NASA described its science in relation to the real world as "entertaining combination of real science, imaginary science gathered from lots of earlier stories, stuff the writers make up week-by-week to give each new episode novelty." For example, NASA noted that the Star Trek "phasers" were a fictional extrapolation of real-life lasers, compared them to real-life microwave based weapons that have a stunning effect. The franchise depicts various weapons which fit the motif of the raygun, the most prominent of these being the "phaser".

These directed-energy weapons emit energy in an aimed direction without the means of a projectile. The intended effects may be lethal. For example, in Star Trek, a hand phaser can be set to "stun" or "kill". Phasers are common and versatile phased array pulsed energy projectile weapons, first seen in the original Star Trek series and seen or referenced in all subsequent films and television spin-offs. Phasers come in a wide range of sizes. There are several specific types of phasers used by the United Federation of Planets' Starfleet. Though they seem to discharge in a continuous "beam", close observation reveals that phasers discharge a stream of pulsed energy projectiles into the target. Phaser output can be adjusted in both area of effect and output: a typical hand phaser can be adjusted so that it will shock or stun a living organism, while the effects of higher settings range from burning, disintegration to true vaporization; this versatility means they can be used as welding torches or cutting tools, can create heat sources by firing at a large, solid object.

The stream can be adjusted to strike multiple targets at once, strike a single target with precision, or destroy large amounts of material. Phasers can be set to overload, whereby they build up a force-chamber explosion by continuously generating energy without releasing it; the overload process is marked by a distinctive sound that increases in volume and frequency until it is deactivated or it detonates. Personal phasers can be made small enough to fit in the user's palm and still be lethal. Larger and more powerful phaser rifles are issued to security personnel. Ship-mounted phasers have a similar range of functions on a larger scale: The phasers on the USS Enterprise could be used as an "anti-missile" defense to destroy incoming projectiles, stun entire city blocks full of people, destroy cities, destroy entire asteroids up to a given size; the ship's phaser system was said to be capable of destroying continents. Starship phasers can be used while the ship is traveling at Warp speeds. According to series, phasers release a beam of fictional subatomic particles called "rapid nadion", which are refracted through superconducting crystals.

The Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual indicates that the superconducting crystals used in phasers are called fushigi no umi, Japanese for "sea of mystery", the phrase is written ふしぎの海 in the original glyphs. This was a homage to the 1990 anime series Fushigi no Umi no Nadia, known in North America as Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water; the phasers that appeared in the 2009 reboot Star Trek appear similar in shape to the classic phasers, but fire singular energy projectiles instead of a sustained stream of them, in a fashion similar to semi-automatic weapons. This version of the phaser seems to only have two settings and kill, which fire blue and red colored projectiles respectively; the barrel of the weapon is two-sided, one being colored red and the other blue to indicate the current setting: the user must manually rotate to the other output to use the other setting. A similar change was seen in the starship-mounted phaser banks, which fire single projectiles instead of continuous streams.

In Star Trek Beyond, the barrel sides of the sidearm phasers are flat and both barrels shoot blue bolts that deal no physical damage, while the barrel tips are still colored blue and red. The original phaser rifle prop from "Where No Man Has Gone Before" sold at auction for $231,000. Lasers are a sidearm in the original Star Trek pilot "The Cage", laser pistols appear in several Original Series episodes, although episodes in The Next Generation seemed to indicate that the laser's use as a weapon was outdated. In one instance, the ship-mounted lasers of two spacecraft were incapable of overcoming the navigational shields of the USS Enterprise-D, though on at least two other occasions it was threatened with destruction by laser-armed spacecraft; the Borg cutter weapon is a laser, as mentioned in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Q Who" and is capable of disintegrating the hull of a Federation starship, as seen in the pilot episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Emissary. At lower power levels, it is capable of making'surgical' incisions into a ship's hull.

According to The Making of Star Trek, Gene Roddenberry claimed that production staff realized tha

F1 2017 (video game)

F1 2017 is a racing video game based on the 2017 Formula One season. It was released for PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Windows on 25 August 2017; the game includes all of twenty drivers and ten teams competing in the season. The macOS version, developed by Feral Interactive, was released with the other versions, a first in the series' history; the Linux version by Feral Interactive, was released on 2 November 2017. The game featured the initial driver line ups for the 2017 Formula One season; the game features in-game commentary from Anthony Davidson. The game features an expanded team management mode, which offers players more control over research and development of car parts. Engine components and gearboxes are subject to wear and will fail, with players receiving grid penalties for exceeding their quota of components; the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile —the governing body of international motorsport—will support F1 2017 as a platform for eSports, following similar moves by Formula E and the World Rally Championship.

A variety of race formats are available to players after the sport's commercial holders expressed an interest in using gaming to trial potential race formats. The game features classic cars, which were last included in F1 2013—drawn from 1988 to 2010; the game included a competition for players to design their own racing helmets, with the seven winning designs included in the game. It was the first game to be used in the Formula One eSports Series, which debuted in 2017; the initial reception to the game was positive, with motorsport magazine Autosport praising it for adding depth to all of the features introduced in F1 2016. The Daily Telegraph praised the game for its updates on previous titles, calling it one of Codemasters' best games. IGN was complimentary for being faithful to the details of its subject, while GameSpot's review echoed Autosport's response. GamesMaster said it was "A technical racer. F1 fans will love the career mode, but be disappointed by the classic content."The game reached number 2 in the UK PS4 sales chart, behind Uncharted: The Lost Legacy, but topped the XO charts.

The PlayStation 4 version sold 7,190 copies in Japan in its debut week, placing it at 11 on the sales charts. It reached number 2 in Australia, 4 in New Zealand. Alphr put it at number 6 on their list of the best racing games on PS4 2017; the game was nominated for "Best Racing Game in IGN's Best of 2017 Awards, for "eSports Game of the Year" at the 2018 SXSW Gaming Awards.

Francis George Stevens

Francis George Stevens was a British civil engineer who founded Scouting in Sri Lanka. In 1912, Stevens founded the first recorded Scout troop at Matale. In 1914 he established the 1st Galle Mahinda Scout Group at Galle. Following the appointment of Stevens as the colonial commissioner, the British Scout Association Ceylon Branch was recognized in 1914. Stevens was born in son of Mr. and Mrs. Lambert Stevens of Liverpool. Stevens arrived in Ceylon in 1911 as an Engineer in the Public Works Department, he was transferred from Matale to Colombo in 1914 and served in the Royal Navy during World War I. Stevens had no previous experience in Scouting, there was little literature on the subject, yet he realized the value of the program. Stevens was recognized in 1917 when Lord Baden-Powell awarded him the Silver Wolf on the eve of his departure to Egypt on War Service. In 1919, Stevens married Miss Gladys Crockwell of Court Netherleigh and they returned to Ceylon in 1920. In 1939 he returned to active Scouting and accepted the post of President and Chairman of the Association.

He was given the rank of Honorary Chief Scout Commissioner. He left Ceylon in 1945 to live in retirement in England and wrote a farewell: "... It is gratifying to know that the troop is still carrying on and doing good work, I believe that the Boy Scouts will play an important part in the future development of Ceylon and I hope that the 1st Colombo will take an active part therein... To do this it is necessary that every Scout realize that his part in the work is important and see that he always does his best. My farewell message to the troop would therefore be that it should always set before its aim of "nothing but the best"." The Chief Commissioner issued a directive creating Stevens Day as an event in the Scouting calendar, to be celebrated the second Saturday In June. Https:// Statue of Francis George Stevens-Founder of Scout Movement of Sri Lanka in Matale

Eleftherios Diamandis

Eleftherios Phedias Diamandis is a Cypriot-Canadian biochemist who specializes in clinical chemistry. He is Professor & Head of Clinical Biochemistry in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology at the University of Toronto in Toronto, Canada, he is Division Head of Clinical Biochemistry at Mount Sinai Hospital and Biochemist-in-Chief at the University Health Network, both of which are located in Toronto. Diamandis is a member of the Royal Society of Canada, he is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. From the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, he has received the Morton K. Schwartz Award for Significant Contributions in Cancer Research Diagnostics, among other awards. Landau, M.. "Eleftherios P. Diamandis". Clinical Chemistry. 59: 850–852. Doi:10.1373/clinchem.2012.195446. ISSN 0009-9147. Faculty page Eleftherios Diamandis publications indexed by Google Scholar

3-dehydroquinate synthase

In enzymology, a 3-dehydroquinate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-deoxy-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate ⇌ 3-dehydroquinate + phosphateHence, this enzyme has one substrate, 3-deoxy-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate, two products, 3-dehydroquinate and phosphate. The protein uses NAD+ to catalyze the reaction; this reaction is part of the shikimate pathway, involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. 3-Dehydroquinate synthase belongs to the family of lyases, to be specific those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on phosphates. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine and tryptophan biosynthesis, it employs cobalt. The shikimate pathway is composed of seven steps, each catalyzed by an enzyme; the shikimate pathway is responsible for producing the precursors for aromatic amino acids, which are essential to our diets because we cannot synthesize them in our bodies. Only plants and microbial eukaryotes are capable of producing aromatic amino acids; the pathway converts phosphoenolpyruvate and 4-erythrose phosphate into chorismate, the precursor to aromatic amino acids.

3-Dehydroquinate synthase is the enzyme. This second step of the reaction eliminates a phosphate from 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate, which results in 3-dehydroquinate. 3-Dehydroquinate synthase is a monomeric enzyme, has a molecular weight of 39,000. 3-dehydroquinate synthase is activated by inorganic phosphate, requires NAD+ for activity, although the reaction in total is neutral when catalyzed by an enzyme. 3-Dehydroquinate synthase utilizes a complex multi-step mechanism that includes alcohol oxidation, phosphate β-elimination, carbonyl reduction, ring opening, intramolecular aldol condensation. Dehydroquinate synthase requires NAD+ and a cobalt cofactor to catalyze the conversion of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate into 3-dehydroquinate. In most bacteria, this enzyme has only one function. However, in some organisms, it forms a complex with other enzymes; this complex is known as the AROM complex. The AROM complex is a pentafunctional polypeptide, which contains enzymes that catalyze steps two, three and five of the shikimate pathway.

In addition, dehydroquinate synthase is of particular interest because of its complicated activity relative to its small size. 3-Dehydroquinate synthase catalyzes the second step in the shikimate pathway, essential for the production of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and fungi, but not mammals. This makes it an ideal target for new antimicrobial agents, anti-parasitic agents, herbicides. Other enzymes in the shikimate pathway have been targeted and put to use as herbicides. Roundup, a common herbicide made by Monsanto, works by inhibiting another enzyme in the shikimate pathway; the shikimate pathway is an ideal choice for herbicides because this pathway does not exist in animals or people so people are not directly affected. Roundup uses glyphosate, to block one of the steps of the shikimate pathway. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which blocks the production of aromatic amino acids, without aromatic amino acids, plants cannot survive. However, Monsanto developed a bacterial form of EPSP synthase, not inhibited by Roundup.

Monsanto introduced this gene into plants using agrobacterium and the result was a plant, resistant to Roundup. This meant that all plants without the bacterial gene would die, leading a much higher degree of weed control; the systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-deoxy-arabino-heptulonate-7-phosphate phosphate-lyase. Other names in common use include 5-dehydroquinate synthase, 5-dehydroquinic acid synthetase, dehydroquinate synthase, 3-dehydroquinate synthetase, 3-deoxy-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate phosphate-lyase, 3-deoxy-arabino-heptulonate-7-phosphate phosphate-lyase

Quinault Indian Nation

The Quinault Indian Nation known as the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation, is a federally recognized tribe of Quinault, Quileute, Chehalis and Cowlitz peoples. They are a Southwestern Coast Salish people of indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, their tribe is located in Washington state on the Pacific coast of the Olympic Peninsula. These peoples are represented in other tribes in Washington and Oregon. In July 2016, about 2,500 landowners with interests in the Quinault Reservation were offered about $59 million by the U. S. Department of Interior as part of its Native Lands Buy-Back Program as part of the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action suit; the land purchased will be put into trust for the tribe at this reservation. Among other tribes, a range of 41 to 45% of people have accepted such offers; the agency has restored about 1.5 million acres to tribes under this program. The Quinault Reservation was founded in 1855 with the signing of the Treaty of Olympia with the United States.

The reservation covers 208,150 acres and includes 23 miles of Pacific coastline, located on the southwestern corner of the Olympic Peninsula. It is bordered by the Olympic National Park to the northwest, established in 1909 as a National Monument by President Teddy Roosevelt; the reservation is in Grays Jefferson counties, 45 miles north of Hoquiam, Washington. The three largest rivers on the reservation are the Quinault, the Queets, the Raft; the Quinault Indian Nation is headquartered in Washington. They ratified their bylaws on 24 August 1922 and their constitution in 1975; the tribe is governed by an eleven-member Tribal Council, or "Business Committee", democratically elected by the adult tribal membership at regular annual meetings. The current tribal administration is as follows: Chairman: Fawn Sharp Vice chairman: Tyson Johnston Treasurer: Larry Ralston Secretary: Latosha Underwood 1st councilmen: Gina James 2nd councilmen: James Sellers 3rd councilmen: Noreen Underwood 4th councilmen: Aliza Brown 5th councilmen: Dawneen Delecruz 6th councilmen: Clarinda "Pies" Underwood 7th councilmen: Roland Mason.

Enrollment to the Quinault Indian Tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of one-fourth of any combination of the seven member tribes. Persons who are direct descendants of members but have less than one-fourth blood quantum can apply to be formally adopted into the tribe. English is spoken by the tribe. Tribal members spoke Quileute and Chinook languages; the Quinault Indian Nation owns Quinault Pride Seafood and Timber Enterprises, the Mercantile in Taholah, Washington. They run their own internal facilities and in the 21st century are the largest employer in Grays Harbor County, they own and operate the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino, a new enterprise started in the late 20th century. They own Qmart 2 in Aberdeen. Since 2009, the casino has been the site of the annual Hog Wild Rally, one of the largest motorcycle rallies in the Pacific Northwest; the gaming casino has generated revenues. In June of 2018, $25 million in renovations and expansion to the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino were completed.

This project included remodeling of 159 resort rooms, additional gaming area, a new feature bar, kitchen facilities and a tribal themed buffet restaurant. Pritzker, Barry M.. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Quinault Indian Nation, official website Constitution of the Quinault Indian Nation Economic Development of QIN