Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere at a given place and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change. Once calculated by hand based upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, sky condition or cloud cover, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, knowledge of model performance, knowledge of model biases; the inaccuracy of forecasting is due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, the error involved in measuring the initial conditions, an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes.
Hence, forecasts become less accurate as the difference between current time and the time for which the forecast is being made increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most outcome. There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine. Since outdoor activities are curtailed by heavy rain and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, to plan ahead and survive them. In 2009, the US spent $5.1 billion on weather forecasting. For millennia people have tried to forecast the weather. In 650 BCE, the Babylonians predicted the weather from cloud patterns as well as astrology.
In about 350 BCE, Aristotle described weather patterns in Meteorologica. Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. Chinese weather prediction lore extends at least as far back as 300 BCE, around the same time ancient Indian astronomers developed weather-prediction methods. In New Testament times, Jesus himself referred to deciphering and understanding local weather patterns, by saying, "When evening comes, you say,'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red', in the morning,'Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.' You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times."In 904 CE, Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, translated into Arabic from an earlier Aramaic work, discussed the weather forecasting of atmospheric changes and signs from the planetary astral alterations. Ancient weather forecasting methods relied on observed patterns of events termed pattern recognition. For example, it might be observed that if the sunset was red, the following day brought fair weather.
This experience accumulated over the generations to produce weather lore. However, not all of these predictions prove reliable, many of them have since been found not to stand up to rigorous statistical testing, it was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before that, the fastest that distant weather reports could travel was around 160 kilometres per day, but was more 60–120 kilometres per day. By the late 1840s, the telegraph allowed reports of weather conditions from a wide area to be received instantaneously, allowing forecasts to be made from knowledge of weather conditions further upwind; the two men credited with the birth of forecasting as a science were an officer of the Royal Navy Francis Beaufort and his protégé Robert FitzRoy. Both were influential men in British naval and governmental circles, though ridiculed in the press at the time, their work gained scientific credence, was accepted by the Royal Navy, formed the basis for all of today's weather forecasting knowledge.
Beaufort developed the Wind Force Scale and Weather Notation coding, which he was to use in his journals for the remainder of his life. He promoted the development of reliable tide tables around British shores, with his friend William Whewell, expanded weather record-keeping at 200 British Coast guard stations. Robert FitzRoy was appointed in 1854 as chief of a new department within the Board of Trade to deal with the collection of weather data at sea as a service to mariners; this was the forerunner of the modern Meteorological Office. All ship captains were tasked with collating data on the weather and computing it, with the use of tested instruments that were loaned for this purpose. A storm in 1859 that caused the loss of the Royal Charter inspired FitzRoy to develop charts to allow predictions to be made, which he called "forecasting the weather", thus coining the term "weather forecast". Fifteen land stations were established to use the telegraph to transmit to him daily reports of weather at set times leading to the first gale warning service.
His warning service for shipping was initiated in February 1861, with the use of telegraph communications. The first daily weather forecasts were published in The Times in 1861. In the following year a system was introduce
The year 1972 in animation involved some events. January 13: The first episode of The Adventures of Sir Prancelot airs. January 24: The first episode of Loeki de Leeuw is broadcast, a series of stop-motion shorts which serve as bumpers before and after commercial breaks on Dutch television; the shorts will continue until 31 December 2004. February 14: The first episode of Fingerbobs airs. DePatie-Freleng Enterprises broadcasts The Lorax, based on Dr. Seuss' eponymous children's book. April 8: The first episode of The Most Important Person is broadcast. April 10: 44th Academy Awards: The Crunch Bird by Ted Petok wins the Academy Award for Best Animated Short. April 12: Ralph Bakshi's debut film, Fritz the Cat, is released, based on the eponymous comic strip by Robert Crumb; the picture is the first animated film to receive an X-rating and be marketed for adults. It manages to become a surprise box office hit. August 9: Bill Melendez' second Peanuts animated feature film Snoopy, Come Home is released.
September 1: The final Woody Woodpecker animated short Bye, Blackboard is released, after which Walter Lantz Productions closes down its studio as the last of all the classic animation film studios. September 9: The first episode of Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids is broadcast; the first episode of Sealab 2020 is broadcast, produced by Hanna-Barbera. The first episode of The Osmonds is broadcast, an animated series based on the popular pop group The Osmonds. September 12: Hanna-Barbera first broadcasts Wait Till Your Father Gets Home, an animated TV sitcom trying to reach a more adult audience. September 14: Manuel García Ferré releases Anteojito y Antifaz, mil intentos y un invento. September 16: The first episode of Kid Power is broadcast, an animated adaptation of the newspaper comic strip Wee Pals by Morrie Turner. October 1: The first episode of Science Ninja Team Gatchaman is broadcast, produced by Rankin/Bass. October 31: Ryan Larkin's Street Musique is released; the first Annie Awards ceremony is held.
December 3: The first episode of Mazinger Z is broadcast on Fuji Television. December 13: Belvision releases Tintin and the Lake of Sharks. December 14: Hal Sutherland's Journey Back to Oz premiers. December 21: Giuliano Cenci's The Adventures of Pinocchio premiers. Eric Porter's Marco Polo Junior Versus the Red Dragon is first released, the first Australian animated feature film. Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke create the earliest computer animated film: A Computer Animated Hand; the first episode of The Wonderful Stories of Professor Kitzel is broadcast. Břetislav Pojar's Balablok is first released. Nedeljko Dragić's Tup Tup is first released. Peter Lord and David Sproxton establish Aardman Animations. June 17: C. H. Greenblatt, American animator January 1: Maurice Chevalier, French actor and singer, dies at age 83. February 19: Tedd Pierce, American animation writer and voice actor, dies at age 65. March 19: Carl Meyer, American voice actor and animation writer, dies at age 78. March 31: Aleksandar Denkov, Bulgarian illustrator and comics artist, dies at age 47.
April 25: George Sanders, British actor, dies at age 65. May 5: Frank Tashlin, American cartoonist, comics artist, screenwriter, film director and animator, dies at age 59. May 23: Nino Pagot, Italian comics artist and animator, dies at the age of 64. June 26: David Lichine, Russian-American ballet dancer and choreographer, dies at age 61. August 14: Roland Crandall, American animator, dies at age 79. September 12: Max Fleischer, American animator, film director, animated film producer and comics artist, dies at age 89. October 21: Felix Felton, British actor, dies at age 61. November 27: Carl W. Stalling, American composer and co-inventor of the click track, dies at age 81. 1972 in anime
Prehistoric art in Scotland is visual art created or found within the modern borders of Scotland, before the departure of the Romans from southern and central Britain in the early fifth century CE, seen as the beginning of the early historic or Medieval era. There is no clear definition of prehistoric art among scholars and objects that may involve creativity lack a context that would allow them to be understood; the earliest examples of portable art from what is now Scotland are decorated carved stone balls from the Neolithic period, which share patterns with Irish and Scottish stone carvings. Other items from this period include elaborate carved maceheads and figurines from Links of Noltland, including the Westray Wife, the earliest known depiction of a human face from Scotland. From the Bronze Age there are examples of carvings, including the first representations of objects, cup and ring marks. Representations of an axe and a boat at the Ri Cruin Cairn in Kilmartin, a boat pecked into Wemyss Cave, are the oldest two-dimensional representations of real objects that survive in Scotland.
Elaborate carved. Surviving metalwork includes gold lunula or neckplates, jet beaded necklaces and elaborate weaponry, such as leaf swords and ceremonial shields of sheet bronze. From the Iron Age there are more extensive examples of gold work. Evidence of the wider La Tène culture Horns; the Stirling torcs demonstrate common styles found in Scotland and Ireland and continental workmanship. One of the most impressive items from this period is the boar's head fragment of the Deskford carnyx. From the first century CE, as Rome carried out a series of occupations, there are Roman artifacts like the Cramond Lioness and Roman influence on material culture can be seen in local stone carvings; the ability to study prehistoric art is dependent on surviving artifacts. Art created in mediums such as sand, bark and textiles has not endured, while less-perishable materials, such as rock, bone, ivory pottery and metal, are more to be extant. Whether all these artifacts can be defined as works of art is contested between scholars.
Alexander Marshack argued that the earliest, non-representational incisions on rock mark the beginnings of human art. More cautiously, Paul Mellars suggests that the relative rarity of these works means they cannot be seen as integral to early human society and evidence of an artistic culture. Colin Renfrew has pointed out the dangers of applying modern values of art to past societies and cultures. Günter Berghaus argues that these works have been approached with a set of post-Renaissance aesthetic values that distinguish between artists and craftsman and art and artifact, although these categories are not universal and may be inappropriate for understanding prehistoric society. Duncan Garrow has pointed to the difficulties of the modern distinction drawn between form and decoration; the emphasis in studies of prehistoric art tend to be placed on decoration in objects such as ceramics and ignores the importance of form, found in objects such as weapons. Many meanings have been suggested for the nature of prehistoric art.
It may have helped develop human solidarity in its early stages. Open air rock art may have acted as signposts for the route of animal migrations. Cave art may have had a ritual role in rites of vision quests or totemic ceremonies. Portable objects may have acted as notation systems and anthropomorphic figures may have had a role in religious rituals. However, most artifacts can only be understood in their context, lost or poorly understood. Scotland was occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from around 8500 BCE, who were mobile boat-using people making tools from bone and antlers. Neolithic farming brought permanent settlements, like the stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray, dating from around 3500 BCE; the settlers introduced chambered cairn tombs, as at Maeshowe, the many standing stones and circles such as those at Stenness on the mainland of Orkney, which dates from about 3100 BCE, similar stones to which are found across Europe from about the same time. There is no surviving art from the Mesolithic period in Scotland because the mobile peoples of the period would have made this on perishable organic items.
The oldest surviving portable visual art from Scotland are carved stone balls, or petrospheres, that date from the late Neolithic era. They are a uniquely Scottish phenomenon, with over 425 known examples. Most are from modern Aberdeenshire, but a handful of examples are known from Iona, Harris, Lewis, Hawick and fifteen from Orkney, five of which were found at the Neolithic village of Skara Brae. Many functions have been suggested for these objects, most indicating that they were prestigious and powerful possessions, their production may have continued into the Iron Age. The complex carved circles and spirals on these balls can be seen mirrored in the carving on what was a lintel from a chambered cairn at Pierowall on Westray, which seem to be part of the same culture that produced carvings at Newgrange in Ireland. Elaborately carved maceheads are found in burial sites, like that found at Airdens in Sutherland, which has a pattern of interlocking diamond-shaped facets, similar to those found across Neolithic Britain and Europe.
Pottery appeared in the Neolithic period once hunters and gatherers transitioned to a sedentary lifestyle, until they needed to use lightweight, mobile containers. Finely made and decorated Unstan ware, survives from the fourth and third millen
Al Akhbar is a daily Arabic language newspaper published in a semi tabloid format in Beirut. Until 2015, it had an English version published on the Internet; the paper describes itself as independent. News reports in publications such as The New York Times and Wall Street Journal have described Al Akhbar as pro-Hezbollah. However, Al-Akhbar states that its paper has a leftist inclination and that it belongs to the group of those against American dominance in any part of the world; the paper never lacks any criticism of Hezbollah as well in terms of Hezbollah’s right-wing/sectarian alignment. The newspaper began to be published and distributed in 2006, it was established by Ibrahim Al Amine. A 2009 survey by Ipsos Stat established that the daily is among the five most popular newspapers in Beirut. In December 2010, Al Akhbar received and published an advance copy of the US State Department cables by WikiLeaks, after which the newspaper's website was hacked. Following this attack, the paper shut down its website for a while.
It has since continued to partner with Wikileaks, translate Arabic cables. On 18 July 2011 the paper together with As Safir, another daily published in Lebanon, was banned in Syria; the paper's online version was the 12th most visited website for 2010 in the MENA region. Al Akhbar's English-language website ended operations on 6 March 2015, plans to shift to a print newspaper were cancelled, in part due to a lack of funds. Al Akhbar declares its political orientation as independent and progressive, supporting movements working for independence and social justice, against war and occupation, in Lebanon and around the world; the social justice commitment includes publication of articles and columns advancing women's and gay rights. In his "Comprehensive Guide to Lebanese Media," journalist Deen Sharp describes Al Akhbar as "critical of all Lebanese groups," but "perceived as pro-March 8th," a coalition of political parties in Lebanon that includes Hezbollah and the Free Patriotic Movement. In 2010, Ibrahim Al Amine, editorial chairman of Al Akhbar, described the founding ambitions of the newspaper: "We wanted the U.
S. ambassador to wake up in the morning, read it and get upset.” Responding in a letter to The New York Times, Jeffrey Feltman, US ambassador to Lebanon when Al Amine made the remark, wrote that Al Amine "did get my attention, but not in the way he intended. The hilariously erroneous accounts of my activities reported as fact in his newspaper provoked morning belly laughs." In 2013, Al Amine attacked the U. S. as "the main source of policies of oppression and injustice in the world."Marwan Hamadeh, a member of the 14 March Alliance and a deputy in Lebanon's legislature, news reports in publications such as The New York Times and Wall Street Journal have described Al Akhbar as pro-Hezbollah. Former US ambassador Feltman wrote in early 2011 that Al Akhbar romanticized and never criticized Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah. Robert Worth, in The New York Times, wrote in 2010 that the paper "has sometimes criticized Hezbollah in print." In his 2012 and 2013 Al Akhbar English language columns, writer As'ad AbuKhalil criticized both Hezbollah and its leader Hassan Nasrallah.
Times journalist Mark Ashurst described the newspaper as having "close links to the government of President Bashar al-Assad of Syria." New York Times journalist Robert Worth in 2010 wrote that Al Akhbar newspaper "has become the most dynamic and daring in Lebanon, anywhere in the Arab world." He criticized the publication for excessive reliance on single sources, for "news pages that show a loose mingling of fact and opinion." The newspaper's prominent writers have included Ibrahim Al Amine, As'ad AbuKhalil, Amal Saad-Ghorayeb and Sharmine Narwani. Max Blumenthal joined Al Akhbar in late 2011 to write about Israel-Palestine issues and foreign-policy debates in Washington, noting on leaving in mid-2012 in protest of its coverage of the Syrian Civil War that it "gave me more latitude than any paper in the United States to write about... Israel and Palestine". Blumenthal added that Al Akhbar "still remains, in some respects, a valuable publication on a lot of issues, for example, the abuse of domestic workers inside Lebanon, a plague and few other publications report on."Blumenthal left Al Akhbar in June 2012 in protest at Al Akhbar's coverage of the Syrian Civil War.
In an interview with The Real News he said that "It was too much to have my name and reputation associated with open Assad apologists when the scale of atrocities had become so extreme and when the editor-in-chief of Al-Akhbar was offering friendly advice to Bashar al-Assad on the website of Al-Akhbar, you know, painting him as this kind of genuine, earnest reformer who just needed to get rid of the bad men around him and cut out some of the rich oligarchs who happened to be his cousins, everything would be fine. That was ridiculous." Blumenthal highlighted editorials by Sharmine Narwani. Blumenthal said that Al Akhbar had seen "a major exodus of key staffers at Al-Akhbar over the Syrian issue.... The conflict over Syria has divided the Lebanese left, and so the debates at Al-Akhbar reflected the debates inside the Lebanese left. And what it came to this spring was that the pro-Assad faction, which saw him and his regime as an anti-imperialist bulwark, had more or less won out, although some dissident voices remain."
Blumenthal has subsequently changed his position on Syria after applying "due diligence" in his research and publicly apologized to Sharmine Narwani and other editors he had criticized in 2012. Archiv
Amazing Blondel are an English acoustic progressive folk band, containing Eddie Baird, John Gladwin, Terry Wincott. They released a number of LPs for Island Records in the early 1970s, they are sometimes categorised as psychedelic folk or as medieval folk rock, but their music was much more a reinvention of Renaissance music, based around the use of period instruments such as lutes and recorders. John Gladwin and Terrance Wincott formed a band called The Dimples along with Stuart Smith and Johnny Jackson. Signed to the Decca label they recorded a single, the "A" side "Love of a Lifetime" and the "B" side written by John Gladwin titled "My Heart is Tied to You"; the record did not chart, although more the B-side has become popular on the Northern soul scene. Following the break up of The Dimples John and Terry formed a loud "electric" band called Methuselah. However, at some point in Methuselah concerts, the duo would play an acoustic number together: they found that this went down well with the audiences and allowed them to bring out more of the subtlety of their singing and instrumental work.
They began working on their own acoustic material. Their material was derived from folk music, in line with many of the other performers of the time. However, they began to develop their own musical idiom, influenced, at one extreme, by the early music revivalists such as David Munrow, the other extreme, by their childhood memories of the Robin Hood TV series, with its pseudo-mediaeval soundtrack by Elton Hayes; the band was named after Blondel de Nesle, the musician in the court of Richard I. According to legend, when Richard was held prisoner, Blondel travelled through central Europe, singing at every castle to locate the King and assist his escape; this name for the band was suggested by a chef, Eugene McCoy, who listened to some of their songs and commented: "Oh Blondel!" and they began to use that name. They were advised to add an adjective and so they became "Amazing Blondel", their first album The Amazing Blondel was released by Bell Records. It was directed by session guitarist Big Jim Sullivan.
At about this time, Eddie Baird joined the band. On 19 September 1970 they were one of the bands to play at the first Glastonbury Festival. Following what Baird described as "a disastrous'showbiz' record signing", Amazing Blondel were introduced, by members of the band Free, to Chris Blackwell of Island Records and Artists. Blackwell signed them up to Island, for whom they recorded their albums Evensong, Fantasia Lindum and England. In Baird's words the band "adored recording", they recorded the Island albums in the company's Basing Street Studios which, at that time, was the source of some of the most innovative independent music in Britain. They toured both in their own concerts and as a support act for bands such as Genesis, Procol Harum and Steeleye Span. On stage, they aimed at technical precision of the music and versatility of instrumentation interspersed with banter and bawdy humour. However, there was a conflict between their managers' desires to organise more demanding tour schedules and the band's own wish to spend more time writing material and working in the studio.
In the end, this led to the departure of John Gladwin from the band in 1973, the remaining two members decided to continue as a duo. In this new format, they went on to record several more albums, with Baird now writing the bulk of the material; the first of these, was their final release for Island. They were next signed to Dick James' DJM label, where they recorded three albums, Mulgrave Street and Bad Dreams, they modernized and electrified their sound. These albums featured a number of guest musicians, including Paul Kossoff. There is a mistaken belief; this is caused by the title of the final Island album, the front cover of Mulgrave Street, which gives the short version of the name. But the full name is given on the front of the next two albums; the final release in the 1970s was a live album. By the end of the 1970s, with disco being the largest selling music genre and with folk losing popularity and Wincott stopped performing under the Amazing Blondel name. John Gladwin reinherited the name and began to tour universities with bandmates, former session players for the original Amazing Blondel.
This line-up had been billed as "John David Gladwin's Englishe Musicke". The original band produced a new album Restoration, they have since played at venues across Europe in the period 1997–2000. As of 2005, Terry Wincott had a successful heart bypass operation, which curtailed the band's plans for future concerts. In 2005, Eddie Baird played two concerts in a duo with acoustic guitarist and singer songwriter Julie Ellison and is working on a collaboration with Darryl Ebbatson, called "Ebbatson Baird". John David Gladwin and Edward Baird were born and brought up in Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire: Terence Alan Wincott was born in Hampshire but moved to Scunthorpe at an early age; the members of the band were all accomplished musicians. Gladwin sang and played twelve-string guitar, double bass, cittern and tubular bells. Wincott sang and played 6 string guitar, recorders, ocarina, crumhorn, pipe organ, harpsic
Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi was one of the leading German political economists in the 18th century. Justi was born in Brücken. From 1750 to 1753, Justi taught at the Theresianum Knights Academy in Vienna where he established close contacts with Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz whose administrative reforms exerted a strong influence on his political ideas. After settling in Erfurt and Leipzig, Justi was appointed Director of Police in Göttingen in 1755. In Göttingen Justi started his systematic study of contemporary French works, in particular Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. In 1757, he accepted an invitation of the Danish minister Bernstorff to Copenhagen. In 1758, he settled in Altona. Hoping for a permanent position in Prussia, Justi moved to Berlin in 1760. Five years in 1765, he was appointed Prussian Inspector of Mines and Steel Works. In 1768, he was imprisoned in Küstrin. New archival research by Andre Wakefield has revealed in how far Justi's activities as Prussian official in the Neumark can be considered'a disaster in every way'.
After being released in April 1771 he moved back to Berlin. Justi's oeuvre consists of more than 50 independent works dealing with philosophical, technological, chemical, physical as well as political and economic issues. For most of his life, Justi did not hold a permanent position in academia or public administration but had to live from the royalties of his writings. Accordingly, he tried to present at least two new titles at each of the two large annual German book fairs in Leipzig and Frankfurt; this circumstance accounts for the manifold textual similarities that can be found within Justi's works. Writing against the background of the European power struggle during the Seven Years' War, Justi's central aim was to create modern commercial monarchies in the larger states of the Holy Roman Empire that could equal the military strength, political standing and economic performance of England and France. In so doing, Justi took recourse to ideas of French thinkers such as Fénelon, Saint-Pierre, d'Argenson and Montesquieu.
In his political writings, Justi stressed that a country could only be economically and commercially successful if it was run by a moderate government that recognised the inviolability of private property. By contrast, despotism led to the impoverishment and military weakening of a country. Under the influence of Montesquieu Justi extensively discussed the advantages and disadvantages of different forms of government, yet concluded that the only form of government that would be able to coordinate and implement wide-ranging economic reforms was a modernised monarchical regime. Justi came up with a broad range of ideas for economic reform. Apart from measures supporting population growth and fostering competition, Justi viewed the increase in private consumption, the spread of manufactures and companies as well as the growth in external trade as cornerstones for economic success; these measures had to be accompanied by improvements in agriculture. These reforms could only be successful if they were supported by a comprehensive tax reform that would lead, among other things, to the abolition of the excise tax.
In his financial writings, the influence of contemporary French writings as well as cameralistic theories developed by Wolff and Pufendorf shines through. On various issues, Justi seems to take positions. However, his overall argument – the need for short-term government interventions in order to obtain a liberal economic order in the long term – is far closer to thinkers such as Sir James Steuart. Research on Justi has focused on his works on political economy. Other parts of his comprehensive oeuvre have not yet been studied in detail. Ulrich Adam: The Political Economy of J. H. G. Justi. Peter Lang, Oxford 2006, ISBN 3-03910-278-8 Ferdinand Frensdorff: Über das Leben und die Schriften des Nationalökonomen J. H. G. von Justi. Göttingen 1903 Dirk Fleischer: Kirchenverständnis aus polizeiwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justis Verständnis der Kirche. in: Albrecht Beutel et al.: Christentum im Übergang. Neue Studien zu Kirche und Religion in der Aufklärungszeit. Leipzig 2006, pp. 71–83, ISBN 3-374-02396-7 Andre Wakefield: The Disordered Police State.
German Cameralism as Science and Practice. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2009. ISBN 978-0-226-87020-5 Staatswirtschaft oder systematische Abhandlung aller ökonomischen und Cameralwissenschaft, 2 volumes, I+II Entdeckte Ursachen des verderbten Münzwesens in Teutschland. In zweien Theilen sgefertigt. Erster Theil, Welcher die Lehre -von Erhaltung und Vermehrung des Vermogens des Staats, und mithin die Staatskunst, die Policey- und Commereien-Wissenschaft nebst der Haushaltungskunst in sich begreifft. Zweyte stark vermehrte Auflage Die Chimäre des Gleichgewichts der Handlung und Schiffahrt Der Grundriss einer guten Regierung Psammitichus, 2 volumes, I, II Natur und Wesen der Staaten Leben und Charakter des Königl. Polnischen und Chu