Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting and braiding or plaiting; the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter-woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Cloth is woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back strap loom, or other techniques without looms; the way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be woven in decorative or artistic design. In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.

One warp thread is called. The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other in a loom. There are many types of looms. Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions called the primary motions of the loom. Shedding: where the warp threads are separated by raising or lowering heald frames to form a clear space where the pick can pass Picking: where the weft or pick is propelled across the loom by hand, an air-jet, a rapier or a shuttle Beating-up or battening: where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reedThe warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one above another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion; the upper group is lowered by the loom mechanism, the lower group is raised, allowing to pass the shuttle in the opposite direction in a straight motion. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the final distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large.

The secondary motions of the loom are the: Let off motion: where the warp is let off the warp beam at a regulated speed to make the filling and of the required design Take up motion: takes up the woven fabric in a regulated manner so that the density of filling is maintainedThe tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions: to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two main stop motions are the Warp stop motion Weft stop motionThe principal parts of a loom are the frame, the warp-beam or weavers beam, the cloth-roll, the heddles, their mounting, the reed; the warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom. The threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll; each thread or group of threads of the warp passes through an opening in a heddle. The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles.

In the case of small patterns the movement of the heddles is controlled by "cams" which move up the heddles by means of a frame called a harness. Where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine; every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted. Traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the weft thread is carried on a pirn, in a shuttle that passes through the shed. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick; the "picking" on a power loom is done by hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80–250 times a minute. When a pirn is depleted, it is ejected from the shuttle and replaced with the next pirn held in a battery attached to the loom. Multiple shuttle boxes allow more than one shuttle to be used; each can carry a different colour.

The rapier-type weaving machines do not have shuttles, they propel the weft by means of small grippers or rapiers that pick up the filling thread and carry it halfway across the loom where another rapier picks it up and pulls it the rest of the way. Some carry the filling yarns across the loom at rates in excess of 2,000 metres per minute. Manufacturers such as Picanol have reduced the mechanical adjustments to a minimum, control all the functions through a computer with a graphical user interface. Other types use compressed air to insert the pick, they are all fast and quiet. The warp is sized in a starch mixture for smoother running; the loom warped by passing the sized warp threads through two or more heddles attached to harnesses. The power weavers. Most looms used for industrial purposes have a machine that ties new warps threads to the waste of used warps threads, while still on the loom an operator rolls the old and new threads back on the warp beam; the harnesses are controlled by dobbies or a Jacquard head.

The raising and lowering

Morgan Lily

Morgan Lily Jane Gross is an American actress and fashion model. She started modeling internationally at the age of four years and appeared in more than 21 television commercials, many photo shoots before her role in Henry Poole Is Here as Millie Stupek. Lily had supporting roles in He's Just Not That Into You, as Matthew Gray Gubler's daughter in The Ugly Life Of A Beautiful Girl, her most notable role has been as Lilly Curtis in the apocalyptic film 2012. She acted as young Julianna Baker in the film Flipped based on the novel with the same name by Wendelin van Draanen and as young Raven Darkhölme in X-Men: First Class and X-Men: Days of Future Past. Morgan co-starred, her most recent work includes Cooties. Lily began her acting career at an early age, her early work includes the 2005 drama film Shards where she played Morgan, a TV movie, Welcome to the Jungle Gym where she played Kylie. In 2007, she guest starred in CSI: Crime Scene Investigation as Chloe, which led her more opportunities such as a co-starring role at the age 8 years.

In her first theatrical film Henry Poole Is Here she portrayed Millie Stupek. Morgan's most notable role so far has been in the 2009 disaster film 2012 as Lilly Curtis alongside young actor Liam James. Another notable role has been as Bonnie on Shameless. Morgan's current projects up-to-date include Love's Everlasting Courage alongside high-profile actors Wes Brown and Cheryl Ladd. Official website Morgan Lily on IMDb Official Fan Site

Arthur Cursham

Arthur William Cursham was an English cricketer and footballer. He played football for England and for Notts County between 1876 and 1883, he played cricket for Nottinghamshire from 1876 to 1879 and for Derbyshire from 1879 to 1880. Cursham was born in Wilford, Nottingham the son of William Cursham vicar of Cropwell Butler, he became a mine manager. He played football for Notts County, between 1876 and 1883 and made his England footballing debut in March 1876 in a 3-0 home defeat at the hands of Scotland. A photograph of this team is believed to be the first photograph of an English team; however Cursham does not appear in the picture - it is believed he was behind the camera. He made six international footballing appearances in total, four coming against Scotland and two against Wales. Cursham made his County Cricket debut during the 1876 season, playing his first game for Nottinghamshire in a low-scoring victory against Yorkshire. He, along with the rest of the Nottinghamshire team, failed to impress in a match in which only one player would reach double figures in each of the first three innings, himself scoring just three runs from the middle order.

Cursham, a right-handed batsman and a round-arm bowler, appeared extensively for Nottinghamshire during the 1877 and 1878 seasons, scoring a maiden career half-century against Middlesex in 1877. Cursham moved to play for Derbyshire during the 1879 season, he played in the Derbyshire lower order, scoring a duck in his debut innings, though failing to break into the side as a bowler. He played for Derbyshire again in the 1880 season, retiring from the game at the age of 27. Three years after the end of his cricketing career, Cursham played two further games for the England national football team, a victory against Wales in which he scored his second and final international goal, a defeat against Scotland. Cursham emigrated to the United States at the end of his footballing career, just a year after his final international footballing appearance, he died in Florida at just 31 years of age from yellow fever. His brother Henry was an England international footballer. Arthur Cursham at Cricket Archive Arthur Cursham at England F.