Wedding reception

A wedding reception is a party held after the completion of a marriage ceremony as hospitality for those who have attended the wedding, hence the name reception: the couple receive society, in the form of family and friends, for the first time as a married couple. Hosts provide their choice of drink, although a wedding cake is popular. Entertaining guests after a wedding ceremony is traditional in most societies, can last anywhere from half an hour to many hours or days. Most wedding receptions are made in the evening for dinner however, the couple may opt for a luncheon, brunch, or afternoon tea; the married couple chooses the details and location of the reception. In some cultures, separate wedding celebrations are held for the bride's and groom's families. Before receptions – a social event, structured around a receiving line, held in the afternoon, with only light refreshments – became popular, weddings were more celebrated with wedding breakfasts and wedding balls; the popularity of receptions, rather than breakfasts and balls, during the 20th century led to the name reception being applied to any social event after a wedding, whether it is brunch, dinner, or a dance.

Until after World War II, wedding celebrations were most held in the bride's home, in whatever style of entertainment was within the means of the family. This might be a grand ball for a wealthy family, a luncheon for middle-class families, or an afternoon tea, featuring cake and lemonade, for working-class families; the choice depended on the family's economic situation, in some cases, mass weddings were favored as a way to share costs. At the beginning of the 20th century, dance halls became common, were rented by those planning a celebration beyond what their homes could hold. Typical locations for wedding celebrations now include hotel ballrooms, banquet halls, wedding venues, community halls, social halls at the church or other sacred place where the wedding ceremony took place, for smaller weddings and garden parties at home. There are many small businesses that specialize in providing places for wedding ceremonies and celebrations. Technically, to be a reception, instead of some other form of entertainment, guests must be greeted with a receiving line.

In a receiving line, newly wedded couple, the hosts, their parents and any honour attendants, stand in order of precedence and greet every guest in turn. Each guest greets the first person in the line and, introduces him/herself; the first person introduces the guest to the next person in the line, turns to the next guest. As each guest properly speaks little more than his/her name and conventional greetings or congratulations to each person in turn, the line progresses without unnecessary delays. Western etiquette requires at least one of the hosts and the newly married couple, as the guests of honor, to welcome and greet the guests, but the other members of the wedding party, parents who are not hosting the party, etc. are not required to stand in the receiving line. It is common to feature only the couple, since more modern couples host and pay for their own weddings rather than their parents. After formally receiving each guest in this fashion, the receiving line is finished and the people, duty-bound to stand in it can mingle with guests and enjoy more extended conversations.

Another option popular on the East and West Coast of the United States, is having a grand entrance instead of a receiving line. The grand entrance might involve presenting some or all of the wedding party, the parents, and/or the bride and groom; the wedding party is introduced by a master of ceremonies, disc jockey, or band leader. It may be done in the same manner; this is much faster than a receiving line and guests may be seated before the arrival of the wedding party. In addition, it can be as entertaining as wished. Introductions may be accompanied by music and information about each person to introduce them to the guests. However, unlike a reception line, it does not give the guests an opportunity to speak to any of the people being presented; the food served at a wedding reception is determined by the time of local customs. Food may range from a non-alcoholic drink with wedding cake to multi-course dinners; the type of food is chosen at the discretion of the hosts. Some receptions if the wedding party's culture or religious faith prohibits alcohol or dancing, focus on dessert.

Hosts may choose to honor regional or local customs, such as by serving a culturally important cake like croquembouche in France, or featuring a cookie table as is celebrated in Pittsburgh and some surrounding areas. The wedding cake is a multi-tiered layer cake, elaborately decorated with white frosting; some couples have a smaller display cake, supplemented by sheet cake. The groom's cake is a tradition observed in the southern United States. In the Colonial and Victorian eras, the white-iced bride's cake was considered "too light" for male tastes, a second cake choice—usually a dark, liquor-soaked fruitcake—was offered. Today, chocolate is popular, although the groom's cake may be in any flavor and is shaped or decorated as something significant to the groom, such as a favorite hobby or sport. If a full meal is served, the wedding cake is served after the meal. Otherwise, the cake may be served as

Murder of Elisabeth Mandala

On May 1, 2010 an American woman named Elisabeth Mandala was found dead in a truck in Nuevo León, Mexico. Her murder is unsolved. Mandala lived on a ranch, located in a section of Houston near the City of Sugar Land, her father was an Italian American and mother immigrated from Mexico to the US. Mandala had an older sister, an older brother, a younger sister, she was a 12th grade student at Kempner High School in Sugar Land. Mandala worked at a Pappadeaux restaurant in Sugar Land as a waitress and as a secretary at her father's company, she worked as an exotic dancer at the Moments Cabaret nightclub in Pasadena, something her friends were unaware of, paid money into an apparent online scam. On April 27, 2010, she traveled to Mexico after getting into a car in north Houston. A group of her friends were aware of her travel plans, her mother found that she was absent from school and text messages and Facebook messages saying that she was in Mexico and would be back. Her mother did not give her permission to travel abroad.

Mandala was in contact with her father via text message, he warned her about traveling in Mexico. On May 1 her mother reported her missing, her body had been found in Mexico hours earlier. She died at age 18. Carl Franzen wrote in AOL News that "details have emerged about life that invite comparisons to" that of Laura Palmer, a teenage girl character in the television series Twin Peaks. Marilyn D. McShane and Ming-Li Hsieh, authors of Women and Criminal Justice, stated that Mandala wanted more excitement in her life despite her comfortable upbringing. At 6 AM on May 1, 2010, Mandala was found dead in a Texas-registered Dodge Dakota pickup truck, along a Mexican federal highway, near the town of Mina in Nuevo León. Mandala was in the truck's back bench. Two men, a 44-year-old taxicab driver named Luis Angel Estrella Mondragón and a 38-year-old businessman named Dante Ruiz Siller, were in the same truck. Nuevo León authorities did not know why Ruiz were in the state. One of the men had a lengthy criminal record and the two men had false identification.

Authorities were unable to determine the relationship between Mandala and the men and Ruiz. The truck was discovered. Nuevo León authorities found all three occupants died from beatings, while sustaining blows to their heads and bodies, in a period of at least ten hours prior to the collision, which Nuevo León authorities believe was engineered by the perpetrators. A rock was affixed to the accelerator of the truck. Nuevo León authorities stated the crash could not have caused the deaths as it was not strong enough. After the case came to national media attention, speculation in the outlets stated that she came to Mexico since she wanted to become a coyote and traffic persons along the U. S.-Mexico border. Her family stated that Mandala was joking when she said she wanted to smuggle illegal immigrants, that in fact Mandala was not trying to smuggle people, her parents turned away reporters. After several months the media attention died down; the Houston Police Department and federal government authorities stated that since she was found dead in Mexico, they will not investigate the case since they lack jurisdiction.

Upon the identification of Mandala's body, HPD closed its case on Mandala. Mexican authorities did not turn up any leads; the family declined to pay a private investigator funds to investigate the case since the family members had exhausted their savings to repatriate Mandala's body. Mandala's funeral was held at St. Theresa Catholic Church in Sugar Land, she was buried at Forest Park Westheimer Cemetery in Houston. McShane and Hsieh noted that this case, along with that of Ashley Paige Benton, was an example of a teenage girl who ended up in "statistical groups" atypical for that sex and age group and more typical for juvenile males, due to "perhaps bad choices" and "unpredictable behavior" despite Mandala having normalcy "in so many ways". O’Hare, Peggy. "Adolescente de Sugar Land que murió en México quería ser coyote y bailarina exótica". Houston Chronicle/La Voz de Houston. "Investigan extraña muerte de estadunidense en México". El Excelsior. 2010-05-08. "Reclama EU a asesinada en Mina." El Norte.

5 May 2010


Rari is a village in the Chilean municipality of Colbún, Linares Province, Maule Region located in the Andean foothills of this province. Rari is close to the well-known hot springs of Panimávida and Quinamávida and lies 20 km to the northeast of Linares, the provincial capital. Unique handmade arts and crafts are among the important activities in the area; these crafts are made of "crin" by a group of skilled artisans - overwhelmingly female - specialized in this trade. Some of them have been working on it for more than seventy years. Together and the surrounding villages, have a population of about 1,300; the geographic coordinates of the place are: latitude: 35° 46' 0S, longitude: 71° 25' 0W, altitude: 246 mt. Blog de Rari A blog with report and pictures of crafts made in Rari Google aerial view of Rari