War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families. Charles left an undivided Monarchy of Spain to Louis XIV's grandson Philip, proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. Disputes over separation of the Spanish and French crowns and commercial rights led to war in 1701 between the Bourbons of France and Spain and the Grand Alliance, whose candidate was Archduke Charles, younger son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. By the end of 1706, Allied victories in Italy and the Low Countries forced the French back within their borders but they were unable to make a decisive breakthrough. Control of the sea allowed the Allies to conduct successful offensives in Spain, but lack of popular support for Archduke Charles meant they could not hold territory outside the coastal areas. Conflict extended to European colonies in North America, where it is known as Queen Anne's War, the West Indies as well as minor struggles in Colonial India.
Related conflicts include Rákóczi's War of Independence in Hungary, funded by France and the 1704–1710 Camisard rebellion in South-East France, funded by Britain. When his elder brother Joseph died in 1711, Charles succeeded him as Emperor, undermining the primary driver behind the war, to prevent Spain being united with either France or Austria; the 1710 British election returned a new government committed to ending it and with the Allied war effort now dependent on British financing, this forced the others to make peace. The war ended with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, followed in 1714 by the treaties of Rastatt and Baden. In return for confirmation as King of Spain, Philip V renounced his place in the line of succession to the French throne, both for himself and his descendants; the Dutch Republic was granted its Barrier Fortresses, while France acknowledged the Protestant succession in Britain and agreed to end support for the Stuart exiles. In the longer term, the commercial provisions of Utrecht confirmed Britain's status as the leading European maritime and commercial power, while the Dutch lost their position as the pre-eminent economic power in Asia and the war marked their decline as a first-rank power.
Other long-term impacts include the creation of a centralised Spanish state and the acceleration of the break-up of the Holy Roman Empire into larger and more powerful German principalities. In 1665 Charles II became the last male Habsburg King of Spain. In 1670, England agreed to support the rights of Louis XIV to the Spanish throne in the Treaty of Dover, while the terms of the 1688 Grand Alliance committed England and the Dutch Republic to back Leopold. In 1700, the Spanish Empire included possessions in Italy, the Spanish Netherlands, the Philippines and the Americas and though no longer the dominant great power, it remained intact. Since acquisition of the Empire by either the Austrian Habsburgs or French Bourbons would change the balance of power in Europe, its inheritance led to a war that involved most of the European powers; the 1700-1721 Great Northern War is considered a connected conflict, since it impacted the involvement of states such as Sweden, Denmark–Norway and Russia. During the 1688–1697 Nine Years War, armies had increased in size from an average of 25,000 in 1648 to over 100,000 by 1697, a level unsustainable for pre-industrial economies.
The 1690s marked the lowest point of the Little Ice Age, a period of colder and wetter weather that drastically reduced crop yields. The Great Famine of 1695-1697 killed between 15-25% of the population in present-day Scotland, Finland, Latvia and Sweden, with an estimated two million deaths in France and Northern Italy; the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick was therefore the result of mutual exhaustion and Louis XIV's acceptance that France could not achieve its objectives without allies. Leopold refused to sign and did so with extreme reluctance in October 1697. Unlike France or Austria, the Crown of Spain could be inherited through the female line; this allowed Charles' sisters Maria Theresa and Margaret Theresa to pass their rights as rulers onto the children of their respective marriages with Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold. Despite being opponents in the recent Nine Years War, Louis XIV and William III of England now attempted to resolve the Succession by diplomacy. In 1685, Maria Antonia, daughter of Leopold and Margaret, married Maximillian Emanuel of Bavaria and they had a son, Joseph Ferdinand.
The 1698 Treaty of the Hague or First Partition Treaty between France and the Dutch Republic made the six year old heir to the bulk of the Spanish Monarchy and divided its European territories between France and Austria. The Spanish refused to accept the division of their Empire and on 14 November 1698, Charles published his Will, making Joseph Ferdinand heir to an independent and undivided Spanish monarchy; when he died of smallpox in February 1699, a new solution was required. This was of doubtful legality but France and the Nethe
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Hubert Hermann Reinhold Schardin was a German ballistics expert and academic who studied in the field of high-speed photography and cinematography. He was the director of the German-French Research Institute in Saint-Louis and founder and director of the Fraunhofer Society Institute for High-Speed Dynamics - Ernst-Mach-Institut - in Freiburg im Breisgau; the main importance of Schardin's scientific activities is in high-speed physics. He extended the research of Fritz Ahlborn, resulting in more than 1,000 publications, he influenced the development of electro- and high-speed exposures, electro-optical photography and high-speed cinematography with illumination by electric spark and flash x-rays. He developed high-speed measurement techniques, at first for the specific problems of ballistics, to a general scientific level of instrumentation, he developed new application areas for these techniques. An important innovation by Schardin was the development of a High speed camera in 1929 with his PhD advisor Carl Cranz, the.
This high-speed camera was important in scientific research for a century, was only rendered obsolete by modern advances in high-speed electronic digital cameras. Schardin had significant impact on the development of shaped-charge explosives, which are now used by the military for armor-piercing weapons. Since 1969, the International Congress for High-Speed Photography and Photonics ICHSPP has awarded the Hubert Schardin Medal in his honor. Schardin attended high school in Slupsk, where he passed his final secondary-school examinations in 1922, he studied physics at the Technical University of Berlin-Charlottenburg where he took the diploma exam in Technical Physics in 1926. From 1927 to 1929 Schardin worked as private assistant, from 1930 to 1935 as a permanent assistant to the famous German ballistics Professor Carl Cranz. In 1934 he earned his PhD with honors, delivering a dissertation on the Toepler Schlieren photography method under the guidance of Cranz; this and publications on this topic made Schardin the 20th-century patriarch of Schlieren photography and Shadowgraph imaging.
From autumn 1935 to spring 1936, Schardin accompanied Cranz to China, where they established a ballistics institute in Nanking for the Chinese military. During his stay in China, Schardin received an appointment as head of the Institute for Technical Physics and Ballistics of the Technical College of the German Air Force in Berlin-Gatow, he returned to Germany, where he focused his work on ballistic studies and solid mechanics glass technology and the high-speed physics of glass fracture. On 1 December 1937 he was appointed as an associate professor, in 1942 as a full professor at the Technical University of Berlin, where he was active until 1945. At war's end, the Institute for Technical Physics and Ballistics in Gatow was transferred to Biberach an der Riß in Southern Germany. After World War II a competition began among the Allies to acquire the knowledge of German scientists and engineers; the Technical College of the German Air Force, presided over by Schardin, was a particular goal of France and the USA.
Schardin was invited by France to work with his team for the French government in the Alsatian town of Saint-Louis, near the West-German border. He was offered positions in the United States of America, who made the mistake of not inviting his research team as well. Always loyal to his colleagues, Schardin chose to take the position in France. On 1 August 1945 he, along with 32 other German scientists, became French civil servants working in Saint-Louis, he continued residing in nearby Weil am Rhein. Schardin, now Director of Science and Technology, continued his studies at the institute in Saint-Louis on high-speed physics and glass fracture. In the environment of military research, he studied explosions and detonations. Beginning in 1954 he conducted research in the field of civil defense against nuclear weapons and their blast effects. In 1954 Schardin signed the contract for taking over the Z4 computer to the ISL. Together with the French General and Engineer Robert Cassagnou, Schardin upheld the Institute until it was converted in 1959 - after two years of negotiation - to the German-French Research Institut Saint-Louis.
Long-time enemies France and Germany had now united for the common defense, an early step in the modern European renaissance. After the establishment of the ISL, Schardin sought contact with the nearby German University in Freiburg im Breisgau. There he was appointed at the Albert-Ludwigs-University in 1947 as Honorary Professor of Technical Physics, he founded the Department of Applied Physics; this department spun off in 1959 from direct association with the University, it became the Ernst-Mach Institute of the Fraunhofer Society. After some initial restrictions imposed by the occupying powers after World War II, Schardin was soon able to pursue new research topics in the Department of Applied Physics, after 1955 at EMI, he was awarded by the German Glass Technical Society's "Georg-Gehlhoff-Ring" in 1958 for his successful research on the physics of glass. He received the DuPont Medal of the US Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. In 1960, a former quarry in the experimental zone near Efringen-Kirchen was converted to perform explosives and simulation studies led by Schardin.
In October 1964, Professor Schardin was appointed Head of Military Technology in the Ministry of Defense of the Federal Republic of Germany. Hubert Schardin married Irma née Jacob in 1937, they raised four daughters
Thomas Delmer "Artimus" Pyle is an American musician who played drums with Lynyrd Skynyrd from 1974 to 1977 and from 1987 to 1991. He and his Lynyrd Skynyrd bandmates were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. Pyle was born in Louisville, the son of homemaker Mildred "Midge" Pyle and Clarence "Del" Pyle, a construction superintendent, awarded a Purple Heart after being shot in the leg while serving with the U. S. Marines in the South Pacific during World War II. Both his parents had roots in the Jamestown, Tennessee area, he is a distant cousin of World War I hero Alvin York. Through his maternal grandmother, he can trace his ancestry to Claus Koger], a bailiff who lived in the German town of Weil am Rhein. Pyle had Marilyn. Known as Tommy throughout his childhood, Pyle graduated from Eastmoor High School in Columbus, Ohio in 1966, studied for a year at Tennessee Technological University where classmates dubbed him "Artimus" on account of his boyish face, he enlisted in the U. S. Marine Corps in 1968.
He was named platoon and series honorman and promoted to private first class following completion of boot camp in San Diego. Eyeing a career in civil aviation, Pyle worked as an avionics mechanic at various military bases, including Millington and Beaufort, South Carolina rising to the rank of sergeant, he was honorably discharged in 1971, after his father was killed in a mid-air collision with a U. S. Air Force B-57 weather reconnaissance bomber over New Mexico. Pyle joined Lynyrd Skynyrd in 1974, after gigs in Spartanburg SC with a band he named Thickwood Lick. Artimus played alongside, replaced, original drummer Bob Burns, he made his recording debut in August of that year on "Saturday Night Special", which became the first single from the band's third album, Nuthin' Fancy. In addition to Nuthin' Fancy, Pyle played on the albums Gimme Back My Bullets, One More from the Road, Street Survivors, Southern by the Grace of God and Lynyrd Skynyrd 1991. Pyle was known as "the wild man of Southern rock" for his antics.
During one gig in New Jersey in 1977, he jumped into the crowd to quell a disturbance. The band's singer, Ronnie Van Zant, remarked, "We keep him in a cage and feed him raw meat, only let him out when it's time to play." During a gig in London, England, he was lowered to the stage by a trapeze rope while hallucinating on mescaline. Despite such stunts, Pyle was even-keeled compared to his raucous bandmates, spent much of his time trying to defuse chaos caused by excessive drug and alcohol intake, he survived the 1977 plane crash that killed Van Zant, guitarist Steve Gaines, his sister Cassie Gaines, one of the background vocalists, assistant road manager Dean Kilpatrick, the two pilots. Pyle suffered torn chest cartilage, but he and two other survivors managed to stumble several hundred yards through a creek and a freshly plowed field to a farmhouse to get help; the appearance of Pyle and his companions alarmed the farmer, Johnny Mote, who fired a warning shot over Pyle's head, according to Pyle.
The misunderstanding was cleared up after Pyle shouted that there had been a plane crash, the farmer helped him inside his house. About the same time, local rescuers, who had just completed a Civil Defense drill, converged on the scene and Pyle directed them to the crash site where the dead and the injured were located. On January 13, 1979, the surviving members of Lynyrd Skynyrd reunited for Charlie Daniels' fifth annual Volunteer Jam concert in Nashville, they played an instrumental version of "Free Bird". Bassist Leon Wilkeson watched from the wings. Pyle and several other bandmates worked with a short-lived trio called Alias on their album Contraband; the group consisted of Dorman Cogburn, a childhood friend of Lynyrd Skynyrd guitarist Gary Rossington. These collaborations set in motion the formation of the Rossington Collins Band, with all the survivors plus Dale Krantz on lead vocals and Barry Lee Harwood on guitar. Pyle was forced to drop out after breaking his leg in 21 places following a collision with a drunk driver.
Pyle was replaced by Derek Hess. In 1982, Pyle began recording and touring with the Artimus Pyle Band, including Darryl Otis Smith, John Boerstler, Steve Brewington, Steve Lockhart. A. P. B.'s albums include A. P. B. Nightcaller and Live from Planet Earth. Pyle took part in the Skynyrd Tribute tour and joined the reformed Lynyrd Skynyrd in recording Lynyrd Skynyrd 1991 before departing the band during a show in Toronto on August 2, 1991. In a radio interview with Rick Lewis and Michael Floorwax on The FOX in Denver, Colorado on the 20th anniversary of the crash, Pyle said, "I left the band in 1991 because there was a problem with drugs and alcohol and I felt as though we should have put all that stuff behind us years and years ago." Both Pyle and his predecessor, Bob Burns, performed with the current version of Lynyrd Skynyrd following the band's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. As a child, Pyle was introduced to country music stars such as Patsy Cline, Hank Williams, Floyd Cramer, Eddy Arnold by listening to the radio when he stayed with his maternal grandparents in Tennessee.
He absorbed his father’s passion for Patti Page, Perry Como and Frank Sinatra. His favorite musical artists include Frank Zappa, Weather Report, Herbie Hancock, Japanese electronica pioneer Isao Tomita. Pyle learned his craft by listening to the radio and copying drummers such as Ringo Starr, Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa
Huningue is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department of Alsace in north-eastern France. Huningue is a northern suburb of the Swiss city of Basel, it borders Germany. In 2008 it had a population of 6503 people; the main square of the town is the Place Abbatucci, named after the Corsican-born French general Jean Charles Abbatucci who unsuccessfully defended it in 1796 against the Austrians and died here. Huningue is a major producer of fish eggs. Huningue was first mentioned in a document in 826. Huningue was wrested from the Holy Roman Empire by the duke of Lauenburg in 1634 by the Treaty of Westphalia, subsequently passed by purchase to Louis XIV. Louis XIV tasked Vauban with the construction of Huningue Fortress, built by Tarade from 1679 to 1681 together with a bridge across the Rhine. Construction of the fortress required the displacement of the population on the island of Aoust and the surrounding area; the fortress became embroiled in the Salmon War of 1736/37. This was concerned with a dispute over fishing rights between Huningue and Kleinhüningen, but involved land required for the construction of a bridgehead on the right bank of the Rhine.
In 1796 to 1797, Huningue was besieged by the Austrians. During the siege the French Commander, General Abbatucci was killed on 1 December 1796 while commanding a sortie, the fort held out for a further month, surrendering on 5 February 1797; the fortress was besieged from 22 December 1813 until 14 April 1814 by Bavarian troops under the command of General Zoller before the French garrison surrendered. Huningue was besieged for the third time in 1815 and General Barbanègre headed a garrison of only 500 men against 25,000 Austrians. On the 28 June shortly after word of Napoleon's abdication became known, the French Provisional Government had requested a ceasefire, Barbanègre ordered the bombardment of Basel something that contemporaries on the Seventh Coalition side considered to be a war crime. At its surrender to the Habsburg Empire on 26 August 1815, the city was a ruin and the fortifications were demolished under the terms of Article III of the Treaty of Paris at the request of Basel; the building of the Huningue channel in 1828 made the area more navigable.
The Huningue canal is a feeder arm of this Rhone–Rhine Canal. Only about a kilometre of the canal is still navigable. In 1871, the town passed, to the German Empire. Alsace-Lorraine returned to France after the First World War, it was evacuated in 1939, retaken by Germany in 1940 with some 60% of the town destroyed during World War II, returned to France once again in 1945. In 2007, a bridge over the Rhine, linking Huningue with Weil am Rhein, Germany was built. Huningue is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, is an ancient place which grew up around a stronghold placed to guard the passage of the river, it is a northern suburb of Basel. Huningue is a major producer of fish eggs. Several chemical and pharmaceutical companies have factories in Huningue Swiss firms such as Novartis, Clariant, Hoffmann-La Roche, Weleda etc; the Rhine port is managed by the Chamber of Commerce and the industry of Mulhouse, which lies to the northwest of Huningue. Since March 2007 Huningue has been connected with Weil am Rhein via a 248-metre arch bridge, the longest of its kind for pedestrians and cyclists.
Because the bridge connects the two countries and Germany, is near Switzerland it is named the "Three country bridge", or Passerelle des Trois Pays in French. Musée historique et militaire: The military and historical museum evokes the military life of the ancient fortress of Vauban; the museum is housed in a former residence of the intendant of the commissary. L'ancienne église de garnison: the former garrison church was built according to plans of the engineer Jacques Tarade; the building hosts chamber concerts. It serves as a polling station during elections. Since 1938, the facades, the bell tower and the roof have been listed in the inventory of historical monuments. Parc des Eaux Vives and the Wheelhouse: a park with an artificial torrent, with kayaking and white water rafting. Le Triangle: a cultural complex covering 5540 square metres, divided into 21 activity rooms. Created by architect Jean-Marie Martini, it was inaugurated in February 2002. In addition to the many varied shows, the Triangle hosts exhibitions and a forum for the exchange of information and entertainment for the young.
In addition, regular tea dances are organized, philosophy workshops and hearings of the Academy of Arts and meetings with artists. Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban – architect of Louis XIV, he directed the construction of the fortress of Huningue. Jean-Charles Abbatucci – General of the Army of the Rhine, he lost his life due to his injuries during an event during the first siege of the city in 1796. Joseph Barbanègre – French General, entrenched in Huningue during the third siege of the city in 1815. Armand Blanchard – French director, born in Huningue, he was mayor of Mulhouse from 1825 to 1830. Michel Ordener, Major General, born in Huningue on April 3, 1787, he was the son of General Michel Ordener. Johnny Stark: producer and imprésario Bourdet, Jacques, ed.. The A
Christian Streich is a former German footballer and current manager of SC Freiburg of the Bundesliga. On 29 December 2011, he was named manager following the release of Marcus Sorg; because of his immediate success at the club and his enigmatic and, energetic personality, Streich has been called a "cult figure", a "firebrand", a "football philosopher". Streich began his youth career in 1983 with Freiburger FC in the second division of Baden-Württemberg. In his first season with the club, Freiburg won the championship, but was defeated in the promotion round to reach the 2. Bundesliga. After a further season with FFC, Streich was transferred to the Stuttgarter Kickers in 1985, he left a little over a year to play for SC Freiburg in the 2. Bundesliga. After a season with SCF in which he made 22 appearances and scored 2 goals, Streich left the club and went to the second-division team FC 08 Homburg, with which he obtained the vice championship and promotion into the top national league in 1989. In the 1989–90 season, Streich made ten appearances for Homburg.
In 1991, Streich transferred back to Freiburger FC and played there until his playing career was cut short by a broken metatarsal in 1995. Streich returned to SC Freiburg in 1995 as a youth trainer. With the youth squad, he won the 2006, 2009, 2011 junior DFB Cup and the Under 19 Fußball-Bundesliga championship in 2008. After Robin Dutt was named manager of the Freiburg's first team in the summer of 2007, Streich served as a co-trainer, attending to the youth squad. Under his direction, many youth players made the leap to the pros including: Dennis Aogo, Jonathan Pitroipa, Daniel Schwaab, Eke Uzoma, Ömer Toprak, Oliver Baumann. At the beginning of the 2011–12 season, Streich became assistant coach of Freiburg's first team with the new trainer Marcus Sorg after Robin Dutt left the club to become head coach of Bayer Leverkusen. Following a poor first half of the Bundesliga season which saw Freiburg in the relegation zone, Streich became head coach on 29 December 2011 after Marcus Sorg was sacked.
Following the winter break, Freiburg played its first Bundesliga match under Christian Streich against fellow relegation battlers FC Augsburg. Freiburg won 1–0 off of an 88th-minute goal by Matthias Ginter, a player who trained under Streich at the youth levels at SCF and, brought to the senior squad by Streich himself; the goal came off of a free-kick by the newly signed Danish defender Michael Lumb, another of Streich's own signings during his first transfer period with the club. With the victory, Streich became the first Freiburg manager to win their Bundesliga debut. Volker Finke lost his debut in 1991 while his immediate successors, Robin Dutt and Marcus Sorg, both drew in their debuts; the win lifted Freiburg off of the bottom of the league table, passing Augsburg in the process. Despite being viewed as a club that would be relegated before Streich took over, following an unbeaten streak of 9 matches, Freiburg secured their place in the Bundesliga for the upcoming season on matchday 32 with a 0–0 draw against Hannover 96.
The team finished the season with a club record of a 10-match unbeaten streak before losing on the final matchday of the season to league champions Borussia Dortmund. Freiburg finished in 12th place. After the season, Streich was named Coach of the Year by Goal!, the official Bundesliga magazine. Under Streich, the 2012–13 season saw the club finish in fifth place, their best league standing since the 1994–95 season; the fifth-place finish secured a position in the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League, an accomplishment that the club had not achieved since the 2001–02 edition of the tournament. Had SC Freiburg defeated FC Schalke 04 on the final matchday of the season, Freiburg would have leapfrogged Schalke and qualified for the UEFA Champions League for the first time in the club's history. However, the 1–2 defeat to Schalke saw Schalke secure fourth place in the league and qualify for the tournament instead. During the 2012–13 season, Freiburg advanced to the semi-finals of the DFB-Pokal for the first time in the club's history but lost to local rivals VFB Stuttgart 1–2 and missed the chance to play FC Bayern Munich in the final.
Following the season, Streich was named Coach of the Season by Kicker magazine, beating out treble-winning Jupp Heynckes. Streich extended his contract at the end of the season; the third season with Streich as coach started out unsuccessful with Freiburg remaining 16th in the Bundesliga and were eliminated in the group stage of the Europa League after finishing in third place. SC Freiburg was eliminated in round 3 of the 2013–14 DFB-Pokal by Bayer Leverkusen, however finished the Bundesliga season as 14th and therefore remaining in the league. Freiburg started the season with a 2–0 win against Eintracht Trier in the DFB-Pokal. Only five wins in the second half of the season were not enough and the team finished 17th and therefore relegated to the 2. Bundesliga by a single point. Freiburg started the season with a 6–3 win against 1. FC Nürnberg and was able to win the 2. Bundesliga. All managerial contracts including Streich's expiring summer 2016 were extended in February 2016. Freiburg started the season with a 4–0 win against SV Babelsberg 03 in the DFB-Pokal.
Streich was born on 11 June 1965. He grew up working in his father's shop, he attributes his welcoming personality to his parents and their nature towards customers at the shop. After the abrupt end to his playing career, Streich completed his studies of German and studied sport and history and became a qualified teacher. Streich is known for his heavy southwestern German dialect and has been called a firebrand by many because of his energetic p
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi