Weimar is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east 80 kilometres southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres north of Nuremberg and 170 kilometres west of Dresden. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar is well known because of its importance in German history; the city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading personalities of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. In the 19th century, famous composers like Franz Liszt made Weimar a music centre and artists and architects like Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and Walter Gropius came to the city and founded the Bauhaus movement, the most important German design school of the interwar period.
However, the political history of 20th-century Weimar was inconsistent: it was the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics, as well as one of the cities mythologized by the National Socialist propaganda. Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Today, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites and tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Relevant institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library and two leading courts of Thuringia. In 1999, Weimar was the European Capital of Culture. Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii epoch show that the Weimar part of the Ilm valley was settled early, with a tight network of settlements where the city is today; the oldest records regarding Weimar date to 899. Its name changed over the centuries from Wimares through Wimari to Wimar and Weimar.
Another theory derives. The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, one of the mightiest actors in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the Thuringian Counts' War in 1346 and fell to the Wettins afterwards; the Weimar settlement emerged around the count's wooden castle and two small churches dedicated to St Peter, to St James. In 1240, the count founded the dynasty's monastery in Oberweimar. Soon after, the counts of Weimar founded the town, an independent parish since 1249 and called civitas in 1254. From 1262 the citizens used their own seal; the regional influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Hence, the new small town was marginal in a regional context due to the fact that it was situated far away from relevant trade routes like the Via Regia; the settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century.
After becoming part of the Wettin's territory in 1346, urban development improved. The Wettins fostered Weimar by granting privileges to the citizens. Now Weimar became equal to other Wettinian cities like Weißensee and grew during the 15th century, with the establishment of a town hall and the current main church. Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in 1438; the castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century. After the Treaty of Leipzig Weimar became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with Wittenberg as capital; the Protestant Reformation was introduced in Weimar in 1525. As the Ernestines lost the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, their capital Wittenberg went to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence; as the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end of the monarchy in 1918. The first Ernestine territorial partition in 1572 was followed by various ones Weimar stayed the capital of different Saxe-Weimar states.
The court and its staff brought some wealth to the city, so that it saw a first construction boom in the 16th century. The 17th century brought decline because of changing trade conditions. Besides, the territorial partitions led to the loss of political importance of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and their finances shrunk; the city's polity weakened more and more and lost its privileges, leading to the absolutist reign of the dukes in the early 18th century. On the other hand, this time brought another construction boom to Weimar, the city got its present appearance, marked by various ducal representation buildings; the city walls were demolished in 1757 and during the following decades, Weimar expanded in all directions. The biggest building constructed in this period was the Schloss as the residence of the dukes. Between 1708 and 1717 Johann Sebastian Bach worked as the court's organist in Weimar; the period from the start of the regencies of Anna Amalia and her son Carl August through to Goethe's d
Gaisano Mall of Davao, branded as GMall of Davao, is a major shopping mall located along J. P. Laurel Avenue, Davao City, part of the Gaisano Malls operated by DSG Sons Group, Inc. With a gross land area of 182,020 m2, a total floor area of 240,605 m2 including the multilevel car park building, it is the largest of more than 40 Gaisano malls in the Philippines, the largest mall in Davao City and the largest mall in Mindanao. It has six floors of shops, food hall, theater with eight cinemas, home to The Peak, located in the top of the mall. Tens of thousands of customers shop in the mall daily; the mall opened on April 20, 1997, with only 4 floors including The Peak and shopping centers. The 6-story mall houses shops. At the topmost part of the mall is "The Peak", located at 6th level, a new attraction for shoppers, intentionally built to compete with SM Davao’s The Annex, SM Lanang Premier's Fountain Court and Abreeza’s high-end restaurants; the mall was subjected to one of the two terrorist bombings that occurred in September 17, 2013, the other one being at SM City Davao.
Gurgulyat is a village in Slivnitsa Municipality, Sofia Province, located in western Bulgaria 10 km south of the town of Slivnitsa. As of September 2005 the village has a population of 40, it is located at 42°47′N 22°59′E, 812 m above sea level in the Viskyar mountain, the mayor is Filip Georgiev. The village is famous for its role in the Serbo-Bulgarian War, when the Bulgarian Army, aided by local residents, prevented the Serbs from reaching Slivnitsa. Most of the village's historical landmarks are dedicated to this event, such as the imposing 20 m-high red-concrete Pantheon-Monument in the Tsarkvishte locality, which features a sculpture of Mother Bulgaria and has an area of around 700 m2. Other landmarks include the small gorge of the local river known for its sheer rocks, a fortress and a cave. Gurgulyat Peak on Graham Land in Antarctica is named after the village